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Diagnostic radio isotopes

Giulia Anna Follacchio, Maria Silvia De Feo, Francesco Monteleone, Giuseppe De Vincentis, Mauro Liberatore
Positron emission tomography (PET) is an instrumental diagnostic modality based on the representation (by images or numeric parameters) of the spatial and temporal distribution of molecules labelled with positron-emitting radionuclides. PET makes it possible to study biochemical processes underlying the function of several organs, providing information otherwise achievable only with bioptic assessment. PET has been developed around the positron-emitting radioisotopes of biologically important elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen (11C, 15O, 13N), which enable PET imaging to identify the biodistribution of a wide range of small molecules...
December 11, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
M Fontana, D Dauvergne, J M Létang, J-L Ley, É Testa
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is at present one of the major techniques for non-invasive diagnostics in nuclear medicine. The clinical routine is mostly based on collimated cameras, originally proposed by Hal Anger. Due to the presence of mechanical collimation, detection efficiency and energy acceptance are limited and fixed by the system's geometrical features. In order to overcome these limitations, the application of Compton cameras for SPECT has been investigated for several years...
November 9, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Nicholas M Donin, Robert E Reiter
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed on prostate adenocarcinomas, exhibits only limited expression in benign and extraprostatic tissues, and thus represents an ideal target for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Since its discovery over 30 y ago, significant effort has been made to develop clinical technology targeting PSMA. The last 5 y have seen an explosion of development of new agents targeting PSMA for diagnostic and therapeutic use...
February 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Tomasz Bednarczuk, Marek Bolanowski, Anna Zemczak, Agata Bałdys-Waligórska, Jolanta Blicharz-Dorniak, Agnieszka Boratyn-Nowicka, Małgorzata Borowska, Andrzej Cichocki, Jarosław B Ćwikła, Massimo Falconi, Wanda Foltyn, Daria Handkiewicz-Junak, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Barbara Jarząb, Roman Junik, Dariusz Kajdaniuk, Grzegorz Kamiński, Agnieszka Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Aldona Kowalska, Robert Król, Leszek Królicki, Jolanta Kunikowska, Katarzyna Kuśnierz, Paweł Lampe, Dariusz Lange, Anna Lewczuk-Myślicka, Andrzej Lewiński, Michał Lipiński, Magdalena Londzin-Olesik, Bogdan Marek, Anna Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Ewa Nowakowska-Duława, Jakub Pałucki, Joanna Pilch-Kowalczyk, Violetta Rosiek, Marek Ruchała, Lucyna Siemińska, Anna Sowa-Staszczak, Teresa Starzyńska, Katarzyna Steinhof-Radwańska, Janusz Strzelczyk, Krzysztof Sworczak, Anhelli Syrenicz, Andrzej Szawłowski, Marek Szczepkowski, Ewa Wachuła, Wojciech Zajęcki, Wojciech Zgliczyński, Beata Kos-Kudła
This study presents the revised Polish guidelines regarding the management of patients suffering from neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the small intestine and appendix. The small intestine, especially the ileum, is the most common location for these neoplasms. Most are well differentiated and slow growing. Their symptoms may be atypical, which can result in delayed or accidental diagnosis. Appendicitis is usually the first manifestation of NEN in this location. Typical symptoms of carcinoid syndrome occur in approximately 20-30% of patients suffering from small intestinal NENs with distant metastases...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
Philippe Delahaut
Polyclonal antibodies are frequently used as immunodiagnostic tools in fundamental research. They are also used for routine diagnostic purposes in human and veterinary medicine and for quality control procedures in the food-processing industry. The antibody is a major component of the detection system. It binds with the molecule to be identified. This conjugate is subsequently revealed by means of binding the antibody with a radio-isotope, a fluorescent substance, an enzyme inducing a color change, or a biosensor based analytical system...
March 1, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
P Santhanam, H K Driscoll, P Venkatraman
OBJECTIVE: Diagnostic whole body scan (pre-therapy scan) with either I-123 or I-131 (radioactive isotopes of iodine) is performed to assess the extent of thyroid cancer especially distant metastasis prior to administering the therapeutic dose of I-131. Our aim of the following study was to determine the utility of the diagnostic pre-therapy scan in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a case-control study carried out by retrospective chart review, of a randomly selected 100 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who had followed in our community hospital over the course of 1 year...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
Kiryu K Yap, Susan J Neuhaus
Dyes share an intricate relationship with oncology. Dyes can cause cancer as chemical carcinogens, but can also be harnessed against cancer when used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Histopathology, imaging, and newer molecular diagnostics all rely on dyes, and their use in sentinel lymph node biopsies and intra-operative imaging has helped drive a paradigm shift in cancer surgery towards minimally-invasive and organ sparing approaches with enhanced resection accuracy. As therapeutic agents, the cytotoxicity of specific dyes can be employed in direct chemo-ablation or in photodynamic therapy...
March 2016: Surgical Oncology
Killian Oukoloff, Monika Cieslikiewicz-Bouet, Sovy Chao, Emilie Da Costa Branquinho, Cedric Bouteiller, Ludovic Jean, Pierre-Yves Renard
The two main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the brain are senile plaques (SPs) composed of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. These hallmarks are associated with a cholinergic deficit. While the process leading to the development of AD is complex and multifactorial, and the etiology of AD is not completely known, it is nowadays clear that AD is a multifaceted illness requiring the combination of synergetic treatment strategies...
2015: Current Medicinal Chemistry
F Tellier, P Poulet, J P Ghnassia, M Wilt, D Weitbruch, J F Rodier
The present study presents a novel near-infrared optical probe for the sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in breast cancer patients, based on the recording of scattered photons. The aim of this study was to improve the detection of patent blue V (PBV), a dye routinely injected during clinical practice. A combined injection of the dye and radioactive colloid was used in the 24 patients enrolled in the study. The clinical results of the ex vivo detection of 70 dye-marked SLNs are reported, subsequent to the injection of various quantities of PBV (0...
January 2013: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Anna-Karin Haylock, Diana Spiegelberg, Johan Nilvebrant, Karl Sandström, Marika Nestor
BACKGROUND: Patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region (HNSCC) offer a diagnostic challenge due to difficulties to detect small tumours and metastases. Imaging methods available are not sufficient, and radio-immunodiagnostics could increase specificity and sensitivity of diagnostics. The objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the in vivo properties of the radiolabelled CD44v6-targeting fragment AbD15179 and to assess its utility as a targeting agent for radio-immunodiagnostics of CD44v6-expressing tumours...
2014: EJNMMI Research
Zachary S Hartwig, Harold S Barnard, Richard C Lanza, Brandon N Sorbom, Peter W Stahle, Dennis G Whyte
This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces...
December 2013: Review of Scientific Instruments
Erik de Blois, Ho Sze Chan, Wouter A P Breeman
For iodination ((125/127)I) of tyrosine-containing peptides, chloramin-T, Pre-Coated Iodo-Gen(®) tubes and Iodo-Beads(®) (Pierce) are commonly used for in vitro radioligand investigations and there have been reliant vendors hereof for decades. However, commercial availability of these radio-iodinated peptides is decreasing. For continuation of our research in this field we investigated and optimized (radio-)iodination of somatostatin analogues. In literature, radioiodination using here described somatostatin analogues and iodination techniques are described separately...
2012: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Jun-jie Li, Marlein Miranda Cona, Yuan-bo Feng, Feng Chen, Guo-zhi Zhang, Xue-bin Fu, Uwe Himmelreich, Raymond Oyen, Alfons Verbruggen, Yi-cheng Ni
AIM: Hypericin (Hyp) and its radio-derivatives have been investigated in animal models with ischemic heart diseases and malignancies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Before radioiodinated Hyp ((123)I-Hyp or (131)I-Hyp) can be considered as a clinically useful drug, vigorous evaluations on its chemotoxicity are necessary. In the present study, we examined the toxicity of a single dose of non-radioactive (127)I-Hyp in normal mice for 24 h and 14 d. METHODS: Studies were performed on 132 normal mice...
December 2012: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Lennard Lee, Wei Lin Sung, Mohammed Majid Akhtar, Martin Whyte
A 63-year-old lady presented with suprapelvic pain, weight loss and night sweats. On examination, she was noted to be hypertensive with a distended abdomen. Imaging (CT) revealed a 9.5 cm retroperitoneal mass with a high degree of vascularity and necrotic centre. The patient's urinary and plasma catecholamines were significantly raised and subsequent radio-isotope scan suggested the tumour was likely to be of a neuroendocrine nature. A diagnosis of a malignant paraganglioma was made. Malignant paragangliomas derive from sympathetic tissue and secrete catecholamines...
2012: BMJ Case Reports
Ramamoorthy Ravichandran, Jp Binukumar
International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA) provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the long-term stability of isotope calibrators used in nuclear medicine is to be checked periodically for their performance using a long-lived check source, such as Cs-137, of suitable activity...
January 2011: Journal of Medical Physics
Anil Modak
Labeled (stable and radio) isotope compounds ((2)H, (3)H, (14)C, (13)C, (15)N) have been widely used as diagnostic probes in research laboratories for over 30 years in the fields of gastroenterology, hepatology, oncology, and nutrition, as well as pharmacokinetic studies in the development of drugs. (13)C stable isotope diagnostic probes are now being expanded in their scope, to provide precise evaluations of the presence or absence of etiologically significant changes in metabolism due to a specific disease or the lack of a specific enzyme...
December 2009: Journal of Breath Research
Katalin Kovács, Lívia Anna, Péter Rudnai, Bernadette Schoket
Bulky DNA adducts are widely used as biomarkers of human exposure to complex mixtures of environmental genotoxicants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The 32P-postlabelling method is highly sensitive for the detection of bulky DNA adducts, but its relatively low throughput poses limits to its use in large-scale molecular epidemiological studies. The objectives of this study were to compare the impact of DNA-sample preparation with a commercial DNA-isolation kit or with the classical phenol-extraction procedure on the measurement of bulky DNA adducts by 32P-postlabelling, and to increase the throughput of the 32P-postlabelling method--whilst maintaining radio-safety--by reducing the radioisotope requirement per sample...
March 18, 2011: Mutation Research
D E Cooper, R U Martinelli, C B Carlisle, H Riris, D B Bour, R J Menna
We have observed some of the absorption lines from the molecules (12)CO(2) and (13)CO(2)in the 1.6-µm spectral region with the use of specially fabricated single-mode InGaAsP distributed-feedback semiconductor diode lasers. Using a 23.6-m-long multipass absorption cell in combination with radio-frequency modulation and detection techniques, we measured the (12)CO(2):(13)CO(2) isotopic ratio of two specific lines at 6253.73 and 6253.90 cm(-1) with sufficient precision for diagnostic medical tests that analyze CO(2) on human breath...
November 20, 1993: Applied Optics
Joeri Kuil, Aldrik H Velders, Fijs W B van Leeuwen
The use of monolabeled tumor-targeting peptides for molecular imaging is widespread. However, it is often desirable to use the same compound for different clinical applications, e.g., combined pre- and intraoperative tumor detection. On the basis of their detection sensitivity, the combination of radioactivity and fluorescence is probably the most valuable in multimodal molecular imaging. In this review, we compare multimodal peptide derivatives and discuss the influence of the diagnostic labels on receptor affinity and biodistribution...
October 20, 2010: Bioconjugate Chemistry
R A Parker, B M Bladon, T D H Parkin, B S L Fraser
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Increased radio-isotope uptake (IRU) in the subchondral bone of the plantaro-lateral condyle of the third metatarsus (MTIII) is a commonly reported scintigraphic finding and potential cause of lameness in UK Thoroughbred racehorses in training and has not been fully documented. OBJECTIVES: To characterise lameness attributable to IRU of the subchondral bone of MTIII, compare the scintigraphic findings of these horses with a normal population and evaluate the use of scintigraphy as an indicator of prognosis...
September 2010: Equine Veterinary Journal
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