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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102917/sexual-violence-in-the-college-population-a-systematic-review-of-disclosure-and-campus-resources-and-services
#1
REVIEW
Valerie Halstead, Jessica R Williams, Rosa Gonzalez-Guarda
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To synthesize research examining college student sexual violence disclosure and campus sexual violence resources and services. BACKGROUND: Recently, the issue of sexual violence within the college population has garnered attention worldwide. The prevalence of sexual violence within college students is alarmingly high. Survivors often experience negative outcomes (e.g., health-related consequences, impact on education). Efforts have been made to address this significant public health concern...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102910/arabidopsis-phosphoinositide-specific-phospholipase-c-4-negatively-regulates-seedling-salt-tolerance
#2
Keke Xia, Bo Wang, Jiewei Zhang, Yuan Li, Hailian Yang, Dongtao Ren
Previous physiological and pharmacological studies have suggested that the activity of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) plays an important role in regulating plant salt stress responses by altering the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. However, the individual members of plant PLCs involved in this process need to be identified. Here, the function of AtPLC4 in the salt stress response of Arabidopsis seedlings was analyzed. plc4 mutant seedlings showed hyposensitivity to salt stress compared with Col-0 wild-type seedlings, and the salt hyposensitive phenotype could be complemented by the expression of native promoter-controlled AtPLC4...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102879/the-conservative-and-pharmacological-management-of-chronic-subdural-haematoma
#3
Jehuda Soleman, Fabio Noccera, Luigi Mariani
Chronic subdural haematoma (cSDH), one of the most common neurosurgical entities, occurs typically in elderly patients. The incidence is expected to double by the year 2030, owing to the continuous aging of the population. Surgery is usually the treatment of choice, but conservative treatment may be a good alternative in some situations. We provide a systematic review of studies analysing the conservative treatment options and the natural history of cSDH. Of 231 articles screened, 35 were included in this systematic review...
January 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102876/aging-tumour-cells-to-cure-cancer-pro-senescence-therapy-for-cancer
#4
Arianna Calcinotto, Andrea Alimonti
Robust scientific evidence demonstrates that senes-cence induction in cancer works as a potent weapon to eradicate tumorigenesis. Therapies that enhance senescence not only promote a stable cell growth arrest but also work as a strong stimulus for the acti-vation of the antitumour immune response. However, recent advances suggest that if senescent tumour cells are not cleared from the tumours, they may promote tumour progression and metastasis. In this article, we focus on concepts that are relevant to a pro-senescence therapeutic approach, including caveats, and we propose therapeutic strategies that involve the combined use of pro-senescence therapies with im-munotherapies to promote the clearance of senescent tumour cells...
January 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102863/a-taxonomy-of-medical-uncertainties-in-clinical-genome-sequencing
#5
Paul K J Han, Kendall L Umstead, Barbara A Bernhardt, Robert C Green, Steven Joffe, Barbara Koenig, Ian Krantz, Leo B Waterston, Leslie G Biesecker, Barbara B Biesecker
PURPOSE: Clinical next-generation sequencing (CNGS) is introducing new opportunities and challenges into the practice of medicine. Simultaneously, these technologies are generating uncertainties of an unprecedented scale that laboratories, clinicians, and patients are required to address and manage. We describe in this report the conceptual design of a new taxonomy of uncertainties around the use of CNGS in health care. METHODS: Interviews to delineate the dimensions of uncertainty in CNGS were conducted with genomics experts and themes were extracted in order to expand on a previously published three-dimensional taxonomy of medical uncertainty...
January 19, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102849/berberine-sonodynamic-therapy-induces-autophagy-and-lipid-unloading-in-macrophage
#6
Jiayuan Y Kou, Ying Li, Zhaoyu Y Zhong, Yueqing Q Jiang, Xuesong S Li, Xiaobo B Han, Zhongni N Liu, Ye Tian, Liming M Yang
Impaired autophagy in macrophages accompanies the progression of atherosclerosis and contributes to lipid loading in plaques and ineffective lipid degradation. Therefore, evoking autophagy and its associated cholesterol efflux may provide a therapeutic treatment for atherosclerosis. In the present study, berberine-mediated sonodynamic therapy (BBR-SDT) was used to induce autophagy and cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and derived foam cells. Following BBR-SDT, autophagy was increased in the macrophages, autophagy resistance in the foam cells was prevented, and cholesterol efflux was induced...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102846/hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-promotes-the-stem-like-properties-of-ov6-cancer-cells-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Chao Wang, Ming-da Wang, Peng Cheng, Hai Huang, Wei Dong, Wei-Wei Zhang, Peng-Peng Li, Chuan Lin, Ze-Ya Pan, Meng-Chao Wu, Wei-Ping Zhou
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have both been implicated in the occurrence and development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether HBx contributes to the stem-like properties of OV6(+) CSCs in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we showed that the concomitant expression of HBx and OV6 was closely associated with the clinical outcomes and prognosis of patients with HBV-related HCC. HBx was required for the stem-like properties of OV6(+) liver CSCs, including self-renewal, stem cell-associated gene expression, tumorigenicity and chemoresistance...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102845/h19-let-7-lin28-reciprocal-negative-regulatory-circuit-promotes-breast-cancer-stem-cell-maintenance
#8
Fei Peng, Ting-Ting Li, Kai-Li Wang, Guo-Qing Xiao, Ju-Hong Wang, Hai-Dong Zhao, Zhi-Jie Kang, Wen-Jun Fan, Li-Li Zhu, Mei Li, Bai Cui, Fei-Meng Zheng, Hong-Jiang Wang, Eric W-F Lam, Bo Wang, Jie Xu, Quentin Liu
Long noncoding RNA-H19 (H19), an imprinted oncofetal gene, has a central role in carcinogenesis. Hitherto, the mechanism by which H19 regulates cancer stem cells, remains elusive. Here we show that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) express high levels of H19, and ectopic overexpression of H19 significantly promotes breast cancer cell clonogenicity, migration and mammosphere-forming ability. Conversely, silencing of H19 represses these BCSC properties. In concordance, knockdown of H19 markedly inhibits tumor growth and suppresses tumorigenesis in nude mice...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102844/human-adipose-stem-cell-differentiation-is-highly-affected-by-cancer-cells-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-implication-for-autologous-fat-grafting
#9
Francesca Paino, Marcella La Noce, Diego Di Nucci, Giovanni Francesco Nicoletti, Rosa Salzillo, Alfredo De Rosa, Giuseppe Andrea Ferraro, Gianpaolo Papaccio, Vincenzo Desiderio, Virginia Tirino
Recent studies showed that mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue can promote tumour progression, raising some concerns regarding their use in regenerative medicine. In this context, we co-cultured either SAOS2 osteosarcoma or MCF7 breast cancer cells with human adipose stem cells (hASCs), in order to evaluate potential effects of cancer cells on hASCs differentiation, in vitro and in vivo. In this study we observed that both SAOS2 and MCF7 cell lines induced an increase in hASCs proliferation, compared to hASCs alone, but, surprisingly, neither changes in the expression of CD90, CD29, CD324 and vimentin, nor variations in the Twist and Slug mRNAs were detectable...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102840/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-enact-field-cancerization-by-promoting-extratumoral-oxidative-stress
#10
Jeremy Soon Kiat Chan, Ming Jie Tan, Ming Keat Sng, Ziqiang Teo, Terri Phua, Chee Chong Choo, Liang Li, Pengcheng Zhu, Nguan Soon Tan
Histological inspection of visually normal tissue adjacent to neoplastic lesions often reveals multiple foci of cellular abnormalities. This suggests the presence of a regional carcinogenic signal that spreads oncogenic transformation and field cancerization. We observed an abundance of mutagenic reactive oxygen species in the stroma of cryosectioned patient tumor biopsies, indicative of extratumoral oxidative stress. Diffusible hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was elevated in the conditioned medium of cultured skin epithelia at various stages of oncogenic transformation, and H2O2 production increased with greater tumor-forming and metastatic capacity of the studied cell lines...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102839/foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-infection-suppresses-autophagy-and-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-antiviral-responses-via-degradation-of-atg5-atg12-by-3c-pro
#11
Xuxu Fan, Shichong Han, Dan Yan, Yuan Gao, Yanquan Wei, Xiangtao Liu, Ying Liao, Huichen Guo, Shiqi Sun
Autophagy-related protein ATG5-ATG12 is an essential complex for the autophagophore elongation in autophagy, which has been reported to be involved in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication. Previous reports show that ATG5-ATG12 positively or negatively regulates type I interferon (IFN-α/β) pathway during virus infection. In this study, we found that FMDV infection rapidly induced LC3 lipidation and GFP-LC3 subcellular redistribution at the early infection stage in PK-15 cells. Along with infection time course to 2-5 h...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102835/spinal-cord-regeneration-in-xenopus-laevis
#12
Gabriela Edwards-Faret, Rosana Muñoz, Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Dasfne Lee-Liu, Victor S Tapia, Juan Larraín
Here we present a protocol for the husbandry of Xenopus laevis tadpoles and froglets, and procedures to study spinal cord regeneration. This includes methods to induce spinal cord injury (SCI); DNA and morpholino electroporation for genetic studies; in vivo imaging for cell analysis; a swimming test to measure functional recovery; and a convenient model for screening for new compounds that promote neural regeneration. These protocols establish X. laevis as a unique model organism for understanding spinal cord regeneration by comparing regenerative and nonregenerative stages...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102797/why-undertake-a-pilot-in-a-qualitative-phd-study-lessons-learned-to-promote-success
#13
Jane Wray, Uduak Archibong, Sean Walton
Background Pilot studies can play an important role in qualitative studies. Methodological and practical issues can be shaped and refined by undertaking pilots. Personal development and researchers' competence are enhanced and lessons learned can inform the development and quality of the main study. However, pilot studies are rarely published, despite their potential to improve knowledge and understanding of the research. Aim To present the main lessons learned from undertaking a pilot in a qualitative PhD study...
January 23, 2017: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102796/-nursing-can-t-be-done-alone
#14
Layla Haidrani
When and why did you develop an interest in research? After completing my master's thesis at Emory University in Georgia, United States, I realised that I enjoyed the precise and methodological approach of scientists in their pursuit of answering compelling health problems. I started out interested in children's health and engagement of their families and I have maintained that initial interest in promoting health and preventing disease in children.
January 23, 2017: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102760/phf13-a-new-player-involved-in-rna-polymerase-ii-transcriptional-regulation-and-co-transcriptional-splicing
#15
Alisa Fuchs, Marcos Torroba, Sarah Kinkley
We recently identified PHF13 as an H3K4me2/3 chromatin reader and transcriptional co-regulator. We found that PHF13 interacts with RNAPIIS5P and PRC2 stabilizing their association with active and bivalent promoters. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis identified ∼50 spliceosomal proteins in PHF13's interactome. Here we will discuss the potential role of PHF13 in RNAPII pausing and co-transcriptional splicing.
January 19, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102758/p-tefb-finding-its-ways-to-release-promoter-proximally-paused-rna-polymerase-ii
#16
You Li, Min Liu, Lin-Feng Chen, Ruichuan Chen
The release of a paused Pol II depends on the recruitment of P-TEFb. Recent studies showed that both active P-TEFb and inactive P-TEFb (7SK snRNP) can be recruited to the promoter regions of global genes by different mechanisms. Here, we summarize the recent advances on these distinct recruitment mechanisms.
January 19, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102738/optimization-and-partial-characterization-of-intracellular-anticandidal-protein-from-aspergillus-giganteus-mtcc-8408-using-taguchi-doe
#17
Debashis Dutta, Mira Debnath Das
A new intracellular antifungal protein (afp) production with average molecular weight 24.3 kDa and yield of 0.65 ± 0.1 mg/gram dry cell weight (gdcw) of mycelia in submerged fermentation of Aspergillus giganteus MTCC 8408 was optimized. Taguchi's DOE (design of experiment) L27 orthogonal array (OA) was constructed using Qualitek-4 software with 8 most influensive factors namely, culture pH, temperature, slant age, inoculum volume, agitation and KH2PO4. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to correlate the effect of selected factors on fungal cell morphology and afp production...
January 19, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102736/dengue-and-zika-viruses-subvert-reticulophagy-by-ns2b3-mediated-cleavage-of-fam134b
#18
Nicholas J Lennemann, Carolyn B Coyne
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is exploited by a number of diverse viruses during their infectious life cycles. Flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), utilize the ER as a source of membranes to establish their replication organelles and to facilitate their assembly and eventual maturation along the secretory pathway. In order to maintain normal homeostasis, host cells have evolved highly efficient processes to dynamically regulate the ER, such as through reticulophagy, a selective form of autophagy that leads to ER degradation...
January 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102733/plk1-polo-like-kinase-1-inhibits-mtor-complex-1-and-promotes-autophagy
#19
Stefanie Ruf, Alexander Martin Heberle, Miriam Langelaar-Makkinje, Sara Gelino, Deepti Wilkinson, Carolin Gerbeth, Jennifer Jasmin Schwarz, Birgit Holzwarth, Bettina Warscheid, Chris Meisinger, Marcel A T M van Vugt, Ralf Baumeister, Malene Hansen, Kathrin Thedieck
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1) and PLK1 (polo like kinase 1) are major drivers of cancer cell growth and proliferation, and inhibitors of both protein kinases are currently being investigated in clinical studies. To date, MTORC1's and PLK1's functions are mostly studied separately, and reports on their mutual crosstalk are scarce. Here, we identify PLK1 as a physical MTORC1 interactor in human cancer cells. PLK1 inhibition enhances MTORC1 activity under nutrient sufficiency and in starved cells, and PLK1 directly phosphorylates the MTORC1 component RPTOR/RAPTOR in vitro...
January 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102712/bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-and-7-mediate-the-anabolic-function-of-nucleus-pulposus-cells-with-discrete-mechanisms
#20
Victor Yl Leung, Lixiong Zhou, Wai-Kit Tam, Yi Sun, Fengjuan Lv, Guangqian Zhou, Kenneth Mc Cheung
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play roles in promoting cell anabolism, especially extracellular matrix production. The difference between BMP members in their capacity to modulate intervertebral disc cell activity is yet to be defined. BMP-7/OP-1 has been shown to retard disc degeneration. We compared the activity of BMP-7 with BMP-2 on nucleus pulposus (NP) cell phenotype and function, and investigated how they differentially affect the gene expression profiles of signaling cascade components in human NP cells under degenerative states...
January 19, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
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