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Biological Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454048/antibacterial-activity-of-biochemically-capped-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-a-view-towards-green-chemistry
#1
Rabia Irshad, Kamran Tahir, Baoshan Li, Aftab Ahmad, Azka R Siddiqui, Sadia Nazir
A green approach to fabricate nanoparticles has been evolved as a revolutionary discipline. Eco-compatible reaction set ups, use of non-toxic materials and production of highly active biological and photocatalytic products are few benefits of this greener approach. Here, we introduce a green method to synthesize Fe oxide NPs using Punica granatum peel extract. The formation of Fe oxide NPs was optimized using different concentrations of peel extract (20mL, 40mL and 60mL) to achieve small size and better morphology...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453956/molecular-imaging-of-activated-platelets-via-antibody-targeted-ultra-small-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-displaying-unique-dual-mri-contrast
#2
Hang T Ta, Zhen Li, Christoph E Hagemeyer, Gary Cowin, Shaohua Zhang, Jathushan Palasubramaniam, Karen Alt, Xiaowei Wang, Karlheinz Peter, Andrew K Whittaker
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful and indispensable tool in medical research, clinical diagnosis, and patient care due to its high spatial resolution and non-limited penetration depth. The simultaneous use of positive and negative MRI imaging that employs the same contrast agents will significantly improve detection accuracy. Here we report the development of functional multimodal iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted MRI of atherothrombosis using a combination of chemical and biological conjugation techniques...
April 22, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448941/geochemistry-and-microbial-diversity-of-cave-waters-in-the-gypsum-karst-aquifers-of-emilia-romagna-region-italy
#3
Ilenia M D'Angeli, Diana I Serrazanetti, Chiara Montanari, Lucia Vannini, Fausto Gardini, Jo De Waele
Fifty-seven control points of waters (sinking streams, rivers in caves, and resurgences) hosted in gypsum karst areas in Emilia Romagna region (N-Italy) were sampled in the framework of a Project LIFE+08NAT/IT/000369 "Gypsum" in the period 2010-2014. The microbiology and chemistry of these waters have been analyzed to evaluate the impact of human activities or natural factors, in the gypsum karst systems. Waters have been analyzed for major chemistry (Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO4, HCO3, Cl, NO3) and some minor constituents (F, Br, NH4 and PO4), measuring pH, electric conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and temperature (T) in situ...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446711/chemical-roots-of-biological-evolution-the-origins-of-life-as-a-process-of-development-of-autonomous-functional-systems
#4
REVIEW
Kepa Ruiz-Mirazo, Carlos Briones, Andrés de la Escosura
In recent years, an extension of the Darwinian framework is being considered for the study of prebiotic chemical evolution, shifting the attention from homogeneous populations of naked molecular species to populations of heterogeneous, compartmentalized and functionally integrated assemblies of molecules. Several implications of this shift of perspective are analysed in this critical review, both in terms of the individual units, which require an adequate characterization as self-maintaining systems with an internal organization, and also in relation to their collective and long-term evolutionary dynamics, based on competition, collaboration and selection processes among those complex individuals...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445767/the-visualized-macrocycles-chemistry-and-application-of-fluorophore-tagged-cyclodextrins
#5
Gábor Benkovics, Milo Malanga, Éva Fenyvesi
Cyclodextrins are macrocyclic molecules able to form host-guest complexes due to their hydrophobic cavity. Because of their carbohydrate nature they do not absorb light in the UV-vis region (200-800nm), but they can be converted into spectroscopically active compounds via modification with a chromophore unit. Among the chromophores, the group of fluorophores can provide high sensitivity in analytical applications (chemosensing) and low detection limit in optical imaging methods (fluorescent microscopy). Fluorophore-tagged cyclodextrins therefore combine interesting spectroscopic properties with promising supramolecular features which make these conjugates widely applicable in various pharmaceutical fields...
April 23, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444630/new-synthetic-methods-for-phosphate-labeling
#6
REVIEW
Amit K Dutta, Ilya Captain, Henning Jacob Jessen
The complexity of phosphorylation pathways and their downstream effects is vast. Synthetic chemistry has been working side by side with biology to develop phosphate labels for biological processes involving phosphorylated compounds. This chapter discusses recently employed methods for the preparation of several phosphate labels. Synthesis of biomolecules and their analogs and other useful or potentially useful phosphate derivatives is discussed.
June 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443507/synthesis-and-biological-activity-of-unnatural-enediynes
#7
Roberto Romeo, Salvatore V Giofrè, Maria A Chiacchio
The first reports of the natural enediyne anticancer antibiotics date back to the late 1980s; since then, a great deal of interest has been devoted to the chemistry, biology and potential medical applications of this family of compounds. The biological activity of enediynes is linked to the presence of a highly unsaturated hex-1-ene- 1,5-diyne system. The thermally induced transformation of this unit into a benzene  diradical (the Bergman cycloaromatization) is the key step of the antitumor properties of such compounds: 1,4-diaryl radicals are able to abstract H-atoms from the deoxyribose backbone of DNA, thus leading to DNA strand cleavage and ultimately cell death...
April 24, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442906/a-review-of-drug-delivery-systems-based-on-nanotechnology-and-green-chemistry-green-nanomedicine
#8
REVIEW
Hossein Jahangirian, Ensieh Ghasemian Lemraski, Thomas J Webster, Roshanak Rafiee-Moghaddam, Yadollah Abdollahi
This review discusses the impact of green and environmentally safe chemistry on the field of nanotechnology-driven drug delivery in a new field termed "green nanomedicine". Studies have shown that among many examples of green nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems, those receiving the greatest amount of attention include nanometal particles, polymers, and biological materials. Furthermore, green nanodrug delivery systems based on environmentally safe chemical reactions or using natural biomaterials (such as plant extracts and microorganisms) are now producing innovative materials revolutionizing the field...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442262/an-integrated-chemical-biology-approach-reveals-the-mechanism-of-action-of-hiv-replication-inhibitors
#9
Nicholas Pagano, Peter Teriete, Margrith E Mattmann, Li Yang, Beth A Snyder, Zhaohui Cai, Marintha L Heil, Nicholas D P Cosford
Continuous flow (microfluidic) chemistry was employed to prepare a small focused library of dihydropyrimidinone (DHPM) derivatives. Compounds in this class have been reported to exhibit activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but their molecular target had not been identified. We tested the initial set of DHPMs in phenotypic assays providing a hit (1i) that inhibited the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus HIV in cells. Flow chemistry-driven optimization of 1i led to the identification of HIV replication inhibitors such as 1l with cellular potency comparable with the clinical drug nevirapine (NVP)...
April 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438041/design-of-multifunctional-liposome-quantum-dot-hybrid-nanocarriers-and-their-biomedical-application
#10
Wenjing Qu, Wenbao Zuo, Na Li, Yanhui Hou, Zhihua Song, Guojing Gou, Jianhong Yang
Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots (QDs), have rich surface chemistry and unique optical properties that make them useful as probes or carriers for molecular diagnostics and therapeutics. However, their potential toxicity and instability in biological environments have puzzled scientific researchers. Much research effort has been devoted to encapsulation of QDs with liposomal hybrids to make them versatile nanocarriers for simultaneous therapeutics and diagnostics ("theranostics") and considerable progress has been made over recent years...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437655/peripheral-artery-disease-redox-signaling-oxidative-stress-basic-and-clinical-aspects
#11
REVIEW
Sebastian Steven, Andreas Daiber, Jörn F Dopheide, Thomas Münzel, Christine Espinola-Klein
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, e.g. H2O2, nitric oxide) confer redox regulation of essential cellular signaling pathways such as cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and apoptosis. At higher concentrations, ROS and RNS lead to oxidative stress and oxidative damage of biomolecules (e.g. via formation of peroxynitrite, fenton chemistry). Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by severe ischemic conditions in the periphery leading to intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia (end stage)...
April 13, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436848/challenging-the-time-complexity-of-exact-subgraph-isomorphism-for-huge-and-dense-graphs-with-vf3
#12
Vincenzo Carletti, Pasquale Foggia, Alessia Saggese, Mario Vento
Graph matching is essential in several fields that use structured information, such as biology, chemistry, social networks, knowledge management, document analysis and others. Except for special classes of graphs, graph matching has in the worst-case an exponential complexity; however, there are algorithms that show an acceptable execution time, as long as the graphs are not too large and not too dense. In this paper we introduce a novel subgraph isomorphism algorithm, VF3, particularly efficient in the challenging case of graphs with thousands of nodes and a high edge density...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436674/general-dialdehyde-click-chemistry-for-amine-bioconjugation
#13
Sina Elahipanah, Paul J O'Brien, Dmitry Rogozhnikov, Muhammad N Yousaf
The development of methods for conjugating a range of molecules to primary amine functional groups has revolutionized the fields of chemistry, biology, and material science. The primary amine is a key functional group and one of the most important nucleophiles and bases used in all of synthetic chemistry. Therefore, tremendous interest in the synthesis of molecules containing primary amines and strategies to devise chemical reactions to react with primary amines has been at the core of chemical research. In particular, primary amines are a ubiquitous functional group found in biological systems as free amino acids, as key side chain lysines in proteins, and in signaling molecules and metabolites and are also present in many natural product classes...
April 24, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436149/transgenic-mir156-switchgrass-in-the-field-growth-recalcitrance-and-rust-susceptibility
#14
Holly L Baxter, Mitra Mazarei, Alexandru Dumitrache, Jace Natzke, Miguel Rodriguez, Jiqing Gou, Chunxiang Fu, Robert W Sykes, Geoffrey B Turner, Mark F Davis, Steven Brown, Brian Davison, Zeng-Yu Wang, C Neal Stewart
Sustainable utilization of lignocellulosic perennial grass feedstocks will be enabled by high biomass production and optimized cell wall chemistry for efficient conversion into biofuels. MicroRNAs are regulatory elements that modulate the expression of genes involved in various biological functions in plants, including growth and development. In greenhouse studies, overexpressing a microRNA (miR156) gene in switchgrass had dramatic effects on plant architecture and flowering, which appeared to be driven by transgene expression levels...
April 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436069/the-eprep-system-a-new-electrophoretic-approach-for-dna-isolation-from-biological-samples
#15
Corinna Kueppers, Sabine Schlappa, Annette Bogdoll, Lothar Breitkopf, Nicole Seip, Thorsten Singer
We present a new free-flow electrophoretic separation system that extends the established concepts of nucleic acid migration in an electric field to a broadly applicable preparative scale. The system comprises a disposable flow tube in which the target nucleic acids are separated from impurities by a balanced combination of electrophoretic migration and counter-streaming electroosmotic flow under the influence of an applied external electric field. Despite the complex theoretical background the introduced electrophoretic technology offers simple hardware setup and handling protocols...
April 24, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435079/polyurethane-acrylates-as-effective-substrates-for-sustained-in-vitro-culture-of-human-myotubes
#16
Yosephine Andriani, Jason Chua Min-Wen, Benjamin Chua Yan-Jiang, Phang In Yee, Ng Shyh-Chang, Tan Wui Siew
Muscular disease has debilitating effects with severe damage leading to death. Our knowledge of muscle biology, disease and treatment is largely derived from non human cell models, even though non human cells are known to differ from human cells in their biochemical responses. Attempts to develop highly sought after in vitro human cell models have been plagued by early cell delamination and difficulties in achieving human myotube culture in vitro. In this work, we developed polyurethane acrylate (PUA) materials to support long term in vitro culture of human skeletal muscle tissue...
April 20, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434784/perspectives-on-in-situ-electron-microscopy
#17
Haimei Zheng, Yimei Zhu
In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with the ability to reveal materials dynamic processes with high spatial and temporal resolution has attracted significant interest. The recent advances in in situ methods, including liquid and gas sample environment, pump-probe ultrafast microscopy, nanomechanics and ferroelectric domain switching the aberration corrected electron optics as well as fast electron detector has opened new opportunities to extend the impact of in situ TEM in broad areas of research ranging from materials science to chemistry, physics and biology...
March 29, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433056/discriminative-sensing-of-dopa-enantiomers-by-cyclodextrin-anchored-graphene-nanohybrids
#18
Salih Ates, Erhan Zor, Ilker Akin, Haluk Bingol, Sabri Alpaydin, Emine G Akgemci
Discriminative sensing of chiral species with a convenient and robust system is a challenge in chemistry, pharmaceutics and particularly in biomedical science. Advanced nanohybrid materials for discrimination of these biologically active molecules can be developed by combination of individual obvious advantages of different molecular scaffolds. Herein, we report on the comparison of the performance of cyclodextrin functionalized graphene derivatives (x-CD/rGO, x: α-, β-, γ-) for discrimination of DOPA enantiomers...
June 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433052/metabolomics-strategies-to-define-the-role-of-metabolism-in-virus-infection-and-pathogenesis
#19
Marianne Manchester, Anisha Anand
Metabolomics is an analytical profiling technique for measuring and comparing large numbers of metabolites present in biological samples. Combining high-throughput analytical chemistry and multivariate data analysis, metabolomics offers a window on metabolic mechanisms. Because they intimately utilize and often rewire host metabolism, viruses are an excellent choice to study by metabolomics techniques. Studies of the effects of viruses on metabolism during replication in vitro and infection in animal models or human subjects have provided novel insights into these networks and provided new targets for therapy and biomarker development...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429593/model-amphiphilic-block-copolymers-with-tailored-molecular-weight-and-composition-in-pdms-based-films-to-limit-soft-biofouling
#20
Brandon M Wenning, Elisa Martinelli, Sophie Mieszkin, John A Finlay, Daniel A Fischer, James A Callow, Maureen E Callow, Amanda Leonardi, Christopher K Ober, Giancarlo Galli
A set of controlled surface composition films was produced utilizing amphiphilic surface-active block copolymers dispersed in a crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) network. These block copolymers contained oligo(ethylene glycol) (PEGMA) and fluoroalkyl (AF6) side chains in selected ratios and molecular weights to control surface chemistry as well as antifouling (AF) and fouling-release (FR) performance. AF and FR properties were assessed by carrying out settlement and removal assays using two algae, the green macroalga Ulva linza (favors attachment to polar surfaces) and the unicellular diatom Navicula incerta (favors attachment to non-polar surfaces)...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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