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Lei An, Wei Sun
Developmental exposure to melamine induces long-term effects on brain and behavior in male rodents. To examine whether this prenatal event damages cognitive function in female offspring, we evaluated the behavioral effects and further attempted to investigate synaptic function. Prenatal melamine exposure (PME) was given by oral treatment to pregnant females through the whole gestational days with 400mg/day/kg bodyweight. On postnatal day (PD) 36, female offspring were assessed for spatial cognition in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test...
May 18, 2017: Neurotoxicology
Rong H Yin, Qiao Dong, Hua S Li, Jing Yuan, Xi T Li, Rong L Yin, Wen Li, Wen C Wang, Bao S Liu, Xiao H Han, Ren F Wang, Xin Wang, Wen L Bai
Melamine is commonly used in the chemical industry, and it has been found to exist on food processing equipment and utensils. Previous investigations suggested that melamine alone or its combination with cyanuric acid appears to be toxic to immune system in animals. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential effects of melamine with or without cyanuric acid on immune function in ovalbumin- sensitized mice. Our data indicated that melamine-related administration caused a significant decreasing in the content of IL-4 in mice in comparison to negative control group...
May 13, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
Lingling Xu, Dandan Yin, Hongyang Zhao, Na Li, Suhua Chen, Jiale Xia, Bingan Lu, Yaping Du
Carbon thin film/carbon foam core-sheath structure is synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on carbonized melamine foam. The unique structure has specific capacitance of 310 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1. The structure shows outstanding electrochemical performance in both aqueous and "water-in-salt" electrolyte. Electrochemical analysis by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge test reveals there is high capacitive contribution up to more than 90% of its total capacitance. The core-sheath structure has advantages in ion transport as well as high utilization of electrode surface, and the synthesis process shows a way to coat carbon thin film on any substrate using nickel catalyzed chemical vapor deposition method...
May 10, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Waheed Iqbal, Bocheng Qiu, Juying Lei, Lingzhi Wang, Jinlong Zhang, Masakazu Anpo
The development of highly active, cost-effective, environmentally friendly and stable g-C3N4 based photocatalysts for H2 evolution is one of the most anticipated potential pathways for future hydrogen utilization. Herein, a facile gaseous bubble template approach was designed to prepare large-scale thin g-C3N4 nanosheets (g-C3N4 NSs) using melamine and ammonium sulphate as the bubble template. Through distinctive structural improvements for a large bandgap, excellent electron mobility, prolonged lifetime of the photogenerated charge carriers and a high specific surface area with highly accessible potential reaction sites, the as-synthesized g-C3N4 NSs demonstrated a high photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate of 9871 μmol h(-1) g(-1) and efficient photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under simulated solar light irradiation...
May 11, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
S Moncayo, S Manzoor, J D Rosales, J Anzano, J O Caceres
The present work focuses on the development of a fast and cost effective method based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to the quality control, traceability and detection of adulteration in milk. Two adulteration cases have been studied; a qualitative analysis for the discrimination between different milk blends and quantification of melamine in adulterated toddler milk powder. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and neural networks (NN) have been used to analyze LIBS spectra obtaining a correct classification rate of 98% with a 100% of robustness...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Xiao-Guang Yu, Yuan-Qing Li, Wei-Bin Zhu, Pei Huang, Tong-Tong Wang, Ning Hu, Shao-Yun Fu
Melamine sponge, also known as nano-sponge, is widely used as an abrasive cleaner in our daily life. In this work, the fabrication of a wearable strain sensor for human motion detection is first demonstrated with a commercially available nano-sponge as a starting material. The key resistance sensitive material in the wearable strain sensor is obtained by the encapsulation of a carbonized nano-sponge (CNS) with silicone resin. The as-fabricated CNS/silicone sensor is highly sensitive to strain with a maximum gauge factor of 18...
May 9, 2017: Nanoscale
Keke Chang, Shun Wang, Hao Zhang, Qingqian Guo, Xinran Hu, Zhili Lin, Haifeng Sun, Min Jiang, Jiandong Hu
A biosensing system with optical fibers is proposed for the colorimetric detection of melamine in liquid milk samples by using the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The biosensing system consists of a broadband light source that covers the spectral range from 200 nm to 1700 nm, an optical attenuator, three types of 600 μm premium optical fibers with SMA905 connectors and a miniature spectrometer with a linear charge coupled device (CCD) array. The biosensing system with optical fibers is low-cost, simple and is well-proven for the detection of melamine...
2017: PloS One
Anindita Roy, Ramkrishna Sahoo, Joydeep Chowdhury, Tara Shankar Bhattacharya, Ratnesh Agarwal, Tarasankar Pal
Attention has been directed to prepare exclusive one-dimensional silver nanostructure from the linear inorganic polymer AgCN. Successive color change from yellow to orange, to red and finally to green reflects the evolution of high yielding Ag nanorods (NRs) from well-known -[Ag-CN]- chains of polymeric AgCN at room temperature. The parental 1D morphology of AgCN is retained within the as-synthesized Ag NRs. So we could successfully exploit the Ag NR for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies for sensing a popular milk adulterant melamine down to picomolar level...
April 27, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Seyyed Amin Rounaghi, Danny E P Vanpoucke, Hossein Eshghi, Sergio Scudino, Elaheh Esmaeili, Steffen Oswald, Jürgen Eckert
Nowadays, the development of highly efficient routes for the low cost synthesis of nitrides is greatly growing. Mechanochemical synthesis is one of those promising techniques which is conventionally employed for the synthesis of nitrides by long term milling of metallic elements under a pressurized N2 or NH3 atmosphere (A. Calka and J. I. Nikolov, Nanostruct. Mater., 1995, 6, 409-412). In the present study, we describe a versatile, room-temperature and low-cost mechanochemical process for the synthesis of nanostructured metal nitrides (MNs), carbonitrides (MCNs) and carbon nitride (CNx)...
May 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xiaofeng Niu, Qing Xu, Yi Zhang, Yue Zhang, Yufeng Yan, Tao Liu
Micro-nanoencapsulated phase change materials (M-NEPCMs) are proposed to be useful in liquid desiccant dehumidification by restraining the temperature rise in the moisture-removal process and improving the dehumidification efficiency. In this paper, the n-octadecane M-NEPCMs with desirable thermal properties for internally-cooled dehumidification were fabricated by using compound emulsifiers through the in-situ polymerization method. Melamine-formaldehyde resin was used as the shell material. The effects of the mixing ratio, emulsification methods and amount of the compound emulsifiers on the morphology, size and thermal properties of the M-NEPCMs were investigated experimentally...
April 29, 2017: Nanomaterials
W C Li, C F Chow
Food adulteration has a long history in human society, and it still occurs in modern times. Because children are relatively vulnerable to food adulterants, studying the health impacts of food adulteration on children is important. This article provides an overview of the child health impacts of food adulterants in two recent food adulteration incidents in the Greater China Region: 1) a plasticizer incident in Taiwan and 2) a 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine (melamine)-tainted milk incident in China. The involved food adulterants (bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [DEHP], diisononyl phthalate [DiNP] and melamine) are harmful to the hippocampus, kidneys, reproductive organs, and immune system of children, and they also increase the risk of cancer...
May 2, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Kenneth A Mundt, Alexa E Gallagher, Linda D Dell, Ethan A Natelson, Paolo Boffetta, P Robinan Gentry
Several cross-sectional studies of a single population of workers exposed to formaldehyde at one of two factories using or producing formaldehyde-melamine resins in China have concluded that formaldehyde exposure induces damage to hematopoietic cells that originate in the bone marrow. Moreover, the investigators interpret observed differences between groups as evidence that formaldehyde induces myeloid leukemias, although the mechanisms for inducing these diseases are not obvious and recently published scientific findings do not support causation...
May 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Wolfram Seitz, Rudi Winzenbacher
A comprehensive monitoring programme of trace organic chemicals (TOrC) was conducted for a German water protection area in karstic ground. The aim of this survey was to detect the potential anthropogenic influences of point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and diffuse pollution such as runoff water from roads on the raw water used for drinking water treatment. The programme comprised seven sampling campaigns within 2 years each with up to 20 sampling sites. In total, the programme included 84 anthropogenic compounds from pharmaceuticals, iodinated X-ray contrast media, sweeteners, industrial chemicals (benzotriazoles, melamines and benzothiazoles) and pesticide metabolites...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Xueliang Cui, Kun Liang, Meng Tian, Yangyang Zhu, Jiantai Ma, Zhengping Dong
Inexpensive and reusable transition metal heterogeneous catalysts exhibiting excellent catalytic performance represent an attractive alternative to noble metal and homogeneous catalysts. In this work, we fabricated a novel nanocatalyst comprised of Co nanoparticles (NPs) supported on a N-doped mesoporous carbon (Co/mCN-900) by simple one-pot pyrolysis of a homogeneous mixture of melamine, polyacrylonitrile, and Co(NO3)2·6H2O under a N2 atmosphere at 900°C. The as-obtained Co/mCN-900 catalyst displayed a fluffy mesoporous structure with highly dispersed and accessible Co NPs acting as catalytic active sites...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Dong-Wan Cho, Sohyun Kim, Yiu Fai Tsang, Hocheol Song
Nitrogen-doped copper-biochar (N-Cu-biochar) was synthesized via pyrolysis of glucose in the presence of copper and melamine and used as a catalyst in the reduction of p-nitrophenol by NaBH4. N-Cu-biochar was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface analyzer. The catalytic performance of N-Cu-biochar was evaluated under varying conditions of NaBH4 concentration, biochar dosage, and initial p-nitrophenol concentration...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Zonghua Pu, Chengtian Zhang, Ibrahim Saana Amiinu, Wenqiang Li, Lin Wu, Shichun Mu
Transition metal phosphides (TMPs) have been identified as promising nonprecious metal electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and other energy conversion reactions. Herein, we reported a general strategy for synthesis of a series of TMPs (Fe2P, FeP, Co2P, CoP, Ni2P, and Ni12P5) nanoparticles (NPs) with different metal phases embedded in a N-doped carbon (NC) matrix using metal salt, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, and melamine as precursor with varying molar ratios and thermolysis temperatures...
May 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Md Fazle Alam, Amaj Ahmed Laskar, Shahbaz Ahmed, Mohd Azfar Shaida, Hina Younus
Melamine toxicity has recently attracted worldwide attention as it causes renal failure and the death of humans and animals. Therefore, developing a simple, fast and sensitive method for the routine detection of melamine is the need of the hour. Herein, we have developed a selective colorimetric method for the detection of melamine in milk samples based upon in-situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via tannic acid. The AgNPs thus formed were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), zetasizer and dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
April 17, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Deepak Tiwari, Chitrakshi Goel, Haripada Bhunia, Pramod K Bajpai
In this work, we report carbon adsorbents obtained from high nitrogen content melamine-formaldehyde resin as starting material and mesoporous zeolite MCM-41 as template through nanocasting technique. To synthesize different carbon structure adsorbents with improved textural and surface properties, the material undergo carbonization followed by physical activation under CO2 atmosphere at different temperatures. Characterizations of the adsorbents using SEM, TEM, XPS, nitrogen sorption, CHN, TKN, and TPD have been carried out...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Lei An, Wei Sun
In September 2008, in China, tens of thousands of children were hospitalized, several even died, as a result of infant-formula milk adulterated with a synthetic chemical compound, melamine, and in the next few months, this crisis became the focus of attention worldwide. Although there are a number of articles about nephrotoxicity of melamine, the evidence of melamine toxicity on other organs is still scanty. Specially, several recent studies indicated that melamine can perturb the central nervous system (CNS) function and induce cognitive deficits, breaking the previous view that melamine toxicity is limited to the urinary system...
April 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
Hao Hu, Jinyi Zhang, Yu Ding, Xinfeng Zhang, Kailai Xu, Xiandeng Hou, Peng Wu
Singlet oxygen ((1)O2), generated via photosensitization, has been proved to oxidize chromogenic substrates with neither H2O2 oxidation nor enzyme (horseradish peroxidase, HRP) catalysis. Of the various methods for modulation of the (1)O2 generation, DNA-controlled photosensitization received great attention. Therefore, integration of the formation/deformation DNA structures with DNA-controlled photosensitization will be extremely appealing in visual biosensor developments. Here, the stable melamine-thymine complex was explored in combination with DNA-controlled photosensitization for visual detection of melamine...
April 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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