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Adolescent osteoporosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895088/hormonal-alterations-in-pcos-and-its-influence-on-bone-metabolism
#1
Abhaya Krishnan, Sridhar Muthusami
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 4-8% of women worldwide. The prevalence of PCOS in Indian adolescents is 12.2% according to ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) report. National Institute of Health documented that it affects approximately 5 million women of reproductive age in the United States . Hormonal imbalance is the characteristic of many women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. The impact of various endocrine changes in PCOS women and their relevance to bone remains to be documented...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868152/effect-of-buffalo-casein-derived-novel-bioactive-peptides-on-osteoblast-differentiation
#2
Srinu Reddi, Venkatesa Perumal Shanmugam, Kemgang Sonfack Tanedjeu, Suman Kapila, Rajeev Kapila
PURPOSE: Epidemiological and intervention studies show that milk consumption in childhood and during adolescence is related to higher bone mineral density. Milk and milk products prevent the bone loss in pre- and postmenopausal women. Apart from calcium, there are other biologically active compounds in milk such as bioactive peptides which may play a role in promoting bone health. Casein is the major protein in milk which has also been reported to have numerous biological active peptides within it...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823735/long-term-health-issues-related-to-disorders-or-differences-in-sex-development-intersex
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer M Beale, Sarah M Creighton
DSD (Disorders or Differences in Sex Development) and Intersex are terms used to describe a diverse group of congenital conditions where the development of the reproductive system is different from what is usually expected. These conditions usually present at birth or adolescence and the health implications are wide ranging and often life-long. Given the complexity of many of the conditions, health care input when required should be provided by a multidisciplinary team who have appropriate expertise. Holistic care should include the consideration of the risk of cancer, prevention of osteoporosis, advice on hormones, sexual health and fertility options, and ongoing support in order to optimise quality of life and wellbeing...
December 2016: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789417/effects-of-sclerostin-antibodies-in-animal-models-of-osteoporosis
#4
Michael Stuart Ominsky, Rogely Waite Boyce, Xiaodong Li, Hua Zhu Ke
There is an unmet need for therapies that can restore bone strength and reduce fracture risk among patients at high risk of osteoporotic fracture. To address this need, bone-forming therapies that increase osteoblast activity are required to help restore bone structure and strength. Sclerostin is now recognized as a target for osteoporosis therapy. Sclerostin is predominantly secreted by the osteocyte and acts as an extracellular inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling by binding to the receptors lipoprotein receptor-related protein-4, 5 and 6...
October 24, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742529/association-of-gross-motor-function-classification-system-level-and-school-attendance-with-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy
#5
Ki Jin Jung, Soon-Sun Kwon, Chin Youb Chung, Kyoung Min Lee, Ki Hyuk Sung, Byung Chae Cho, Myoung Ki Chung, Seung Jun Moon, Jaeyoung Kim, Moon Seok Park
The present study aimed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to critically analyze the effects of a variety of factors, particularly the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities questionnaire, and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), on BMD. Fifty patients with CP who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were included. Collected data included the extent of involvement, muscle tone, demographic data, factors determined through chart review, and laboratory results...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730445/hiv-and-bone-complications-understudied-populations-and-new-management-strategies
#6
REVIEW
Michael T Yin, Todd T Brown
The higher risk of osteoporosis and fracture associated with HIV infection and certain antiretrovirals has been well established and the need for risk stratification among older adults increasingly recognized. This review focuses upon emerging data on bone complications with HIV/HCV coinfection, in children and adolescents, and with pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), as well as new management strategies to minimize the negative effects of ART on bone.
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669735/bone-densitometry-in-children-and-adolescents
#7
Laura K Bachrach, Catherine M Gordon
Concerns about bone health and potential fragility in children and adolescents have led to a high interest in bone densitometry. Pediatric patients with genetic and acquired chronic diseases, immobility, and inadequate nutrition may fail to achieve expected gains in bone size, mass, and strength, leaving them vulnerable to fracture. In older adults, bone densitometry has been shown to predict fracture risk and reflect response to therapy. The role of densitometry in the management of children at risk of bone fragility is less clear...
September 26, 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640353/prevalence-of-vertebral-fractures-in-children-with-suspected-osteoporosis
#8
Andreas Kyriakou, Sheila Shepherd, Avril Mason, S Faisal Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: To explore the prevalence and anatomic distribution of vertebral fractures in disease groups investigated for primary and secondary osteoporosis, using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). STUDY DESIGN: VFA was performed independently by 2 nonradiologists, in 165 children (77 males, 88 females) as part of their investigation for osteoporosis. Vertebral bodies from T6 to L4 were assessed for vertebral fractures using the Genant scoring system. The common readings for the presence of vertebral fractures were used for evaluating the prevalence and anatomic distribution of vertebral fractures...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603884/-teenager
#9
Nelly Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M Altamirano-Bustamante
The bone mass peak is the maximum bone quantity to be achieved through bone modeling. About 40% of the total bone mass is achieved at puberty; therefore, adolescence is critical on the skeletal development. This paper is about the transfunctional analysis of nutrition, mineral metabolism, endocrinology and life style in adolescence. Core factors to achieve the maximum potential of bone modeling through puberty and prevent osteoporosis from a pediatric stage are addressed.
September 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579163/genetics-of-pediatric-bone-strength
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan A Mitchell, Diana L Cousminer, Babette S Zemel, Struan F A Grant, Alessandra Chesi
Osteoporosis is one of the most common chronic forms of disability in postmenopausal women and represents a major health burden around the world. Bone fragility is affected by bone mineral density (BMD), and, one of the most important factors in preventing osteoporosis is optimizing peak bone mass, which is achieved during growth in childhood and adolescence. BMD is a complex trait resulting from environmental and genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies have discovered robust genetic signals influencing BMD in adults, and similar studies have also been conducted to investigate the genetics of BMD in the pediatric setting...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556110/bone-mineralization-disorders-as-a-complication-of-anorexia-nervosa-etiology-prevalence-course-and-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Gabriela Wiesława Jagielska, Jerzy Przedlacki, Zbigniew Bartoszewicz, Ewa Racicka
Anorexia nervosa (AN) most often has its onset in adolescence, which is a crucial period to achieve peak bone mass. The hormonal abnormalities (hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, decreased secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor) and malnutrition are associated with profound bone mineralization disorders. Densitomertic bone mineral density (BMD) values for osteopenia and osteoporosis were found respectively in 35-98% and 13-50% of women with AN. Prospective studies indicate a further decline in BMD at the beginning of treatment and a crucial importance of weight gain and return of spontaneous menses for its growth...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553445/fractures-in-spina-bifida-from-childhood-to-young-adulthood
#12
A Trinh, P Wong, J Brown, S Hennel, P R Ebeling, P J Fuller, F Milat
: This study assessed the prevalence and types of fractures in spina bifida and examined risk factors for fracture. Fracture prevalence was highest in childhood and reduced in adolescence and young adulthood. The importance of maintaining mobility is highlighted by the increased risk of fracture in those who are non-ambulatory. INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study are to study the prevalence and types of fractures according to age group in spina bifida and examine risk factors associated with fracture...
August 24, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545902/nutritional-interventions-for-survivors-of-childhood-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer E Cohen, Claire E Wakefield, Richard J Cohn
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk of developing health conditions such as osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease than their peers. Health-promoting behaviour, such as consuming a healthy diet, could lessen the impact of these chronic issues, yet the prevalence rate of health-protecting behaviour amongst survivors of childhood cancer is similar to that of the general population. Targeted nutritional interventions may prevent or reduce the incidence of these chronic diseases...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489591/evaluation-of-bone-mineral-density-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-all-and-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-nhl-chemotherapy-with-without-radiotherapy
#14
Ali Ghassemi, Abdollah Banihashem, Nosrate Ghaemi, Saghi Elmi, Reza Erfani Sayyar, Sam Elmi, Habibollah Esmaeili
BACKGROUND: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are the most common malignancies in children and adolescents. Therapies such as corticosteroids, cytotoxic and radiotherapy will have harmful effect on bone mineral density (BMD) which can lead to increased possibility of osteoporosis and pathological fractures. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This 3-year cross-sectional study was performed in 50 children with ALL (n=25) and NHL (n=25) at Dr. Sheikh Children's Hospital in Mashhad...
July 1, 2016: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477003/atypical-femur-fracture-in-an-adolescent-boy-treated-with-bisphosphonates-for-x-linked-osteoporosis-based-on-pls3-mutation
#15
Denise M van de Laarschot, M Carola Zillikens
Long-term use of bisphosphonates has raised concerns about the association with Atypical Femur Fractures (AFFs) that have been reported mainly in postmenopausal women. We report a case of an 18-year-old patient with juvenile osteoporosis based on X-linked osteoporosis due to a PLS3 mutation who developed a low trauma femoral fracture after seven years of intravenous and two years of oral bisphosphonate use, fulfilling the revised ASBMR diagnostic criteria of an AFF. The occurrence of AFFs has not been described previously in children or adolescents...
October 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432852/the-female-athlete-triad
#16
Amanda K Weiss Kelly, Suzanne Hecht
The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease...
August 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393445/mini-review-prevalence-and-correlates-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-perspectives-from-pakistan
#17
REVIEW
Saeed Akhtar
Health outcomes of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are beyond rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, falls and fractures and have now touched the boundaries of CVD, diabetes and many types of cancer. Therefore, thinking of mere dependence on the sun to meet vitamin D requirements under the existing set of conditions is erroneous. Pakistan as a developing economy of South Asia and a region spanning latitude 24° 35' North and longitude 61° East to 78° East, gravely suffers from increased VDD among pregnant women, neonates, infants, children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly people despite its abundant sunshine...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384911/walking-activity-during-daily-living-in-children-with-myelomeningocele
#18
Pauline Yasmeh, Nicole M Mueske, Siamak Yasmeh, Deirdre D Ryan, Tishya A L Wren
PURPOSE: To quantify the walking activity of children with myelomeningocele during daily living. METHOD: Walking activity was measured using a StepWatch activity monitor over one week in 47 children with myelomeningocele (27 males; 9 years 11 months SD 2 years 7 months; 18 sacral, 9 low lumbar, 20 mid-high lumbar) and seven children with typical development (5 males; 11 years 1 month SD 1 year 11 months) in a prospective, cross-sectional study. Average total steps per day, number of steps and minutes spent at low, medium and high intensity stepping were evaluated...
July 6, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379824/a-subtrochanteric-femoral-stress-fracture-following-bisphosphonate-treatment-in-an-adolescent-girl
#19
Alison M Boyce, Michael T Collins, Laura L Tosi, Rachel I Gafni
Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures (AFFs) have emerged as a potential complication of bisphosphonate treatment in adults. Despite increasing off-label use of bisphosphonates in children and adolescents for a variety of skeletal disorders, there have been no reports of AFFs in children or adolescents outside of the osteogenesis imperfecta population. We present the case of a 16-year-old girl who developed a subtrochanteric femoral stress fracture following pamidronate treatment for idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis...
July 6, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378122/longitudinal-trajectories-of-television-watching-across-childhood-and-adolescence-predict-bone-mass-at-age-20-years-in-the-raine-study
#20
Joanne A McVeigh, Kun Zhu, Jenny Mountain, Craig E Pennell, Stephen J Lye, John P Walsh, Leon M Straker
Sedentary behaviors such as watching television (TV) are associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. The effects of TV watching during key developmental stages on skeletal health are uncertain. Hours of TV watching/week were recorded by parental or self-report at 5, 8, 10, 14, 17, and 20 years of age in 1181 members (48% female) of a pregnancy cohort (the Raine Study). Participants were classified into one of three TV-watching trajectories (using latent class analysis): low (consistently <14 h/week; 20...
July 4, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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