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pericyte progenitor cell

M C Rusu, S Hostiuc, A D Vrapciu, L Mogoantă, V S Mănoiu, F Grigoriu
Telocytes (TCs) are morphologically defined as small-sized cells with long, thin, moniliform processes called telopodes (Tps). Numerous papers imply that TCs are a distinctive cell type, and that transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the gold standard tool for their identification. We aimed to reproduce previous studies on myocardial TCs to check their validity. For this purpose we performed an immunohistochemical study on human cardiac samples from six autopsied donor cadavers, using antibodies against CD10, CD31, CD34, CD146, Ki67, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor - alpha (PDGFRα) and laminin...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Chiara Cencioni, Sandra Atlante, Matteo Savoia, Fabio Martelli, Antonella Farsetti, Maurizio C Capogrossi, Andreas M Zeiher, Carlo Gaetano, Francesco Spallotta
Organ-specific mesenchymal cells naturally reside in the stroma, where they are exposed to some environmental variables affecting their biology and functions. Risk factors such as diabetes or aging influence their adaptive response. In these cases, permanent epigenetic modifications may be introduced in the cells with important consequences on their local homeostatic activity and therapeutic potential. Numerous results suggest that mesenchymal cells, virtually present in every organ, may contribute to tissue regeneration mostly by paracrine mechanisms...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sophie Guelfi, Hugues Duffau, Luc Bauchet, Bernard Rothhut, Jean-Philippe Hugnot
Glioblastomas are devastating and extensively vascularized brain tumors from which glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) have been isolated by many groups. These cells have a high tumorigenic potential and the capacity to generate heterogeneous phenotypes. There is growing evidence to support the possibility that these cells are derived from the accumulation of mutations in adult neural stem cells (NSCs) as well as in oligodendrocyte progenitors. It was recently reported that GSCs could transdifferentiate into endothelial-like and pericyte-like cells both in vitro and in vivo, notably under the influence of Notch and TGFβ signaling pathways...
2016: Stem Cells International
Lucas Eduardo Botelho de Souza, Tathiane Maistro Malta, Simone Kashima Haddad, Dimas Tadeu Covas
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were initially identified as progenitors of skeletal tissues within mammalian bone marrow and cells with similar properties were also obtained from other tissues such as adipose and dental pulp. Although MSC have been extensively investigated, their native behavior and in vivo identity remains poorly defined. Uncovering the in vivo identity of MSC has been challenging due to the lack of exclusive cell markers, cellular alterations caused by culture methods and extensive focus on in vitro properties for characterization...
October 5, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Ania Stefanska, Christopher Kenyon, Helen C Christian, Charlotte Buckley, Isaac Shaw, John J Mullins, Bruno Péault
Pericytes, perivascular cells embedded in the microvascular wall, are crucial for vascular homeostasis. These cells also play diverse roles in tissue development and regeneration as multi-lineage progenitors, immunomodulatory cells and as sources of trophic factors. Here, we establish that pericytes are renin producing cells in the human kidney. Renin was localized by immunohistochemistry in CD146 and NG2 expressing pericytes, surrounding juxtaglomerular and afferent arterioles. Similar to pericytes from other organs, CD146(+)CD34(-)CD45(-)CD56(-) renal fetal pericytes, sorted by flow cytometry, exhibited tri-lineage mesodermal differentiation potential in vitro...
September 24, 2016: Kidney International
Swati Mishra, Youngshik Choe, Samuel J Pleasure, Julie A Siegenthaler
Growth and maturation of the cerebrovasculature is a vital event in neocortical development however mechanisms that control cerebrovascular development remain poorly understood. Mutations in or deletions that include the FOXC1 gene are associated with congenital cerebrovascular anomalies and increased stroke risk in patients. Foxc1 mutant mice display severe cerebrovascular hemorrhage at late gestational ages. While these data demonstrate Foxc1 is required for cerebrovascular development, its broad expression in the brain vasculature combined with Foxc1 mutant's complex developmental defects have made it difficult to pinpoint its function(s)...
September 23, 2016: Developmental Biology
Kayoko Hosaka, Yunlong Yang, Takahiro Seki, Carina Fischer, Olivier Dubey, Erik Fredlund, Johan Hartman, Piotr Religa, Hiromasa Morikawa, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara, Ola Larsson, Giulio Cossu, Renhai Cao, Sharon Lim, Yihai Cao
Vascular pericytes, an important cellular component in the tumor microenvironment, are often associated with tumor vasculatures, and their functions in cancer invasion and metastasis are poorly understood. Here we show that PDGF-BB induces pericyte-fibroblast transition (PFT), which significantly contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrate that PDGF-BB-PDGFRβ signaling promotes PFT both in vitro and in in vivo tumors. Genome-wide expression analysis indicates that PDGF-BB-activated pericytes acquire mesenchymal progenitor features...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Luke Barron, Sina A Gharib, Jeremy S Duffield
Pericytes, resident fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stem cells are poorly described cell populations. They have recently been characterized in much greater detail in rodent lungs and have been shown to play important roles in development, homeostasis, response to injury and pathogens, as well as recovery from damage. These closely related mesenchymal cell populations form extensive connections to the lung's internal structure, as well as its internal and external surfaces. They generate and remodel extracellular matrix, coregulate the vasculature, help maintain and restore the epithelium, and act as sentries for the immune system...
October 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Qi Chen, Hui Zhang, Yang Liu, Susanne Adams, Hanna Eilken, Martin Stehling, Monica Corada, Elisabetta Dejana, Bin Zhou, Ralf H Adams
Mural cells of the vessel wall, namely pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, are essential for vascular integrity. The developmental sources of these cells and molecular mechanisms controlling their progenitors in the heart are only partially understood. Here we show that endocardial endothelial cells are progenitors of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in the murine embryonic heart. Endocardial cells undergo endothelial-mesenchymal transition and convert into primitive mesenchymal progenitors expressing the platelet-derived growth factor receptors, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ...
2016: Nature Communications
Elena Serena, Susi Zatti, Alice Zoso, Francesca Lo Verso, F Saverio Tedesco, Giulio Cossu, Nicola Elvassore
: : Restoration of the protein dystrophin on muscle membrane is the goal of many research lines aimed at curing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Results of ongoing preclinical and clinical trials suggest that partial restoration of dystrophin might be sufficient to significantly reduce muscle damage. Different myogenic progenitors are candidates for cell therapy of muscular dystrophies, but only satellite cells and pericytes have already entered clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from DMD patients, using a microengineered model...
August 8, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Jung Mo Kim, Ki-Sung Hong, Won Kyung Song, Daekyeong Bae, In-Kyu Hwang, Jong Soo Kim, Hyung-Min Chung
UNLABELLED: : Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working-age people. Pericyte loss is one of the pathologic cellular events in DR, which weakens the retinal microvessels. Damage to the microvascular networks is irreversible and permanent; thus further progression of DR is inevitable. In this study, we hypothesize that multipotent perivascular progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-PVPCs) improve the damaged retinal vasculature in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rodent models...
September 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Qing Cissy Yu, Wenqian Song, Daisong Wang, Yi Arial Zeng
Vascular growth and remodeling are dependent on the generation of new endothelial cells from stem cells and the involvement of perivascular cells to maintain vessel integrity and function. The existence and cellular identity of vascular endothelial stem cells (VESCs) remain unclear. The perivascular pericytes in adult tissues are thought to arise from the recruitment and differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors during early development. In this study, we identified Protein C receptor-expressing (Procr(+)) endothelial cells as VESCs in multiple tissues...
July 1, 2016: Cell Research
Jurjan Aman, Ester M Weijers, Geerten P van Nieuw Amerongen, Asrar B Malik, Victor W M van Hinsbergh
Despite considerable progress in the understanding of endothelial barrier regulation and the identification of approaches that have the potential to improve endothelial barrier function, no drug- or stem cell-based therapy is presently available to reverse the widespread vascular leak that is observed in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. The translational gap suggests a need to develop experimental approaches and tools that better mimic the complex environment of the microcirculation in which the vascular leak develops...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Dario R Lemos, Graham Marsh, Angela Huang, Gabriela Campanholle, Takahide Aburatani, Lan Dang, Ivan G Gomez, Ken Fisher, Giovanni Ligresti, Janos Peti-Peterdi, Jeremy S Duffield
Pericytes are tissue-resident mesenchymal progenitor cells anatomically associated with the vasculature, that have been shown to participate in tissue regeneration. Here we tested the hypothesis that kidney pericytes derived from FoxD1+ mesodermal progenitors during embryogenesis, are necessary for postnatal kidney homeostasis. Diphtheria toxin delivery to FoxD1Cre::RsDTR transgenic mice resulted in selective ablation of >90% of kidney pericytes but not other cell lineages. Abrupt increases in plasma creatinine, BUN and albuminuria within 96h indicated acute kidney injury in pericyte-ablated mice...
June 22, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Benedetto Sacchetti, Alessia Funari, Cristina Remoli, Giuseppe Giannicola, Gesine Kogler, Stefanie Liedtke, Giulio Cossu, Marta Serafini, Maurilio Sampaolesi, Enrico Tagliafico, Elena Tenedini, Isabella Saggio, Pamela G Robey, Mara Riminucci, Paolo Bianco
A widely shared view reads that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells ("MSCs") are ubiquitous in human connective tissues, can be defined by a common in vitro phenotype, share a skeletogenic potential as assessed by in vitro differentiation assays, and coincide with ubiquitous pericytes. Using stringent in vivo differentiation assays and transcriptome analysis, we show that human cell populations from different anatomical sources, regarded as "MSCs" based on these criteria and assumptions, actually differ widely in their transcriptomic signature and in vivo differentiation potential...
June 14, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Ana Pombero, Raquel Garcia-Lopez, Salvador Martinez
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as progenitor cells that give rise to a number of unique, differentiated mesenchymal cell types. This concept has progressively evolved towards an all-encompassing concept including multipotent perivascular cells of almost any tissue. In central nervous system, pericytes are involved in blood-brain barrier, and angiogenesis and vascular tone regulation. They form the neurovascular unit (NVU) together with endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons. This functional structure provides an optimal microenvironment for neural proliferation in the adult brain...
June 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Elisa Avolio, Paolo Madeddu
Microvascular pericytes and the more recently discovered adventitial pericyte-like progenitor cells are a subpopulation of vascular stem cells closely associated with small and large blood vessels respectively. These populations of perivascular cells are remarkably abundant in the heart. Pericytes control important physiological processes such as angiogenesis, blood flow and vascular permeability. In the heart, this pleiotropic activity makes pericytes extremely interesting for applications in regenerative medicine...
June 5, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
Paola Cipriani, Paola Di Benedetto, Piero Ruscitti, Vasiliki Liakouli, Onorina Berardicurti, Francesco Carubbi, Francesco Ciccia, Giuliana Guggino, Francesca Zazzeroni, Edoardo Alesse, Giovanni Triolo, Roberto Giacomelli
OBJECTIVE: Microvascular damage is pivotal in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), preceding fibrosis, and whose trigger is not still fully understood. Perivascular progenitor cells, with profibrotic activity and function, are identified by the expression of the isoform 12 of ADAM (ADAM12) and this molecule may be upregulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). The goal of this work was to evaluate whether pericytes in the skin of patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) expressed ADAM12, suggesting their potential contribution to the fibrotic process, and whether TGF-β might modulate this molecule...
July 2016: Journal of Rheumatology
Marina Costa, Rogério P Pirraco, Mariana T Cerqueira, Rui L Reis, Alexandra P Marques
The therapeutic efficacy of tissue-engineered constructs is often compromised by inadequate inosculation and neo-vascularization. This problem is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the field and finding a solution is currently the focus of a great fraction of the research community. Many of the methodologies designed to address this issue propose the use of endothelial cells and angiogenic growth factors, or combinations of both, to accelerate neo-vascularization after transplantation. However, an adequate solution is still elusive...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jingzhu Zhang, Daniel C Link
The targeting specificity of tissue-specific Cre-recombinase transgenes is a key to interpreting phenotypes associated with their use. The Ocn-Cre and Dmp1-Cre transgenes are widely used to target osteoblasts and osteocytes, respectively. Here, we used high-resolution microscopy of bone sections and flow cytometry to carefully define the targeting specificity of these transgenes. These transgenes were crossed with Cxcl12(gfp) mice to identify Cxcl12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, which are a perivascular mesenchymal stromal population implicated in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell maintenance...
May 30, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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