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Adolescent osteoporosis

Peter J Simm, Andrew Biggin, Margaret R Zacharin, Christine P Rodda, Elaine Tham, Aris Siafarikas, Craig Jefferies, Paul L Hofman, Diane E Jensen, Helen Woodhead, Justin Brown, Benjamin J Wheeler, Denise Brookes, Antony Lafferty, Craig F Munns
Bisphosphonate therapy is the mainstay of pharmacological intervention in young people with skeletal fragility. The evidence of its use in a variety of conditions remains limited despite over three decades of clinical experience. On behalf of the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, this evidence-based consensus guideline presents recommendations and discusses the graded evidence (using the GRADE system) for these recommendations. Primary bone fragility disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta are considered separately from osteoporosis secondary to other clinical conditions (such as cerebral palsy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy)...
March 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Citlalli Alvarez Zaragoza, Edgar Manuel Vasquez Garibay, Andrea A García Contreras, Alfredo Larrosa Haro, Enrique Romero Velarde, Alejandro Rea Rosas, José Luis Cabrales de Anda, Israel Vega Olea
This study demonstrated the relationship of low bone mineral density (BMD) with the degree of motor impairment, method of feeding, anthropometric indicators, and malnutrition in children with quadriplegic cerebral palsy (CP). The control of these factors could optimize adequate bone mineralization, avoid the risk of osteoporosis, and would improve the quality of life. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between low BMD and nutritional status in children with quadriplegic CP...
March 4, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
E Delvin, N Alos, F Rauch, V Marcil, S Morel, M Boisvert, M-A Lecours, C Laverdière, D Sinnett, M Krajinovic, J Dubois, S Drouin, G Lefebvre, M Samoilenko, C Nyalendo, E Cavalier, E Levy
BACKGROUND: The remarkable progress in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) has led to a survival rate reaching 90%. This success story is unfortunately linked to increased risk of impaired skeletal mass accumulation during childhood and adolescence, predisposing the patients to osteoporosis and pathological fractures at adulthood. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at characterizing the vitamin D status and bone health biomarkers in a well-characterized cohort of cALL survivors...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Elham Z Movassagh, Adam D G Baxter-Jones, Saija Kontulainen, Susan Whiting, Michael Szafron, Hassan Vatanparast
BACKGROUND: The amount of bone accrued during adolescence is an important determinant of later osteoporosis risk. Little is known about the influence of dietary patterns (DPs) on the bone during adolescence and their potential long-term implications into adulthood. We examined the role of adolescent DPs on adolescent and young adult bone and change in DPs from adolescence to young adulthood. METHODS: We recruited participants from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (1991-2011)...
February 28, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Rebekka Mumm, Elena Godina, Slawomir Koziel, Martin Musalek, Petr Sedlak, Ursula Wittwer-Backofen, Volker Hesse, Parasmani Dasgupta, Maciej Henneberg, Christiane Scheffler
Background: In our modern world, the way of life in nutritional and activity behaviour has changed. As a consequence, parallel trends of an epidemic of overweight and a decline in external skeletal robusticity are observed in children and adolescents. Aim: We aim to develop reference centiles for external skeletal robusticity of European girls and boys aged 0 to 18 years using the Frame Index as an indicator and identify population specific age-related patterns. Methods: We analysed cross-sectional & longitudinal data on body height and elbow breadth of boys and girls from Europe (0-18 years, n = 41...
February 20, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Masayuki Ohashi, Toru Hirano, Kei Watanabe, Keiichi Katsumi, Hirokazu Shoji, Tatsuki Mizouchi, Naoto Endo
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, long-term follow-up study. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the incidence and risk factors for osteopenia at a minimum of 20 years after spinal instrumented fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgically treated AIS patients may be likely to have osteopenia in adulthood because the association between AIS and osteopenia has been well documented. However, the long-term results of AIS surgery on BMD have not been evaluated...
March 2018: Spine Deformity
Amy C Beresheim, Susan K Pfeiffer, Marc D Grynpas, Amanda Alblas
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to provide bone histomorphometric reference data for South Africans of the Western Cape who likely dealt with health issues under the apartheid regime. METHODS: The 206 adult individuals (n female = 75,n male = 131, mean = 47.9 ± 15.8 years) from the Kirsten Skeletal Collection, U. Stellenbosch, lived in the Cape Town metropole from the late 1960s to the mid-1990s. To study age-related changes in cortical and trabecular bone microstructure, photomontages of mid-thoracic rib cross-sections were quantitatively examined...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Sardar M Z Uddin, Lisa S Robison, Dennis Fricke, Evan Chernoff, Michael Hadjiargyrou, Panayotis K Thanos, David E Komatsu
Methylphenidate (MP) is the most prescribed psychostimulant for ADHD patients, with clinically demonstrated detrimental effects on bone quality, potentially leading to early onset osteoporosis and higher fracture risk. The underlying mechanism for the effects of MP on bone remains elusive. This study demonstrates that sex- and dose-dependent effects of MP on bone quality and quantity are mediated by osteoclast activity. Four-week-old male and female rats were treated with low and high dose MP for 13 weeks. Bone quality and quantity were analyzed using microCT, mechanical testing, histomorphometry, and TRAP staining...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tania Winzenberg, Christel Lamberg-Allardt, Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan, Christian Mølgaard, Kun Zhu, Feitong Wu, Richard D Riley
INTRODUCTION: Our previous study-level (aggregate data) meta-analysis suggested that vitamin D supplements may be beneficial for bone density specifically in children with vitamin D deficiency. However, the misclassification of vitamin D status inherent in study-level data means that the results are not definitive and cannot provide an accurate assessment of the size of any effect. Therefore, we propose to undertake an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine whether the effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone density in children differs according to baseline vitamin D status, and to specifically estimate the effect of vitamin D in children who are vitamin D deficient...
January 23, 2018: BMJ Open
Wei-Wen Wu, Chieh-Yu Liu, Shiann-Tarng Jou, Giun-Yi Hung, Shu-Yuan Liang
Cancer during adolescence increases the risk for bone mass deficiency later in life. Adolescents with cancer must learn to improve their bone health to avoid osteoporosis. In the present cross-sectional study, we developed and tested scales to assess the bone health self-efficacy and beliefs of adolescents with cancer in Taiwan. Test development followed three stages: item generation and scale formatting, examination of content validity, and validation of psychometric properties with a sample of 100 adolescents with cancer...
January 8, 2018: Nursing & Health Sciences
Marta Rapún López, Hugo Olmedillas, Francisco Pradas de la Fuente, Alba Gómez-Cabello, Alejandro González-Agüero, José Antonio Casajús, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise is beneficial for the prevention of osteoporosis. Bone metabolism markers are the main indicators of metabolic balance and may indicate early risk in bone tissue. AIM: This systematic review aims to summarize and update present knowledge about bone metabolism markers in child and adolescent athletes. METHOD: Literature search was conducted up to March 2017 in PubMed and Sport Discus. A total of 19 studies (case-control, longitudinal and randomized control trials) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review...
November 16, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Amy S Ha, Johan Y Y Ng
Bone mineral accrual during puberty is important, especially in girls, because it is related to reduced risks of osteoporosis in adulthood. Previous research has shown that jumping or plyometric exercises may be effective in increasing bone mineral density in adolescents. Rope skipping is a form of activity that involves jumping, thus regular skipping may also increase bone mineral density in pubertal girls. To this end, we conducted a quasi-experimental to examine the effects of rope skipping on girls' bone mineral density and cardiovascular fitness...
2017: PloS One
Corina S Rueegg, Susi Kriemler, Simeon J Zuercher, Christina Schindera, Andrea Renner, Helge Hebestreit, Christian Meier, Prisca Eser, Nicolas X von der Weid
BACKGROUND: Beyond survival of nowadays >80%, modern childhood cancer treatment strives to preserve long-term health and quality of life. However, the majority of today's survivors suffer from short- and long-term adverse effects such as cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, obesity, osteoporosis, fatigue, depression, and reduced physical fitness and quality of life. Regular exercise can play a major role to mitigate or prevent such late-effects. Despite this, there are no data on the effects of regular exercise in childhood cancer survivors from randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
December 5, 2017: BMC Cancer
Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Suhad Bahijri, Anwar Borai, Zeyad AlRaddadi
BACKGROUND: Prevention of osteoporosis begins in childhood and adolescence, as most bone mass is accumulated during the first 2 decades of life, with 90% to 95% of an adult's bone mineral content being achieved by the end of adolescence. Therefore, targeting modifiable behaviors among adolescents has an important effect on attaining adequate peak bone mass and minimizing risks for future fractures. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of behaviors affecting bone health and vitamin D status and to identify factors associated with vitamin D deficiency among female Saudi adolescents...
January 2018: Nutrition
Tsutomu Akazawa, Toshiaki Kotani, Tsuyoshi Sakuma, Takehide Katogi, Shohei Minami, Hisateru Niki, Yoshiaki Torii, Shigeta Morioka, Sumihisa Orita, Kazuhide Inage, Kazuki Fujimoto, Yasuhiro Shiga, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Seiji Ohtori
Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Purpose: To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism ≥27 years after surgery in female patients who underwent spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) during adolescence and to determine their associations with physical performance. Overview of Literature: There are no studies investigating postsurgical BMD in middle-aged AIS patients. Methods: This study included 23 patients who provided informed consent among 229 female patients with AIS who underwent spinal fusion from 1968 until 1988...
October 2017: Asian Spine Journal
Xiao Zhai, Jin Cui, Jie Shao, Qijin Wang, Xiao Chen, Xianzhao Wei, Xiaoyi Zhou, Ziqiang Chen, Yushu Bai, Ming Li
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of ultrasound technology in the evaluation of spinal and paraspinal regions. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate trends in spinal ultrasound research from 1994 to 2015 and compare the contributions of such research from different countries and authors. STUDY DESIGN: Bibliometric analysis. SETTING: Publications related to spinal ultrasound from 1994 to 2015 were retrieved from the Web of Science database...
October 22, 2017: BMJ Open
Lívia Santos, Kirsty Jayne Elliott-Sale, Craig Sale
With ageing, bone tissue undergoes significant compositional, architectural and metabolic alterations potentially leading to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the most prevalent bone disorder, which is characterised by progressive bone weakening and an increased risk of fragility fractures. Although this metabolic disease is conventionally associated with ageing and menopause, the predisposing factors are thought to be established during childhood and adolescence. In light of this, exercise interventions implemented during maturation are likely to be highly beneficial as part of a long-term strategy to maximise peak bone mass and hence delay the onset of age- or menopause-related osteoporosis...
December 2017: Biogerontology
Ladan Zarshenas, Tala Keshavarz, Marzieh Momennasab, Nahid Zarifsanaiey
Given the limitations of traditional teaching methods in the learning process of adolescents, this study was designed to investigate the effects of osteoporosis prevention training through interactive multimedia method on the degree of knowledge and self-efficacy of female high school students. In this interventional study which was conducted in 2016 in Fars province, Iran, 120 high school students were selected through proportional stratified sampling from schools and different classes at first, second, third, and pre-university grades...
August 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
Jean V Craig, Diane K Bunn, Richard P Hayhoe, Will O Appleyard, Elizabeth A Lenaghan, Ailsa A Welch
An understanding of the modifiable effects of diet on bone and skeletal muscle mass and strength over the life course will help inform strategies to reduce age-related fracture risk. The Mediterranean diet is rich in nutrients that may be important for optimal musculoskeletal health. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the relationship between a Mediterranean diet and musculoskeletal outcomes (fracture, bone density, osteoporosis, sarcopenia) in any age group. Ten electronic databases were searched...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Klara Maratova, Ondrej Soucek, Jana Matyskova, Zdenek Hlavka, Lenka Petruzelkova, Barbora Obermannova, Stepanka Pruhova, Stanislava Kolouskova, Zdenek Sumnik
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia and osteoporosis are among the late complications of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in adults. Whether and to what extent musculoskeletal impairment is present in childhood and adolescence has yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to assess volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) and dynamic muscle function in adolescents with T1D and to assess the clinical and biochemical predictors of their musculoskeletal system. METHODS: Ninety-five children and adolescents (59 boys and 36 girls, mean age 16...
October 7, 2017: Bone
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