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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743549/human-cortex-spheroid-with-a-functional-blood-brain-barrier-for-high-throughput-neurotoxicity-screening-and-disease-modeling
#1
Goodwell Nzou, R T Wicks, E E Wicks, S A Seale, C H Sane, A Chen, S V Murphy, J D Jackson, A J Atala
The integral selectivity characteristic of the blood brain barrier (BBB) limits therapeutic options for many neurologic diseases and disorders. Currently, very little is known about the mechanisms that govern the dynamic nature of the BBB. Recent reports have focused on the development and application of human brain organoids developed from neuro-progenitor cells. While these models provide an excellent platform to study the effects of disease and genetic aberrances on brain development, they may not model the microvasculature and BBB of the adult human cortex...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736738/glioblastoma-niches-from-the-concept-to-the-phenotypical-reality
#2
Davide Schiffer, Marta Mellai, Enrica Bovio, Ilaria Bisogno, Cristina Casalone, Laura Annovazzi
Recently, the concept of niches as sites of tumor progression, invasion, and angiogenesis in glioblastoma (GB) has been extensively debated. Niches, considered the sites in which glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) reside, have been classified as perivascular, perinecrotic, and invasive. However, from a neuropathological point of view, it is not easy to establish when a tumor structure can be considered a niche. The relevant literature has been reviewed in the light of our recent experience on the subject. As for perinecrotic niches, the occurrence of GSCs around necrosis is interpreted as triggered by hypoxia through HIF-1α...
May 8, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680777/stromal-cells-telocytes-and-endothelial-progenitors-in-the-perivascular-niches-of-the-trigeminal-ganglion
#3
M C Rusu, V S Mănoiu, D Creţoiu, S M Creţoiu, A D Vrapciu
Stromal cells/telocytes (SCs/TCs) were recently described in the human adult trigeminal ganglion (TG). As some markers are equally expressed in SCs/TCs and endothelial cells, we hypothesized that a subset of the TG SCs/TCs is in fact represented by endothelial progenitor cells of a myelomonocytic origin. This study aimed to evaluate whether the interstitial cells of the human adult TG correlate with the myelomonocytic lineage. We used primary antibodies for c-erbB2/HER-2, CD31, nestin, CD10, CD117/c-kit, von Willebrand factor (vWF), CD34, Stro-1, CD146, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), CD68, VEGFR-2 and cytokeratin 7 (CK7)...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668670/exosomes-released-by-gastric-cancer-cells-induce-transition-of-pericytes-into-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#4
Xiaofei Ning, Hongran Zhang, Cong Wang, Xiuqi Song
BACKGROUND Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are functionally and structurally essential for tumor progression. There are 3 main origins of CAFs: mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transition cells, and tissue-resident cells. Pericytes retain characteristics of progenitor cells and can differentiate into other cells under normal physiological conditions and into myofibroblasts under pathological conditions. Exosomes play an important role in intercellular communication by transferring membrane components and nucleic acids between different cells...
April 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606893/first-in-man-intravenous-implantation-of-stromal-vascular-fraction-in-psoriasis-a-case-study
#5
Kristin Comella, Michelle Parlo, Rosemary Daly, Kellie Dominessy
Background: Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) is a mixture of adipose-derived stem cells/mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial/progenitors, pericytes, fibroblasts, and other cells obtained from fat tissue. A small sample of fat or adipose tissue can be obtained under local anesthesia using a cannula. After an enzymatic digestion and centrifugation, the adipocytes (fat cells) are removed to obtain an SVF. Here, we describe the rationale and, to our knowledge, the first clinical implementation of SVF intravenously in a patient with severe psoriasis...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536116/muscle-stem-progenitor-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-of-bone-marrow-origin-for-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-in-muscular-dystrophies
#6
REVIEW
Aleksandra Klimczak, Urszula Kozlowska, Maciej Kurpisz
Muscular dystrophies represent a group of diseases which may develop in several forms, and severity of the disease is usually associated with gene mutations. In skeletal muscle regeneration and in muscular dystrophies, both innate and adaptive immune responses are involved. The regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) of bone marrow origin was confirmed by the ability to differentiate into diverse tissues and by their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties by secretion of a variety of growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines...
March 13, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417261/the-ratio-of-adscs-to-hsc-progenitors-in-adipose-tissue-derived-svf-may-provide-the-key-to-predict-the-outcome-of-stem-cell-therapy
#7
Mehmet Okyay Kilinc, Antonio Santidrian, Ivelina Minev, Robert Toth, Dobrin Draganov, Duong Nguyen, Elliot Lander, Mark Berman, Boris Minev, Aladar A Szalay
BACKGROUND: Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) represents an attractive source of adult stem cells and progenitors, holding great promise for numerous cell therapy approaches. In 2017, it was reported that 1524 patients received autologous SVF following the enzymatic digestion of liposuction fat. The treatment was safe and effective and patients showed significant clinical improvement. In a collaborative study, we analyzed SVF obtained from 58 patients having degenerative, inflammatory, autoimmune diseases, and advanced stage cancer...
February 7, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402461/mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-as-potential-therapy-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#8
REVIEW
Agnese Fiori, Vincenzo Terlizzi, Heiner Kremer, Julian Gebauer, Hans-Peter Hammes, Martin C Harmsen, Karen Bieback
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a multifactorial microvascular disease induced by hyperglycemia and subsequent metabolic abnormalities. The resulting cell stress causes a sequela of events that ultimately can lead to severe vision impairment and blindness. The early stages are characterized by activation of glia and loss of pericytes, endothelial cells (EC) and neuronal cells. The integrity of the retinal microvasculature becomes affected, and, as a possible late response, macular edema may develop as a common reason for vision loss in patients with non-proliferative DR...
February 2, 2018: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388858/a-purification-technique-for-adipose-derived-stromal-cell-cultures-leads-to-a-more-regenerative-cell-population
#9
Renee F Conway, Kevin M Okarski, John A Szivek
It has been demonstrated that adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are a regenerative cell population with potential uses for bone and cartilage regeneration. However, the biomarker expression and heterogeneity of the population has not been thoroughly characterized. By analyzing biomarker expression, we aimed to understand the composition of ASC populations extracted using a common extraction technique in comparison to ASC populations given an additional purification step. Human adipose tissue samples were collected, and ASCs were extracted from these samples using a common, published extraction technique (primary extraction)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335243/nephronectin-regulates-mesangial-cell-adhesion-and-behavior-in-glomeruli
#10
Susan E Zimmerman, Chitkale Hiremath, Jun Tsunezumi, Zhufeng Yang, Bronwyn Finney, Denise K Marciano
A critical aspect of kidney function occurs at the glomerulus, the capillary network that filters the blood. The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a key component of filtration, yet our understanding of GBM interactions with mesangial cells, specialized pericytes that provide structural stability to glomeruli, is limited. We investigated the role of nephronectin ( Npnt ), a GBM component and known ligand of α 8 β 1 integrin. Immunolocalization and in situ hybridization studies in kidneys of adult mice revealed that nephronectin is produced by podocytes and deposited into the GBM...
April 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310805/basic-components-of-vascular-connective-tissue-and-extracellular-matrix
#11
Jaroslava Halper
Though the composition of the three layers constituting the blood vessel wall varies among the different types of blood vessels, and some layers may even be missing in capillaries, certain basic components, and properties are shared by all blood vessels, though each histologically distinct layer contains a unique complement of extracellular components, growth factors and cytokines, and cell types as well. The structure and composition of vessel layers informs and is informed by the function of the particular blood vessel...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279310/proliferating-ng2-cell-dependent-angiogenesis-and-scar-formation-alter-axon-growth-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#12
Zoe C Hesp, Rim Y Yoseph, Ryusuke Suzuki, Peter Jukkola, Claire Wilson, Akiko Nishiyama, Dana M McTigue
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a centralized fibrotic scar surrounded by a reactive glial scar at the lesion site. The origin of these scars is thought to be perivascular cells entering lesions on ingrowing blood vessels and reactive astrocytes, respectively. However, two NG2-expressing cell populations, pericytes and glia, may also influence scar formation. In the periphery, new blood vessel growth requires proliferating NG2+ pericytes; if this were also true in the CNS, then the fibrotic scar would depend on dividing NG2+ pericytes...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274061/tgf%C3%AE-signaling-reinforces-pericyte-properties-of-the-non-endocrine-mouse-pituitary-cell-line-ttt-gf
#13
Takehiro Tsukada, Saishu Yoshida, Keiji Kito, Ken Fujiwara, Hideji Yako, Kotaro Horiguchi, Yukinobu Isowa, Takashi Yashiro, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
The non-endocrine TtT/GF mouse pituitary cell line was derived from radiothyroidectomy-induced pituitary adenoma. In addition to morphological characteristics, because the cells are S100β-positive, they have been accepted as a model of folliculostellate cells. However, our recent microarray analysis indicated that, in contrast to folliculostellate cells, TtT/GF cells might not be terminally differentiated, as they share some properties with stem/progenitor cells, vascular endothelial cells and pericytes. The present study investigates whether transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) can elicit further differentiation of these cells...
February 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125884/comparative-characterization-of-cd271-and-cd271-subpopulations-of-cd34-human-adipose-derived-stromal-cells
#14
Liziane R Beckenkamp, Lucas E B Souza, Fernanda U F Melo, Carolina H Thomé, Daniele A R Magalhães, Patrícia V B Palma, Dimas T Covas
Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are promising candidates for cell-based therapies. However, the lack of markers able to unequivocally identify these cells, the differential expression of cell surface molecules among stromal progenitors from different tissues and cellular alterations caused by culture are phenomena that need to be comprehensively addressed in order to improve ASC purification and consequently refine our knowledge about their function and therapeutic efficiency. In this study, we investigated the potential of CD271, a marker used for purification of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, on enriching ASCs from CD34+ stromal cells of human adipose tissue...
May 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089925/advances-in-understanding-of-structural-reorganization-in-the-hypothalamic-neurosecretory-system
#15
REVIEW
Seiji Miyata
The hypothalamic neurosecretory system synthesizes neuropeptides in hypothalamic nuclei and releases them from axonal terminals into the circulation in the neurohypophysis (NH) and median eminence (ME). This system plays a crucial role in regulating body fluid homeostasis and social behaviors as well as reproduction, growth, metabolism, and stress responses, and activity-dependent structural reorganization has been reported. Current knowledge on dynamic structural reorganization in the NH and ME, in which the axonal terminals of neurosecretory neurons directly contact the basement membrane (BM) of a fenestrated vasculature, is discussed herein...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081809/astrocytes-at-the-hub-of-the-stress-response-potential-modulation-of-neurogenesis-by-mirnas-in-astrocyte-derived-exosomes
#16
REVIEW
Alejandro Luarte, Pablo Cisternas, Ariel Caviedes, Luis Federico Batiz, Carlos Lafourcade, Ursula Wyneken, Roberto Henzi
Repetitive stress negatively affects several brain functions and neuronal networks. Moreover, adult neurogenesis is consistently impaired in chronic stress models and in associated human diseases such as unipolar depression and bipolar disorder, while it is restored by effective antidepressant treatments. The adult neurogenic niche contains neural progenitor cells in addition to amplifying progenitors, neuroblasts, immature and mature neurons, pericytes, astrocytes, and microglial cells. Because of their particular and crucial position, with their end feet enwrapping endothelial cells and their close communication with the cells of the niche, astrocytes might constitute a nodal point to bridge or transduce systemic stress signals from peripheral blood, such as glucocorticoids, to the cells involved in the neurogenic process...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079730/engineering-of-an-angiogenic-niche-by-perfusion-culture-of-adipose-derived-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells
#17
Giulia Cerino, Emanuele Gaudiello, Manuele Giuseppe Muraro, Friedrich Eckstein, Ivan Martin, Arnaud Scherberich, Anna Marsano
In vitro recapitulation of an organotypic stromal environment, enabling efficient angiogenesis, is crucial to investigate and possibly improve vascularization in regenerative medicine. Our study aims at engineering the complexity of a vascular milieu including multiple cell-types, a stromal extracellular matrix (ECM), and molecular signals. For this purpose, the human adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF), composed of a heterogeneous mix of pericytes, endothelial/stromal progenitor cells, was cultured under direct perfusion flow on three-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffolds...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038672/safety-analysis-of-autologous-stem-cell-therapy-in-a-variety-of-degenerative-diseases-and-injuries-using-the-stromal-vascular-fraction
#18
Kristin Comella, Michelle Parlo, Rosemary Daly, Vincent Depasquale, Eric Edgerton, Patrick Mallory, Roy Schmidt, Walter P Drake
BACKGROUND: Stem cells from adipose tissue offer a novel therapy for patients with damaged tissue. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) injected into patients may reduce inflammation, promote healing, and repair damaged/scarred tissue. SVF can be isolated from fat (adipose) tissue in an outpatient procedure. The SVF population includes mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), pericytes, endothelial/progenitor cells, fibroblasts and growth factors where the adipocyte (fat cell) population has been removed...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022261/the-non-cardiomyocyte-cells-of-the-heart-their-possible-roles-in-exercise-induced-cardiac-regeneration-and-remodeling
#19
Ivan Varga, Jan Kyselovič, Paulina Galfiova, Lubos Danisovic
The non-cardiomyocyte cellular microenvironment of the heart includes diverse types of cells of mesenchymal origin. During development, the majority of these cells derive from the epicardium, while a subset derives from the endothelium/endocardium and neural crest derived mesenchyme. This subset includes cardiac fibroblasts and telocytes, the latter of which are a controversial type of "connecting cell" that support resident cardiac progenitors in the postnatal heart. Smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and endothelial cells are also present, in addition to adipocytes, which accumulate as epicardial adipose connective tissue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989053/pdgfs-and-their-receptors-in-vascular-stem-progenitor-cells-functions-and-therapeutic-potential-in-retinal-vasculopathy
#20
REVIEW
Weisi Lu, Xuri Li
Vascular stem/progenitor cells (VSCs) include endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and mesenchymal stem cells. VSCs can produce functional and mature vascular cells required to build blood vessels. VSCs therefore play critical roles in vascular repair and regeneration, particularly, in various retinal vasculopathies, in which vascular defects are a devastating pathology. The platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) are important regulators of numerous physiological events and diseases, and they play key roles in regulating the formation and function of blood vessels...
October 6, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
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