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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346980/ecological-intensification-to-mitigate-impacts-of-conventional-intensive-land-use-on-pollinators-and-pollination
#1
REVIEW
Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anahí Espíndola, Adam J Vanbergen, Josef Settele, Claire Kremen, Lynn V Dicks
Worldwide, human appropriation of ecosystems is disrupting plant-pollinator communities and pollination function through habitat conversion and landscape homogenisation. Conversion to agriculture is destroying and degrading semi-natural ecosystems while conventional land-use intensification (e.g. industrial management of large-scale monocultures with high chemical inputs) homogenises landscape structure and quality. Together, these anthropogenic processes reduce the connectivity of populations and erode floral and nesting resources to undermine pollinator abundance and diversity, and ultimately pollination services...
March 27, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346927/microbiota-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-infancy-implications-for-management
#2
Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard Y Wu, Philip M Sherman
The complex and diverse intestinal microbiome is recognized as important in promoting human health. An altered gut microflora, referred to as dysbiosis, is increasingly recognized as having an etiologic role in a variety of conditions, including functional gastrointestinal disorders: colic in infants and irritable bowel syndrome in older children. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, if ingested in sufficient amounts, restore microbial homeostasis and have a benefit on health. Randomized controlled trials indicate that probiotics can be effective in a variety of intestinal conditions, including colic and irritable bowel syndrome...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346920/microbial-composition-of-the-initial-colonization-of-newborns
#3
Samuli Rautava
Early-life interaction with indigenous intestinal microbes is a prerequisite for healthy immune and metabolic maturation. Human infants acquire their gut microbiota predominantly from the mother. A considerable inoculum of microbes is received by the neonate during vaginal delivery. Recent observations suggest that human gut colonization may be initiated prenatally by microbes in amniotic fluid, but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. After birth, neonatal gut colonization is guided by human milk factors, which selectively promote the growth of specific microbes, as well as by live microbes present in human milk...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346908/different-effects-of-biochar-and-a-nitrification-inhibitor-application-on-paddy-soil-denitrification-a-field-experiment-over-two-consecutive-rice-growing-seasons
#4
Shuwei Wang, Jun Shan, Yongqiu Xia, Quan Tang, Longlong Xia, Jinghui Lin, Xiaoyuan Yan
Biochar and nitrification inhibitors are increasingly being proposed as amendments to improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, their effects on soil denitrification and the major N loss in rice paddies over an entire rice-growing season are not well understood. In this study, using intact soil core incubation combined with N2/Ar technique, the impacts of biochar and a nitrification inhibitor (Ni), 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine, on rice yield and soil denitrification, as well as ammonia (NH3) volatilization, were investigated over two rice-growing seasons in the Taihu Lake region of China...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346868/circulation-of-zoonotic-arboviruses-in-equine-populations-of-mallorca-island-spain
#5
Jessica Vanhomwegen, Cécile Beck, Philippe Desprès, Amanda Figuerola, Ramón García, Sylvie Lecollinet, Marc López-Roig, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Jordi Serra-Cobo
The presence of major arbovirus vector species, climate change that promotes the expansion and increase of their populations, and potential animal reservoirs mean that vector-borne diseases represent a significant health risk for Mallorca's inhabitants. Microbiological monitoring of circulating arboviruses, particularly flaviviruses causing encephalitis, was initiated using domestic horses from localities near wetlands as "sentinel" hosts. A total of 291 blood samples were taken from 172 horses between 2011 and 2012, using paired samples to highlight seroconversion events...
March 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346846/dna-methylation-of-the-pdgfd-gene-promoter-increases-the-risk-for-intracranial-aneurysms-and-brain-arteriovenous-malformations
#6
Shengjun Zhou, Xiang Gao, Jie Sun, Zhiqing Lin, Yi Huang
The aim of this study was to determine the role of DNA methylation of the platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGFD) gene promoter in the development of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs). A total of 70 patients with IAs or BAVMs and 26 control individuals were enrolled for this study. The PDGFD level in the plasma was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DNA methylation levels of seven cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides present in the PDGFD gene promoter were measured using bisulfite pyrosequencing technology...
March 27, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346844/inactivation-of-i-clostridium-difficile-i-spore-outgrowth-by-synergistic-effects-of-nisin-and-lysozyme
#7
Changhoon Chai, Kyung-Soo Lee, Goo-Sang Imm, Young Soon Kim, Se-Wook Oh
Inactivating <i>Clostridium difficile</i> spores is difficult, as they are resistant to heat, chemicals, and antimicrobials. However, this note describes inactivation of <i>C. difficile</i> spore outgrowth by incubation in a solution containing a germinant (1% w/v sodium taurocholate), co-germinants (1% w/v tryptose and 1% w/v NaCl), and natural antimicrobials (20 nM nisin and 0.2 mM lysozyme). <i>C. difficile</i> spores were resistant to nisin and lysozyme but became susceptible during germination and outgrowth triggered and promoted by sodium taurocholate, tryptose, and NaCl...
March 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346839/characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-fresh-produces-and-human-fecal-samples
#8
Min-Chan Kim, Min-Hyeok Cha, Jae-Gee Ryu, Gun-Jo Woo
Increased enterococcal infections in hospitals and multidrug-resistant and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated from humans, animals, and food sources raised public health concern on the presence of VRE in multiple sources. We performed a comparative analysis of the antimicrobial resistance and genetics of VRE isolates derived from fresh produce and human fecal samples. Of 389 Enterococcus isolates, 8 fecal and 3 produce isolates were resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin; all harbored vanA gene...
March 27, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346830/synergetic-neuroprotective-effect-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-aspirin-in-sh-y5y-by-inhibiting-mir-21-and-activating-rxr%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE
#9
Yongwang Fu, Jin Zhen, Zuneng Lu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a serious neurodegenerative disorder that lacks effective therapeutic methods. In this research, expressions of PPARα, RXRα, and miR-21 were evaluated in PD patients and normal controls. To investigate the effects of miR-21, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and aspirin (ASA) on PD, as well as the relationships between them, SH-Y5Y cells were treated with DHA, ASA, or both for 24 h. The assay showed that levels of miR-21 were increased and levels of PPARα were decreased in PD patients compared with normal controls...
March 27, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346827/effects-of-cerium-oxide-and-ferrocene-nanoparticles-addition-as-fuel-borne-catalysts-on-diesel-engine-particulate-emissions-environmental-and-health-implications
#10
Zhi-Hui Zhang, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian
This study systematically examined the potential impacts of doping CeO2 and Fe(C5H5)2 nanoparticles as fuel-borne catalysts (FBCs) to ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel on the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of diesel particulate matter (DPM). The FBCs-doped fuels are effective in promoting soot oxidation and reducing the DPM mass emissions, but lead to a significant increase in the total particle counts due to the formation of self-nucleated metallic nanoparticles. Compared to undoped ULSD, the FBCs-doped fuels result in higher concentrations of particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes, higher fractions of organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in particles, show slight alterations in soot nanostructure, reduce soot ignition temperature and activation energy...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346820/blastomyces-dermatitidis-serine-protease-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iva-dppiva-cleaves-elr-cxc-chemokines-altering-their-effects-on-neutrophils
#11
Jenna Lorenzini, J Scott Fites, Jeniel Nett, Bruce S Klein
Blastomycosis elicits a pyogranulomatous inflammatory response, which involves a prominent recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. While neutrophils are efficiently recruited to the site of infection, this event is paradoxically coupled with the host's inability to control infection by Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent. The mechanisms underlying this characteristic pyogranulomatous response and inability of neutrophils to kill the yeast are poorly understood. We recently reported that the fungal protease DppIVA promotes B...
March 27, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346815/improvement-of-identification-methods-for-honeybee-specific-lactic-acid-bacteria-future-approaches
#12
Sepideh Lamei, Yue O O Hu, Tobias C Olofsson, Anders F Andersson, Eva Forsgren, Alejandra Vásquez
Honeybees face many parasites and pathogens and consequently rely on a diverse set of individual and group-level defenses to prevent disease. The crop microbiota of Apis mellifera, composed of 13 Lactic Acid Bacterial (LAB) species within the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, form a beneficial symbiotic relationship with each other and the honeybee to protect their niche and their host. Possibly playing a vital role in honeybee health, it is important that these honeybee specific Lactic Acid Bacterial (hbs-LAB) symbionts can be correctly identified, isolated and cultured, to further investigate their health promoting properties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346812/identification-of-a-novel-benzimidazole-pyrazolone-scaffold-that-inhibits-kdm4-lysine-demethylases-and-reduces-proliferation-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#13
David M Carter, Edgar Specker, Jessica Przygodda, Martin Neuenschwander, Jens Peter von Kries, Udo Heinemann, Marc Nazaré, Ulrich Gohlke
Human lysine demethylase (KDM) enzymes (KDM1-7) constitute an emerging class of therapeutic targets, with activities that support growth and development of metastatic disease. By interacting with and co-activating the androgen receptor, the KDM4 subfamily (KDM4A-E) promotes aggressive phenotypes of prostate cancer (PCa). Knockdown of KDM4 expression or inhibition of KDM4 enzyme activity reduces the proliferation of PCa cell lines and highlights inhibition of lysine demethylation as a possible therapeutic method for PCa treatment...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346809/malat1-promotes-osteosarcoma-development-by-regulation-of-hmgb1-via-mir-142-3p-and-mir-129-5p
#14
Ke Liu, Jun Huang, Jiangdong Ni, Deye Song, Muliang Ding, Junjie Wang, Xianzhe Huang, Wenzhao Li
Recently, emerging evidence has demonstrated that metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), contributes to the initiation and development of tumors, including osteosarcoma (OS). Multiple studies have suggested an oncogenic role of MALAT1 and high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in OS tumorigenesis and metastasis, but the effects and mechanisms are not unanimous. Here, we showed that MALAT1 and HMGB1 were significantly increased in human OS cell lines and knockdown of MALAT1 reduced HMGB1 expression...
March 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346798/priming-adipose-stem-cells-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-preconditioning-potentiates-their-exosome-efficacy-for-bone-regeneration
#15
ZuFu Lu, YongJuan Chen, Colin Dunstan, Seyediman Roohani-Esfahani, Hala Zreiqat
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used for tissue repair and regeneration. However, the inherent drawbacks, including limited cell survival after cell transplantation, have hindered direct MSC transplantation for tissue repair and regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate if exosomes isolated from MSCs can promote the proliferation and differentiation of human primary osteoblastic cells (HOBs) and be potentially used for bone tissue regeneration. We showed that adipose tissue-derived MSC (ASC)-derived exosomes (ASC-EXO) were able to promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in HOBs; and the trophic effects of ASC-EXO on HOBs were further harnessed when ASCs were preconditioned with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) for 3 days, which mimics the acute inflammatory phase upon bone injury...
March 23, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346797/substituted-borosilicate-glasses-with-improved-osteogenic-capacity-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#16
João S Fernandes, Piergiorgio Gentile, Aileen Crawford, Ricardo A Pires, Paul V Hatton, Rui L Reis
Borosilicate bioactive glasses (BBGs) have shown the capacity to promote higher formation of new bone when compared with silicate bioactive glasses. Herein, we assessed the capacity of BBGs to induce osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) as a function of their substituted divalent cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+)). To this purpose, we synthesized BBG particles by melt quenching. The cell viability, proliferation, and morphology (i.e., PrestoBlue(®), PicoGreen(®), and DAPI and Phalloidin stainings, respectively), as well as protein expression (i...
March 27, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346789/resolving-ultrafast-photoinduced-deactivations-in-water-solvated-pyrimidine-nucleosides
#17
Ana J Pepino, Javier Segarra-Martí, Artur Nenov, Roberto Improta, Marco Garavelli
For the first time, ultrafast deactivations of photo-excited water-solvated pyrimidine nucleosides are mapped employing hybrid QM(CASPT2)/MM(AMBER) optimizations that account for explicit solvation, sugar effects and dynamically correlated potential energy surfaces. Low energy S1/S0 ring-puckering and ring-opening conical intersections (CIs) are suggested to drive the ballistic coherent sub-ps (<200fs) decays observed in each pyrimidine, the energetics controlling this processes correlating with the lifetimes observed...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346784/structure-determination-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-serine-protease-hip1-rv2224c
#18
Jacqueline Lara Naffin-Olivos, Andrew Daab, Andre White, Nathan Eric Goldfarb, Amy C Milne, Dali Liu, Jacqueline Baikovitz, Ben M Dunn, Jyothi Rengarajan, Gregory A Petsko, Dagmar Ringe
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) serine protease Hip1 (Hydrolase important for pathogenesis; Rv2224c) promotes tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis by impairing host immune responses through proteolysis of a protein substrate, Mtb GroEL2. The cell surface localization of Hip1 and its immunomodulatory functions make Hip1 a good drug target for new adjunctive immune therapies for TB. Here we report the crystal structure of Hip1 to a resolution of 2.6 Å and the kinetic studies of the enzyme against model substrates and the protein GroEL2...
March 27, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346779/quantum-dynamics-study-of-potential-energy-minima-effect-on-energy-efficiency-for-the-f-ch3cl-%C3%A2-fch3-cl-reaction
#19
Yida Li, Yuping Wang, Dunyou Wang
The Polanyi rules on the energy efficiency on reactivity are summarized solely from the locations of barriers on the potential energy surfaces. Here our quantum dynamics study for the F(-) + CH3Cl → FCH3 + Cl(-) reaction shows that the two potential energy minima in the entrance channel on the potential energy surface play an essential role in energy efficiency on reactivity. The reactivity of this reaction is dominated by the relative low collision energies where two distinctive reaction mechanisms involve the two minima in the entrance channel...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346728/nubpl-a-novel-metastasis-related-gene-promotes-colorectal-carcinoma-cell-motility-by-inducing-emt
#20
Yuhui Wang, Nan Wu, Donglin Sun, Haiming Sun, Dandan Tong, Duo Liu, Bo Pang, Su Li, Jia Wei, Jialin Dai, Yang Liu, Jing Bai, Jingshu Geng, Songbin Fu, Yan Jin
NUBPL is an assembly factor for human mitochondrial complex I, which is the biggest member of mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, the relationship between NUBPL and carcinoma progression remains unknown. In this study, NUBPL was characterized for its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Data (n=197) from Oncomine database revealed that mRNA levels of NUBPL were remarkably overexpressed in CRC tissues compared with normal tissues. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis of 75 pairs of CRC and nontumorous tissues demonstrated that expression level of NUBPL was significantly higher in CRC tissues, and its expression level was positively associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0...
March 27, 2017: Cancer Science
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