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Biological Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150761/comparative-study-of-fluvial-lakes-in-floodplains-of-the-elbe-lu%C3%A5-nice-and-svratka-rivers-based-on-hydrochemical-and-biological-approach
#1
Petra Havlíková, Tomáš Chuman, Bohumír Janský
The aim of the thesis was to specify key differences in chemistry and biota (zooplankton communities) among fluvial lakes in three regions of the Czech Republic: the central part of the Elbe River, the upper part of the Lužnice River and the upper part of the Svratka River. The ten studied lakes of the three regions differ in size, geology, shading, connection with the river and the level of anthropogenic impact. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) The water chemistry of fluvial lakes significantly differs in different floodplains...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148805/near-infrared-quantum-dot-emission-enhanced-by-stabilized-self-assembled-j-aggregate-antennas
#2
Francesca S Freyria, José M Cordero, Justin R Caram, Sandra Doria, Amro Dodin, Yue Chen, Adam P Willard, Moungi G Bawendi
Enhancing photoluminescent emission (PL) in the near-infrared-infrared (NIR-IR) spectral region has broad applications from solar energy conversion to biological imaging. We show that self-assembled molecular dye J-aggregates (light-harvesting nanotubes, LHNs) can increase the PL emission of NIR PbS quantum dots (QDs) in both liquid and solid media more than 8-fold, promoted primarily by a long-range antenna effect and efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from donor to acceptor. To create this composite material and preserve the optical properties of the nanocrystals, we performed an in situ ligand substitution followed by a functionalization reaction using click-chemistry...
November 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148749/glycosyl-cross-coupling-of-anomeric-nucleophiles-scope-mechanism-and-applications-in-the-synthesis-of-aryl-c-glycosides
#3
Feng Zhu, Jacob Rodriguez, Tianyi Yang, Ilia Kevlishvili, Eric Miller, Duk Yi, Sloane O'Neill, Michael Rourke, Peng Liu, Maciej A Walczak
Stereoselective manipulations at the C1 anomeric position of saccharides are one of the central goals of preparative carbohydrate chemistry. Historically, the majority of reactions forming a bond with anomeric carbon has focused on reactions of nucleophiles with saccharide donors equipped with a leaving group. Here, we describe a novel approach to stereoselective synthesis of C-aryl glycosides capitalizing on the highly stereospecific reaction of anomeric nucleophiles. First, methods for the preparation of anomeric stannanes have been developed and optimized to afford both anomers of common saccharides in high anomeric selectivities...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148746/keto-enol-tautomerization-triggers-an-electrophilic-aldehyde-deformylation-reaction-by-a-nonheme-manganese-iii-peroxo-complex
#4
Fabián G Cantú Reinhard, Prasenjit Barman, Gourab Mukherjee, Jitendra Kumar, Deep Kumar, Devesh Kumar, Chivukula V Sastri, Sam P de Visser
Oxygen atom transfer by high-valent enzymatic intermediates remains an enigma in chemical catalysis. In particular, manganese is an important first-row metal involved in key biochemical processes including the biosynthesis of mo-lecular oxygen (through the photosystem II complex) and biodegradation of toxic superoxide to hydrogen peroxide by superoxide dismutase. Biomimetic models of these biological systems have been developed to gain understanding on the structure and properties of short-lived intermediates but also with the aim to create environmentally benign oxidants...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147558/discovery-and-design-of-self-assembling-peptides
#5
REVIEW
Shuguang Zhang
Peptides are ubiquitous in nature and useful in many fields, from agriculture as pesticides, in medicine as antibacterial and antifungal drugs founded in the innate immune systems, to medicinal chemistry as hormones. However, the concept of peptides as materials was not recognized until 1990 when a self-assembling peptide as a repeating segment in a yeast protein was serendipitously discovered. Peptide materials are so called because they have bona fide materials property and are made from simple amino acids with well-ordered nanostructures under physiological conditions...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147533/what-is-the-fundamental-ion-specific-series-for-anions-and-cations-ion-specificity-in-standard-partial-molar-volumes-of-electrolytes-and-electrostriction-in-water-and-non-aqueous-solvents
#6
Virginia Mazzini, Vincent S J Craig
The importance of electrolyte solutions cannot be overstated. Beyond the ionic strength of electrolyte solutions the specific nature of the ions present is vital in controlling a host of properties. Therefore ion specificity is fundamentally important in physical chemistry, engineering and biology. The observation that the strengths of the effect of ions often follows well established series suggests that a single predictive and quantitative description of specific-ion effects covering a wide range of systems is possible...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146569/found-in-translation-how-preclinical-research-is-guiding-the-clinical-development-of-the-bcl2-selective-inhibitor-venetoclax
#7
REVIEW
Joel D Leverson, Deepak Sampath, Andrew J Souers, Saul H Rosenberg, Wayne J Fairbrother, Martine Amiot, Marina Konopleva, Anthony Letai
Since the discovery of apoptosis as a form of programmed cell death, targeting the apoptosis pathway to induce cancer cell death has been a high-priority goal for cancer therapy. After decades of effort, drug-discovery scientists have succeeded in generating small-molecule inhibitors of antiapoptotic BCL2 family proteins. Innovative medicinal chemistry and structure-based drug design, coupled with a strong fundamental understanding of BCL2 biology, were essential to the development of BH3 mimetics such as the BCL2-selective inhibitor venetoclax...
November 16, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145735/evaluation-of-performance-of-laboratories-and-manufacturers-within-the-framework-of-the-ifcc-model-for-quality-targets-of-hba1c
#8
Cas Weykamp, Carla Siebelder
HbA1c is a key parameter in diabetes management. For years the test has been used exclusively for monitoring of long-term diabetic control. However, due to improvement of the performance, HbA1c is considered more and more for diagnosis and screening. With this new application, quality demands further increase. A task force of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine developed a model to set and evaluate quality targets for HbA1c. The model is based on the concept of total error and takes into account the major sources of analytical errors in the medical laboratory: bias and imprecision...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144774/strategies-for-enhanced-crop-resistance-to-insect-pests
#9
Angela E Douglas
Insect pests are responsible for substantial crop losses worldwide through direct damage and transmission of plant diseases, and novel approaches that complement or replace broad-spectrum chemical insecticides will facilitate the sustainable intensification of food production in the coming decades. Multiple strategies for improved crop resistance to insect pests, especially strategies relating to plant secondary metabolism and immunity and microbiome science, are becoming available. Recent advances in metabolic engineering of plant secondary chemistry offer the promise of specific toxicity or deterrence to insect pests; improved understanding of plant immunity against insects provides routes to optimize plant defenses against insects; and the microbiomes of insect pests can be exploited, either as a target or as a vehicle for delivery of insecticidal agents...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144411/nucleic-acid-aptamers-emerging-applications-in-medical-imaging-nanotechnology-neurosciences-and-drug-delivery
#10
REVIEW
Pascal Röthlisberger, Cécile Gasse, Marcel Hollenstein
Recent progresses in organic chemistry and molecular biology have allowed the emergence of numerous new applications of nucleic acids that markedly deviate from their natural functions. Particularly, DNA and RNA molecules-coined aptamers-can be brought to bind to specific targets with high affinity and selectivity. While aptamers are mainly applied as biosensors, diagnostic agents, tools in proteomics and biotechnology, and as targeted therapeutics, these chemical antibodies slowly begin to be used in other fields...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143778/the-forty-sixth-euro-congress-on-drug-synthesis-and-analysis-snapshot-%C3%A2
#11
Pavel Mucaji, Atanas G Atanasov, Andrzej Bak, Violetta Kozik, Karolina Sieron, Mark Olsen, Weidong Pan, Yazhou Liu, Shengchao Hu, Junjie Lan, Norbert Haider, Robert Musiol, Jan Vanco, Marc Diederich, Seungwon Ji, Jan Zitko, Dongdong Wang, Danica Agbaba, Katarina Nikolic, Slavica Oljacic, Jelica Vucicevic, Daniela Jezova, Anna Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Fotios Tsopelas, Constantinos Giaginis, Teresa Kowalska, Mieczyslaw Sajewicz, Jerzy Silberring, Przemyslaw Mielczarek, Marek Smoluch, Izabela Jendrzejewska, Jaroslaw Polanski, Josef Jampilek
The 46th EuroCongress on Drug Synthesis and Analysis (ECDSA-2017) was arranged within the celebration of the 65th Anniversary of the Faculty of Pharmacy at Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia from 5-8 September 2017 to get together specialists in medicinal chemistry, organic synthesis, pharmaceutical analysis, screening of bioactive compounds, pharmacology and drug formulations; promote the exchange of scientific results, methods and ideas; and encourage cooperation between researchers from all over the world...
October 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143719/microbial-protein-targets-towards-understanding-and-intervention
#12
Paul W Denny
The rise of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with a lack of industrial focus on antimicrobial discovery over preceding decades, has brought the world to a crisis point. With both human and animal health set to decline due to increased disease burdens caused by near untreatable microbial pathogens, there is an urgent need to identify new antimicrobials. Central to this is the elucidation of new, robustly validated, drug targets. Informed by industrial practice and concerns, the use of both biological and chemical tools in validation is key...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142167/synergistic-cytotoxicity-caused-by-forming-a-complex-of-copper-and-2-9-dimethyl-1-10-phenanthroline-in-cultured-vascular-endothelial-cells
#13
Takehiro Nakamura, Eiko Yoshida, Tomoya Fujie, Fumihiko Ogata, Chika Yamamoto, Naohito Kawasaki, Toshiyuki Kaji
Organic-inorganic hybrid molecules, which are composed of organic-ligand(s) and metal(s), are indispensable as synthetic reagents in chemistry, but they have made very little in the way of contributions to biological research. Previously, we reported that the cytotoxicity of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules in vascular endothelial cells depends on interactions between the intramolecular metal and ligand, but remains independent of the hydrophobicity of the intramolecular metal(s). Herein, we show a synergistic cytotoxicity produced by forming a complex of copper and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline in vascular endothelial cells that depends on the intracellular accumulation of copper...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141565/radio-modulatory-potential-ofcaffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-a-therapeutic-perspective
#14
Km Anjaly, Ashu Tiku
Use of natural agents is an upcoming area of research in cancer biology. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester has received great attention because of its therapeutic potential in various conditions including cancer. It is an active/abundant component of propolis. Propolis is a honey bee hive product produced by bees using their enzyme-rich digestive secretions on resinous mix, bee wax and pollen from plants. It is used to protect the beehive against bacteria and other infections.Although a lot of work has been done on chemotherapeutic aspects of CAPE, its role as a radiomodulator is yet to be delineated...
November 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140435/hmdb-4-0-the-human-metabolome-database-for-2018
#15
David S Wishart, Yannick Djoumbou Feunang, Ana Marcu, An Chi Guo, Kevin Liang, Rosa Vázquez-Fresno, Tanvir Sajed, Daniel Johnson, Carin Li, Naama Karu, Zinat Sayeeda, Elvis Lo, Nazanin Assempour, Mark Berjanskii, Sandeep Singhal, David Arndt, Yonjie Liang, Hasan Badran, Jason Grant, Arnau Serra-Cayuela, Yifeng Liu, Rupa Mandal, Vanessa Neveu, Allison Pon, Craig Knox, Michael Wilson, Claudine Manach, Augustin Scalbert
The Human Metabolome Database or HMDB (www.hmdb.ca) is a web-enabled metabolomic database containing comprehensive information about human metabolites along with their biological roles, physiological concentrations, disease associations, chemical reactions, metabolic pathways, and reference spectra. First described in 2007, the HMDB is now considered the standard metabolomic resource for human metabolic studies. Over the past decade the HMDB has continued to grow and evolve in response to emerging needs for metabolomics researchers and continuing changes in web standards...
November 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140270/the-oxepane-motif-in-marine-drugs
#16
REVIEW
Héctor Barbero, Carlos Díez-Poza, Asunción Barbero
Oceans have shown to be a remarkable source of natural products. The biological properties of many of these compounds have helped to produce great advances in medicinal chemistry. Within them, marine natural products containing an oxepanyl ring are present in a great variety of algae, sponges, fungus and corals and show very important biological activities, many of them possessing remarkable cytotoxic properties against a wide range of cancer cell lines. Their rich chemical structures have attracted the attention of many researchers who have reported interesting synthetic approaches to these targets...
November 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140257/synthesis-spectroscopic-characterization-and-antimicrobial-potential-of-certain-new-isatin-indole-molecular-hybrids
#17
Reem I Al-Wabli, Azza S Zakaria, Mohamed I Attia
Molecular hybridization has a wide application in medicinal chemistry to obtain new biologically active compounds. New isatin-indole molecular hybrids 5a-n have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic tools. The in vitro antimicrobial potential of the prepared compounds 5a-n was assessed using diameter of the inhibition zone (DIZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays against a panel of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Most of the synthesized compounds 5a-n showed weak activities against Gram-negative bacteria while compounds 5b and 5c exhibited good activities against Gram-positive bacteria...
November 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138804/cucurbitacin-b-and-cancer-intervention-chemistry-biology-and-mechanisms-review
#18
Sukant Garg, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa
Cancer is one of the most important healthcare matters, with the worst prognosis but the best possibilities for scientific development. It is likely to increase in the future and cause global havoc designating it as an epidemic. Cancer development requires urgent intervention. Past few decades have witnessed extensive research to challenge carcinogenesis. Treatment involving synthetic discipline is often associated with severe adverse effects, or even worsened prognosis. Accordingly, newer economic and patient friendly molecules are warranted...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138215/physiology-undergraduate-degree-requirements-in-the-u-s
#19
Valerie S VanRyn, James M Poteracki, Erica A Wehrwein
Course-level learning objectives and core concepts for undergraduate physiology teaching exist. The next step is to consider how these resources fit into generalizable program-level guidelines for Bachelor of Science (BS) degrees in Physiology. In the absence of program-level guidelines for Physiology degree programs, we compiled a selective internal report to review degree requirements from 18 peer BS programs entitled "Physiology" in the United States (U.S.). There was a range of zero to three required semesters of math, physics, physics laboratory, general biology, biology laboratory, general chemistry, chemistry laboratory, organic chemistry, organic chemistry laboratory, biochemistry, biochemistry laboratory, anatomy, anatomy laboratory, core systems physiology, and physiology laboratory...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137663/patent-landscape-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-an-analysis-of-worldwide-patent-families
#20
Folahanmi Tomiwa Akinsolu, Vitor Nobre de Paiva, Samuel Santos Souza, Orsolya Varga
BACKGROUND: "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) affect millions of people in Africa, Asia and South America. The two primary ways of strategic interventions are "preventive chemotherapy and transmission control" (PCT), and "innovative and intensified disease management" (IDM). In the last 5 years, phenomenal progress has been achieved. However, it is crucial to intensify research effort into NTDs, because of the emerging drug resistance. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the term NTDs covers 17 diseases, namely buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, dengue, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, trematodiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthes, taeniasis, trachoma, and yaws...
November 14, 2017: Globalization and Health
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