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Adolescent osteoporosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216151/vitamin-d-in-adolescents-are-current-recommendations-enough
#1
Taryn J Smith, Susan A Lanham-New, Kathryn H Hart
Vitamin D is essential for bone development during adolescence and low vitamin D status during this critical period of growth may impact bone mineralization, potentially reducing peak bone mass and consequently increasing the risk of osteoporosis in adulthood. Therefore, the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and deficiency in adolescent populations is of great concern. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, the widely accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, that defines adequacy, and the vitamin D intake requirements to maintain various 25(OH)D thresholds are not well established...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181694/a-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-two-sex-specific-loci-at-sptb-and-izumo3-influencing-pediatric-bone-mineral-density-at-multiple-skeletal-sites
#2
Alessandra Chesi, Jonathan A Mitchell, Heidi J Kalkwarf, Jonathan P Bradfield, Joan M Lappe, Diana L Cousminer, Sani M Roy, Shana E McCormack, Vicente Gilsanz, Sharon E Oberfield, Hakon Hakonarson, John A Shepherd, Andrea Kelly, Babette S Zemel, Struan F A Grant
Failure to achieve optimal bone mineral accretion during childhood and adolescence results in subsequent suboptimal peak bone mass, contributing to osteoporosis risk later in life. To identify novel genetic factors that influence pediatric bone mass at discrete skeletal sites, we performed a sex-stratified genome-wide association study of areal bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the 1/3 distal radius, spine, total hip and femoral neck in a cohort of 933 healthy European American children...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165360/body-composition-nutritional-profile-and-muscular-fitness-affect-bone-health-in-a-sample-of-schoolchildren-from-colombia-the-fuprecol-study
#3
Mónica Adriana Forero-Bogotá, Mónica Liliana Ojeda-Pardo, Antonio García-Hermoso, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Emilio González-Jiménez, Jacqueline Schmidt-RíoValle, Carmen Flores Navarro-Pérez, Luis Gracia-Marco, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Javier Martínez-Torres, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez
The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between body composition, nutritional profile, muscular fitness (MF) and bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Participants included 1118 children and adolescents (54.6% girls). Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (c-BUA) was obtained as a marker of bone health. Body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Furthermore height, weight, waist circumference and Tanner stage were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated...
February 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153354/sport-and-sample-specific-features-of-trace-elements-in-adolescent-female-field-hockey-players-and-fencers
#4
Alexey A Nabatov, Natalya A Troegubova, Ruslan R Gilmutdinov, Andrey P Sereda, Alexander S Samoilov, Natalya V Rylova
Active physical exercises and growth are associated with mineral imbalances in young athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of sport-related factors on tissue mineral status in adolescent female athletes. Saliva and hair samples were used for the analysis of immediate and more permanent tissue mineral status, respectively. Samples taken from a control non-athletic female group and two groups of female athletes (field hockey and fencing) were analyzed for seven essential minerals: calcium, chromium, iron, potassium, magnesium, selenium and zinc...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117876/interventions-to-prevent-and-treat-corticosteroid-induced-osteoporosis-and-prevent-osteoporotic-fractures-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#5
REVIEW
Jennifer M Bell, Michael D Shields, Janet Watters, Alistair Hamilton, Timothy Beringer, Mark Elliott, Rosaline Quinlivan, Sandya Tirupathi, Bronagh Blackwood
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid treatment is considered the 'gold standard' for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); however, it is also known to induce osteoporosis and thus increase the risk of vertebral fragility fractures. Good practice in the care of those with DMD requires prevention of these adverse effects. Treatments to increase bone mineral density include bisphosphonates and vitamin D and calcium supplements, and in adolescents with pubertal delay, testosterone. Bone health management is an important part of lifelong care for patients with DMD...
January 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101776/plyometric-exercise-and-bone-health-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alejandro González-Agüero, José A Casajús, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Many jumping interventions have been performed in children and adolescents in order to improve bone-related variables and thus, ensure a healthy bone development during these periods and later in life. This systematic review aims to summarize and update present knowledge regarding the effects that jumping interventions may have on bone mass, structure and metabolism in order to ascertain the efficacy and durability (duration of the effects caused by the intervention) of the interventions...
January 19, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053920/influence-of-adolescents-physical-activity-on-bone-mineral-acquisition-a-systematic-review-article
#7
REVIEW
Mohamed S Zulfarina, Ahmad M Sharkawi, Zaris-Sm Aqilah-S N, Sabarul-Afian Mokhtar, Shuid A Nazrun, Isa Naina-Mohamed
BACKGROUND: This study conducted to examine and to provide a systematic literature over the influence of adolescents' physical activity (PA) in maximizing`s peak bone mass (PBM). PBM or the 'bone bank' is an important determinant in achieving healthy bone. PA is one of the bone's lifestyle contributors and high PBM is one of the major strategies for preventing osteoporosis. METHODS: A computerized literature search using Medline (Ovid) and Scopus were conducted to identify relevant observational studies on the influence of different level of PA on bone acquisition among the healthy adolescent population...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053645/do-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-have-an-impact-on-bone-mineral-density-in-adolescents
#8
REVIEW
Valéria Nóbrega da Silva, Luciana Nunes Mosca Fiorelli, Carla Cristiane da Silva, Cilmery Suemi Kurokawa, Tamara Beres Lederer Goldberg
In recent years, there has been growing concern about the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) at an early age and its effects on bone mass in adolescents. Adolescence is considered a critical period for bone mass gain. Impaired bone acquisition during this phase can lead to "suboptimal" peak bone mass and increase the risk of osteopenia/osteoporosis and fractures in old age. The objective of this review was to perform a critical analysis of articles that specifically focus on this age group, evaluating the influence of MetS and its components on bone mineral density in adolescents...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017941/-a-role-of-exercise-and-sports-in-the-prevention-of-osteoporosis
#9
Jun Iwamoto
Physical activity plays an important role in maintaining or enhancing bone health. Jumping exercise increases bone mineral content(BMC)in prepubescent children(premenarcheal girls). Bone mineral density(BMD)is higher in adolescent athletes who are engaged in weight-bearing activities. Jumping exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises increase BMD in young adults and premenopausal women. Walking, aerobic weight-bearing exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises maintain or increase BMD in postmenopausal women...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989544/use-of-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-pediatric-patients
#10
Halley Wasserman, Jennifer M O'Donnell, Catherine M Gordon
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is a vital tool for assessing bone health in patients at risk for fragility fractures. In pediatric patients, this technology is used in conjunction with clinical fracture history to diagnosis osteoporosis and monitor treatment response. Childhood and adolescence is characterized by linear growth and bone mass accrual; thus there are important differences in the interpretation of bone measurements obtained by DXA in these young patients. This review aims to explore the current indications for DXA use and interpretation of DXA in the pediatric age group using currently available reference databases...
December 15, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975301/vertebral-cross-sectional-area-an-orphan-phenotype-with-potential-implications-for-female-spinal-health
#11
REVIEW
T A L Wren, S Ponrartana, V Gilsanz
A high priority in imaging-based research is the identification of the structural basis that confers greater risk for spinal disorders. New evidence indicates that factors related to sex influence the fetal development of the axial skeleton. Girls are born with smaller vertebral cross-sectional area compared to boys-a sexual dimorphism that is present throughout life and independent of body size. The smaller female vertebra is associated with greater flexibility of the spine that could represent the human adaptation to fetal load...
December 14, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974190/muscle-and-skeletal-health-in-children-and-adolescents-with-gh-deficiency
#12
REVIEW
Nicola Improda, Donatella Capalbo, Andrea Esposito, Mariacarolina Salerno
In addition to promoting linear growth, GH plays a key role in the regulation of bone and muscle development and metabolism. Although GH deficiency is frequently listed among the causes of secondary osteoporosis in children, its impact on bone and muscle health and on fracture risk is still not completely established. Current data suggest that childhood-onset GH deficiency can affect bone and muscle mass and strength, with GH replacement therapy exerting beneficial effects. Moreover, GH withdrawal at final height can result in reduced peak bone and muscle mass, potentially leading to increased fracture risk in adulthood...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960229/automated-telephone-communication-systems-for-preventive-healthcare-and-management-of-long-term-conditions
#13
REVIEW
Pawel Posadzki, Nikolaos Mastellos, Rebecca Ryan, Laura H Gunn, Lambert M Felix, Yannis Pappas, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Steven A Julious, Liming Xiang, Brian Oldenburg, Josip Car
BACKGROUND: Automated telephone communication systems (ATCS) can deliver voice messages and collect health-related information from patients using either their telephone's touch-tone keypad or voice recognition software. ATCS can supplement or replace telephone contact between health professionals and patients. There are four different types of ATCS: unidirectional (one-way, non-interactive voice communication), interactive voice response (IVR) systems, ATCS with additional functions such as access to an expert to request advice (ATCS Plus) and multimodal ATCS, where the calls are delivered as part of a multicomponent intervention...
14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895088/hormonal-alterations-in-pcos-and-its-influence-on-bone-metabolism
#14
REVIEW
Abhaya Krishnan, Sridhar Muthusami
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 4-8% of women worldwide. The prevalence of PCOS in Indian adolescents is 12.2% according to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The National Institute of Health has documented that it affects approximately 5 million women of reproductive age in the United States. Hormonal imbalance is the characteristic of many women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The influence of various endocrine changes in PCOS women and their relevance to bone remains to be documented...
February 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868152/effect-of-buffalo-casein-derived-novel-bioactive-peptides-on-osteoblast-differentiation
#15
Srinu Reddi, Venkatesa Perumal Shanmugam, Kemgang Sonfack Tanedjeu, Suman Kapila, Rajeev Kapila
PURPOSE: Epidemiological and intervention studies show that milk consumption in childhood and during adolescence is related to higher bone mineral density. Milk and milk products prevent the bone loss in pre- and postmenopausal women. Apart from calcium, there are other biologically active compounds in milk such as bioactive peptides which may play a role in promoting bone health. Casein is the major protein in milk which has also been reported to have numerous biological active peptides within it...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823735/long-term-health-issues-related-to-disorders-or-differences-in-sex-development-intersex
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer M Beale, Sarah M Creighton
DSD (Disorders or Differences in Sex Development) and Intersex are terms used to describe a diverse group of congenital conditions where the development of the reproductive system is different from what is usually expected. These conditions usually present at birth or adolescence and the health implications are wide ranging and often life-long. Given the complexity of many of the conditions, health care input when required should be provided by a multidisciplinary team who have appropriate expertise. Holistic care should include the consideration of the risk of cancer, prevention of osteoporosis, advice on hormones, sexual health and fertility options, and ongoing support in order to optimise quality of life and wellbeing...
December 2016: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789417/effects-of-sclerostin-antibodies-in-animal-models-of-osteoporosis
#17
Michael Stuart Ominsky, Rogely Waite Boyce, Xiaodong Li, Hua Zhu Ke
There is an unmet need for therapies that can restore bone strength and reduce fracture risk among patients at high risk of osteoporotic fracture. To address this need, bone-forming therapies that increase osteoblast activity are required to help restore bone structure and strength. Sclerostin is now recognized as a target for osteoporosis therapy. Sclerostin is predominantly secreted by the osteocyte and acts as an extracellular inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling by binding to the receptors lipoprotein receptor-related protein-4, 5 and 6...
October 24, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742529/association-of-gross-motor-function-classification-system-level-and-school-attendance-with-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy
#18
Ki Jin Jung, Soon-Sun Kwon, Chin Youb Chung, Kyoung Min Lee, Ki Hyuk Sung, Byung Chae Cho, Myoung Ki Chung, Seung Jun Moon, Jaeyoung Kim, Moon Seok Park
The present study aimed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to critically analyze the effects of a variety of factors, particularly the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities questionnaire, and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), on BMD. Fifty patients with CP who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were included. Collected data included the extent of involvement, muscle tone, demographic data, factors determined through chart review, and laboratory results...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730445/hiv-and-bone-complications-understudied-populations-and-new-management-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Michael T Yin, Todd T Brown
The higher risk of osteoporosis and fracture associated with HIV infection and certain antiretrovirals has been well established and the need for risk stratification among older adults increasingly recognized. This review focuses upon emerging data on bone complications with HIV/HCV coinfection, in children and adolescents, and with pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), as well as new management strategies to minimize the negative effects of ART on bone.
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669735/bone-densitometry-in-children-and-adolescents
#20
Laura K Bachrach, Catherine M Gordon
Concerns about bone health and potential fragility in children and adolescents have led to a high interest in bone densitometry. Pediatric patients with genetic and acquired chronic diseases, immobility, and inadequate nutrition may fail to achieve expected gains in bone size, mass, and strength, leaving them vulnerable to fracture. In older adults, bone densitometry has been shown to predict fracture risk and reflect response to therapy. The role of densitometry in the management of children at risk of bone fragility is less clear...
October 2016: Pediatrics
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