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Yao Fang, Hai Chen, Yi Hu, Qian Li, Zhiqiang Hu, Tengfei Ma, Xuhu Mao
BACKGROUND: Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is the causative agent of melioidosis, a kind of tropical disease. Burkholderia thailandensis (Bt), with a high sequence similarity to Bp, is thought to be an avirulent organism. Since there are numerous similarities between Bp and Bt, their differences in pathogenesis of host response and related mechanism are still undermined. In recent years, microRNAs have been researched in many diseases, but seldom involved in bacterial infection, bacteria-host interaction or explaining the differences between virulent and avirulent species...
November 28, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Pei-Tan Hsueh, Chiu-Lin Liu, Hsuan-Han Wang, Wei-Fan Ni, Ya-Lei Chen, Jong-Kang Liu
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of virulence factors of the soil-borne pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), B. thailandensis (Bt), B. cenocepacia (Bc) and B. multivorans (Bm) that cause septic melioidosis (often in Bp infections but rarely in Bt infections) or cepacia syndromes (commonly in Bc infections but rarely in Bm infections). The inflammatory responses in Burkholderia LPS-induced endotoxemia were evaluated in this study. Prior to an induction, the conserved structures and functions of each purified LPS were confirmed using electrophoretic phenotypes, the ratios of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic to 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid and the endotoxin units...
November 8, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Sravanthi Shastri, Helena L Spiewak, Aderonke Sofoluwe, Vigdis A Eidsvaag, Atif H Asghar, Tyrone Pereira, Edward H Bull, Aaron T Butt, Mark S Thomas
To elucidate the function of a gene in bacteria it is vital that targeted gene inactivation (allelic replacement) can be achieved. Allelic replacement is often carried out by disruption of the gene of interest by insertion of an antibiotic-resistance marker followed by subsequent transfer of the mutant allele to the genome of the host organism in place of the wild-type gene. However, due to their intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics only selected antibiotic-resistance markers can be used in members of the genus Burkholderia, including the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc)...
November 5, 2016: Plasmid
Sumet Wajanarogana, Kanyanan Kritsiriwuthinan
Melioidosis caused by gram negative bacteria, B. pseudomallei, is a fatal disease in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. However, sporadic cases have been reported in elsewhere. Early detection is imperative to reduce the mortality rate. Serological tests have being substantially developed using recombinant proteins as specific targeted antigens to melioidosis antibodies. In the present study, we focus on a truncated flagellin fragment (FLAG300) and outer membrane protein A (OmpABT) of B. thailandensis E264 as potential antigens for developing indirect ELISA to improve the serodiagnosis of melioidosis...
2016: SpringerPlus
Chinn-Woan Lowe, Benjamin A Satterfield, Daniel B Nelson, Joseph D Thiriot, Michael J Heder, Jordon K March, David S Drake, Cynthia S Lew, Annette J Bunnell, Emily S Moore, Kim L O'Neill, Richard A Robison
The Burkholderia pseudomallei complex classically consisted of B. mallei, B. pseudomallei, and B. thailandensis, but has now expanded to include B. oklahomensis, B. humptydooensis, and three unassigned Burkholderia clades. Methods for detecting and differentiating the B. pseudomallei complex has been the topic of recent research due to phenotypic and genotypic similarities of these species. B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are recognized as CDC Tier 1 select agents, and are the causative agents of glanders and melioidosis, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Liyuan Yang, Christopher H Dietrich, Yalin Zhang
The fauna of Thailand was previously known to include only a single species of Macropsini. Study of an extensive collection of recent Malaise trap samples from Thailand revealed the presence of five additional species of this leafhopper tribe, including two new species, Pediopsis thailandensis and Varicopsella odontoida spp. nov., described and illustrated herein; and three additional species, Macropsis hainanensis, P. rufoscutellata and V. elegans, previously recorded from neighboring countries. A key to genera and species of the Macropsini of Thailand is provided...
September 14, 2016: Zootaxa
Lu Chen, Zhe Zhao, Shuqiang Li
A new genus of the spider subfamily Coelotinae, Sinocoelotes gen. n., with nine new species, is described from Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces in southern China. The new species are: Sinocoelotes cangshanensis sp. n. (♀), Sinocoelotes hehuaensis sp. n. (♂♀), Sinocoelotes luoshuiensis sp. n. (♀), Sinocoelotes mangbangensis sp. n. (♀) from Yunnan; Sinocoelotes kangdingensis sp. n. (♀), Sinocoelotes ludingensis sp. n. (♂♀), Sinocoelotes mahuanggouensis sp. n. (♀), Sinocoelotes muliensis sp. n. (♀), and Sinocoelotes yanyuanensis sp...
2016: ZooKeys
Rafael Custódio, Christopher J McLean, Andrew E Scott, Jonathan Lowther, Amanda Kennedy, David J Clarke, Dominic J Campopiano, Mitali Sarkar-Tyson, Alan R Brown
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, plays a critical role in the orchestration of immune responses. S1P levels within the mammalian host are tightly regulated, in part through the activity of S1P lyase (S1PL) which catalyses its irreversible degradation. Herein we describe the identification and characterization of secreted S1PL orthologues encoded by the facultative intracellular bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia thailandensis. These bacterial orthologues exhibited S1PL enzymatic activity, functionally complemented an S1PL-deficient yeast strain, and conferred resistance to the antimicrobial sphingolipid D-erythro-sphingosine...
September 15, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Wirojne Kanoksilapatham, Patlada Pasomsup, Porranee Keawram, Alba Cuecas, Maria Carmen Portillo, Juan M Gonzalez
AbstractStrain FC2004T, a strictly anaerobic, extreme thermophilic heterotroph was isolated from a hot spring in Thailand. Typical cells of strain FC2004T are rod shaped (0.5 - 0.6 x 1.1 - 2.5 µm) with an outer membrane swelling out over an end. Filaments (10 - 30 µm-long) and membrane bound spheroids containing 2 cells inside (3 - 8 µm-diameter) were observed. Temperature range for growth was 60 to 88 oC (optimum temperature 78 - 80 oC), pH range was 6.5 to 8.5 (optimum pH 7.5), and the growth range for NaCl concentration was 0 to <5 g/L (optimum concentration 0...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Paweena Suksaard, Ratchanee Mingma, Nantana Srisuk, Atsuko Matsumoto, Yoko Takahashi, Kannika Duangmal
A polyphasic approach was carried out in order to verify the novel actinomycete, strain 1SM4-01T, status. Strain 1SM4-01T was isolated from mangrove sediment collected at Laemson National Park, Ranong Province, Thailand. Phylogenetic determination based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the organism was classified in the genus Nonomuraea and highly similar to Nonomuraea syzygii GKU 164T (98.7 % sequence similarity), Nonomuraea rhizophila YIM 67092T (98.4 %), Nonomuraea solani NEAU-Z6T (98.4 %), Nonomuraea monospora PT708T (98...
August 25, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Cornelia Blume, Jonathan David, Rachel E Bell, Jay R Laver, Robert C Read, Graeme C Clark, Donna E Davies, Emily J Swindle
The bronchial epithelium provides protection against pathogens from the inhaled environment through the formation of a highly-regulated barrier. In order to understand the pulmonary diseases melioidosis and tularemia caused by Burkholderia thailandensis and Fransicella tularensis, respectively, the barrier function of the human bronchial epithelium were analysed. Polarised 16HBE14o- or differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) were exposed to increasing multiplicities of infection (MOI) of B...
August 3, 2016: Pathogens
Erin C Garcia, Peggy A Cotter
Burkholderia thailandensis is a nonpathogenic Gram-negative bacterium found in tropical soils. Closely related to several human pathogens, its ease of genetic manipulation, rapid growth in the laboratory, and low virulence make B. thailandensis a commonly used model organism. This unit describes the fundamental protocols for in vitro growth and maintenance of B. thailandensis in the laboratory. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2016: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Manoranjan Sahoo, Louis Lantier, Fabio Re
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative flagellate bacterium that causes melioidosis, a disease endemic to Southeast Asia and other tropical regions. Following infection of macrophages and other non-phagocytic cell types, B. pseudomallei or B. thailandensis (a related species that causes disease in mice but not humans) are able to escape the phagosome and replicate in the host cell cytoplasm. Resistance to infection with Burkholderia is dependent on the Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 inflammasomes and the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome...
2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Stephanie S Lehman, Katherine M Mladinich, Angkana Boonyakanog, Takehiko Mima, RoxAnn R Karkhoff-Schweizer, Herbert P Schweizer
An obstacle for the development of genetic systems for many bacteria is the limited number of antibiotic selection markers, especially for bacteria that are intrinsically antibiotic resistant or where utilization of such markers is strictly regulated. Here we describe the development of versatile cassettes containing nourseothricin, streptomycin/spectinomycin, and spectinomycin selection markers. The antibiotic resistance genes contained on these cassettes are flanked by loxP sites with allow their in vivo excision from the chromosome of target bacteria using Cre recombinase...
October 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Erin P Price, Barbara MacHunter, Brian G Spratt, David M Wagner, Bart J Currie, Derek S Sarovich
The Burkholderiapseudomallei multilocus sequence typing (MLST) database ( contains the largest global sequence repository for B. pseudomallei and its closest genetic relatives. Using conventional MLST and in silico MLST data derived from publicly available whole-genome sequences, we first defined the phylogenetic relatedness of B. pseudomallei and its nearest neighbours. Based on this analysis, we propose that the recently described B. pseudomallei complex (Bpc) should be expanded to encompass B...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Adam M Nock, Matthew J Wargo
UNLABELLED: Burkholderia thailandensis is a soil-dwelling bacterium that shares many metabolic pathways with the ecologically similar, but evolutionarily distant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Among the diverse nutrients it can utilize is choline, metabolizable to the osmoprotectant glycine betaine and subsequently catabolized as a source of carbon and nitrogen, similar to P. aeruginosa Orthologs of genes in the choline catabolic pathway in these two bacteria showed distinct differences in gene arrangement as well as an additional orthologous transcriptional regulator in B...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Bethany K Okada, Yihan Wu, Dainan Mao, Leah B Bushin, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost
While bacterial genomes typically contain numerous secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters, only a small fraction of these are expressed at any given time. The remaining majority is inactive or silent, and methods that awaken them would greatly expand our repertoire of bioactive molecules. We recently devised a new approach for identifying inducers of silent gene clusters and proposed that the clinical antibiotic trimethoprim acted as a global activator of secondary metabolism in Burkholderia thailandensis...
August 19, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Erin C Garcia, Andrew I Perault, Sara A Marlatt, Peggy A Cotter
In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, cell-cell communication and recognition of self are critical to coordinate multicellular functions. Although kin and kind discrimination are increasingly appreciated to shape naturally occurring microbe populations, the underlying mechanisms that govern these interbacterial interactions are insufficiently understood. Here, we identify a mechanism of interbacterial signal transduction that is mediated by contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) system proteins. CDI systems have been characterized by their ability to deliver a polymorphic protein toxin into the cytoplasm of a neighboring bacterium, resulting in growth inhibition or death unless the recipient bacterium produces a corresponding immunity protein...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Juntaek Oh, Ingyu Hwang, Sangkee Rhee
In Burkholderia species, the production of oxalate, an acidic molecule, is a key event for bacterial growth in the stationary phase. Oxalate plays a central role in maintaining environmental pH, which counteracts inevitable population-collapsing alkaline toxicity in amino acid-based culture medium. In the phytopathogen Burkholderia glumae, two enzymes are responsible for oxalate production. First, the enzyme oxalate biosynthetic component A (ObcA) catalyzes the formation of a tetrahedral C6-CoA adduct from the substrates acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Charlotte Majerczyk, Emily Schneider, E Peter Greenberg
Burkholderia thailandensis uses acyl-homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing systems to regulate hundreds of genes. Here we show that cell-cell contact-dependent type VI secretion (T6S) toxin-immunity systems are among those activated by quorum sensing in B. thailandensis. We also demonstrate that T6S is required to constrain proliferation of quorum sensing mutants in colony cocultures of a BtaR1 quorum-sensing signal receptor mutant and its parent. However, the BtaR1 mutant is not constrained by and outcompetes its parent in broth coculture, presumably because no cell contact occurs and there is a metabolic cost associated with quorum sensing gene activation...
2016: ELife
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