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Martin J Fisher, Lindsay McMurray, Shuiyu Lu, Cheryl L Morse, Jeih-San Liow, Sami S Zoghbi, Aneta Kowalski, Geroge L Tye, Robert B Innis, Franklin I Aigbirhio, Victor W Pike
Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) may play a critical role in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders associated with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. An effective PET radioligand for imaging cPLA2α in living brain might prove useful for biomedical research, especially on neuroinflammation. We selected four high-affinity (IC50 2.1 to 12 nM) indole-5-carboxylic acid-based inhibitors of cPLA2α (1-4), for labelling in carboxyl position with carbon-11 (t1/2 = 20.4 min) to provide candidate PET radioligands for imaging brain cPLA2α...
December 12, 2017: ChemMedChem
Michael W Hornung, Joseph J Korte, Jennifer H Olker, Jeffrey S Denny, Carsten Knutsen, Phillip C Hartig, Mary C Cardon, Sigmund J Degitz
Thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis is dependent upon coordination of multiple key events including iodide uptake, hormone synthesis, metabolism and elimination, to maintain proper TH signaling. Deiodinase enzymes catalyze iodide release from THs to interconvert THs between active and inactive forms, and are integral to hormone metabolism. The activity of deiodinases has been identified as an important endpoint to include in the context of screening chemicals for thyroid hormone disruption. To begin to address the potential for chemicals to inhibit these enzymes an adenovirus expression system was used to produce human deiodinase type 1 (DIO1) enzyme, established robust assay parameters for non-radioactive determination of iodide release by the Sandell-Kolthoff method, and employed a 96-well plate format for screening chemical libraries...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Israel Nutifafa Yawo Doyi, David Kofi Essumang, Asare Kwaku Agyapong, Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie
Soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is widely used to assess the impact of soil radioactivity on agricultural crops. The root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) provides 30%-50% of the calories consumed in Sub-Saharan Africa and is widely used in South America. γ-ray analysis was used to measure activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in cassava root and soil. The TF values for 238U, 232Th, and 40K were in the range 0.06-0.12, 0.01-0.10 and 0.04-0.28 respectively. The median transfer factors were 0.10 (238U), 0...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Lukas Nics, Britta Steiner, Eva-Maria Klebermass, Cecile Philippe, Markus Mitterhauser, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak
INTRODUCTION: The decision whether an in-house produced short-lived radiopharmaceutical can be applied in-vivo is based on (1) the fulfilment of all quality criteria; (2) the availability of enough radioactivity for subsequent imaging; and (3) a molar activity (MA) above the set limits to guarantee safe administration without competing occupancy of the non-radioactive compound; and (4) an activity concentration, which is high enough for the application in certain preclinical studies. Hence, time reduction can be of major importance to increase final product yields, MA and activity concentrations...
November 21, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Satoshi Nakamura, Shoji Imamichi, Kazuyoshi Masumoto, Masashi Ito, Akihisa Wakita, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Shie Nishioka, Kotaro Iijima, Kazuma Kobayashi, Yoshihisa Abe, Hiroshi Igaki, Kazuyoshi Kurita, Teiji Nishio, Mitsuko Masutani, Jun Itami
This study aimed to evaluate the residual radioactivity in mice induced by neutron irradiation with an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) system using a solid Li target. The radionuclides and their activities were evaluated using a high-purity germanium (HP-Ge) detector. The saturated radioactivity of the irradiated mouse was estimated to assess the radiation protection needs for using the accelerator-based BNCT system. 24Na, 38Cl, 80mBr, 82Br, 56Mn, and 42K were identified, and their saturated radioactivities were (1...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Hongjun Jin, Junbin Han, Derek Resing, Hui Liu, Xuyi Yue, Rebecca L Miller, Kathleen M Schoch, Timothy M Miller, Joel S Perlmutter, Terrance M Egan, Zhude Tu
The purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 7 (P2×7 receptor) is a promising imaging target to detect neuroinflammation. Herein, we report development of a potent iodinated labeled radiotracer for P2×7 receptor, [123I]TZ6019. The radiosynthesis of [123I]TZ6019 was accomplished by allylic-tin precursor iodination using [123I]NaI with good radiochemical yield of 85% and high radiochemical purity of > 99%. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cell line stably transfected with the human P2×7 receptor was used to characterize the binding affinity of TZ6019 in fluorescence, radioactive competitive, and saturation binding assays...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Taru Bhattacharya, V Madhavi Shankar, B Ram Mohan Reddy, S Thangavel, P K Sharma
The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and corresponding dose rates over atomic mineral occurrences of Dharmapuri shear zone in parts of Salem, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, and Vellore districts of Tamilnadu, India. In this paper, area-wise ternary diagrams of Ra, Th and K were plotted to study their relative concentration in the samples. Correlation study was also carried out to delineate the contribution of individual radionuclides toward the measured gamma dose rate...
December 7, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Vladimir Stepanov, Akihiro Takano, Ryuji Nakao, Nahid Amini, Shotaro Miura, Tomoaki Hasui, Haruhide Kimura, Takahiko Taniguchi, Christer Halldin
INTRODUCTION: Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a member of the PDE enzyme family that degrades cyclic adenosine and guanosine monophosphates (cAMP and cGMP). Based on the successful development of [11C]T-773 as PDE10A positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand, in this study our aim was to develop and evaluate fluorine-18 analogs of [11C]T-773. METHODS: [18F]FM-T-773-d2 and [18F]FE-T-773-d4 were synthesized from the same precursor used for 11C-labeling of T-773 in a two-step approach via 18F-fluoromethylation and 18F-fluoroethylation, respectively, using corresponding deuterated synthons...
October 23, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Anasthase Liméry, Nicolas Cézard, Didier Fleury, Didier Goular, Christophe Planchat, Johan Bertrand, Alain Hauchecorne
A multi-channel Raman lidar has been developed, allowing for the first time simultaneous and high-resolution profiling of hydrogen gas and water vapor. The lidar measures vibrational Raman scattering in the UV (355 nm) domain. It works in a high-bandwidth photon counting regime using fast SiPM detectors and takes into account the spectral overlap between hydrogen and water vapor Raman spectra. Measurement of concentration profiles of H2 and H2O are demonstrated along a 5-meter-long open gas cell with 1-meter resolution at 85 meters...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
L Olivier, S Franchoo, M Niikura, Z Vajta, D Sohler, P Doornenbal, A Obertelli, Y Tsunoda, T Otsuka, G Authelet, H Baba, D Calvet, F Château, A Corsi, A Delbart, J-M Gheller, A Gillibert, T Isobe, V Lapoux, M Matsushita, S Momiyama, T Motobayashi, H Otsu, C Péron, A Peyaud, E C Pollacco, J-Y Roussé, H Sakurai, C Santamaria, M Sasano, Y Shiga, S Takeuchi, R Taniuchi, T Uesaka, H Wang, K Yoneda, F Browne, L X Chung, Z Dombradi, F Flavigny, F Giacoppo, A Gottardo, K Hadyńska-Klęk, Z Korkulu, S Koyama, Y Kubota, J Lee, M Lettmann, C Louchart, R Lozeva, K Matsui, T Miyazaki, S Nishimura, K Ogata, S Ota, Z Patel, E Sahin, C Shand, P-A Söderström, I Stefan, D Steppenbeck, T Sumikama, D Suzuki, V Werner, J Wu, Z Xu
In-beam γ-ray spectroscopy of ^{79}Cu is performed at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory of RIKEN. The nucleus of interest is produced through proton knockout from a ^{80}Zn beam at 270  MeV/nucleon. The level scheme up to 4.6 MeV is established for the first time and the results are compared to Monte Carlo shell-model calculations. We do not observe significant knockout feeding to the excited states below 2.2 MeV, which indicates that the Z=28 gap at N=50 remains large. The results show that the ^{79}Cu nucleus can be described in terms of a valence proton outside a ^{78}Ni core, implying the magic character of the latter...
November 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Lei Xiang, Yu Qiao, Dong Nie, Le An, Qian Wang, Dinggang Shen
Positron emission tomography (PET) is an essential technique in many clinical applications such as tumor detection and brain disorder diagnosis. In order to obtain high-quality PET images, a standard-dose radioactive tracer is needed, which inevitably causes the risk of radiation exposure damage. For reducing the patient's exposure to radiation and maintaining the high quality of PET images, in this paper, we propose a deep learning architecture to estimate the high-quality standard-dose PET (SPET) image from the combination of the low-quality low-dose PET (LPET) image and the accompanying T1-weighted acquisition from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
December 6, 2017: Neurocomputing
Anand Giri, Deepak Pant
Radon (Rn-222), thoron (Rn-220) and its progeny are the natural radioactive gases emitted everywhere in different concentration. These carcinogenic substances were known to be responsible for lung cancer. Human exposure of these gases in an indoor environment was principally dependent on the house types like concrete, slate, mud-tin etc. Rate of exposure is also influenced by unplanned construction and associated poor ventilation.The study of inhalation dose with house type and the associated indoor environment were important to study the exposure due to natural ionising radiation...
November 27, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Reid A Peterson, Edgar C Buck, Jaehun Chun, Richard C Daniel, Daniel L Herting, Eugene S Ilton, Gregg J Lumetta, Sue B Clark
This paper reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micron scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Wenjie Li, Yixin Liu, Biao Wei, Peng Feng, Yang Xu, Benjiang Mao
Minitype Reference Radiation based on a cesium-137 isotope radioactive source is a core device for carrying out a field calibration on gamma ray dose or dose rate meters. To explore the source of the scattering rays in the MRR and its influence on dose field distribution, the radiation field of the Minitype Reference Radiation when different shielding wall materials, different sizes of shielding box and detectors employed were calculated. The investigation results will provide theoretical and technical support for better understanding the Minitype Reference Radiation and developing field calibration technologies...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Tam-Lin Chow, Susanna Wai-Yin Tam, Chi-Yee Choi, Wilson Wai-Yin Kwan
INTRODUCTION: Excellent outcome after conservative thyroid surgery for low-risk follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) has been reported from highly specialised centres. However, it is uncertain whether similar treatment results can be achieved in low-volume hospitals. METHODS: At our institution, 49 patients with FTC were treated during 1991-2014. Patients with minimally invasive FTC (MIFTC) were usually treated with hemithyroidectomy. The demographic data, pathology, treatment modality and oncological outcomes of these patients were retrospectively evaluated...
December 7, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
Robbert C Bakker, Marnix G E H Lam, Sebastiaan A van Nimwegen, Antoine J W P Rosenberg, Robert J J van Es, J Frank W Nijsen
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the role of radioactive microparticles (1-100 μm) for the treatment of solid tumors and provide a comprehensive overview of the feasibility, safety, and efficacy. Methods: A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library (January 2017) by combining synonyms for the determinants "tumor," "injection," and "radionuclide." Data on injection technique, toxicity, tumor response, and survival were collected...
2017: Journal of Radiation Oncology
Eva Schneiderman, Ellen L Colón, Donald J White, Bruce Schemehorn, Tara Ganovsky, Amir Haider, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Brian R Morrow, Viritpon Srimaneepong, Sujin Chumprasert
OBJECTIVES: We have previously reported on progress toward the refinement of profilometry-based abrasivity testing of dentifrices using a V8 brushing machine and tactile or optical measurement of dentin wear. The general application of this technique may be advanced by demonstration of successful inter-laboratory confirmation of the method. The objective of this study was to explore the capability of different laboratories in the assessment of dentifrice abrasivity using a profilometry-based evaluation technique developed in our Mason laboratories...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
Jacob Nelson, Peter Karempalis, Jordan Dunitz, Ryan Hunter, Holly Boyer
BACKGROUND: Indirect evidence suggests that sinonasal secretions are aspirated into the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), contributing to infection, subsequent tissue damage, and decreased lung function. Our objective is to determine whether sinonasal secretions are transferred to the lungs in patients with CF-related sinus disease and healthy subjects, particularly in the recumbent position and during sleep. METHODS: We performed a prospective, controlled trial to detect pulmonary aspiration of radiolabeled albumin applied to the nasal mucosa of study subjects with chronic sinusitis related to CF and control subjects without sinus disease...
December 6, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Dario Tumino, Francesco Frasca, Kate Newbold
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) accounts for 95% of all thyroid cancers and is generally an indolent tumor, treated effectively with surgery, radioactive iodine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy. However, 5-10% of patients have advanced disease, with aerodigestive tract invasion, distant metastases, or radioiodine refractory disease, with poor prognosis. This review focuses on the approaches for treating advanced DTC, including management of gross extra-thyroidal extension, recurrent loco-regional or distant metastatic disease, the role of external beam radiation therapy and systemic treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Raëd Farhat, Ayman El-Seedy, Caroline Norez, Hugo Talbot, Marie-Claude Pasquet, Catherine Adolphe, Alain Kitzis, Véronique Ladevèze
Cystic Fibrosis is the most common recessive autosomal rare disease found in Caucasian. It is caused by mutations on the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator gene (CFTR) that encodes for a protein located on the apical membrane of epithelial cells. c.3909C>G (p.Asn1303Lys) is one of the most common worldwide mutations located in nucleotide binding domain 2. The effect of the p.Asn1303Lys mutation on misprocessing was studied by immunofluorescence and western blotting analysis in presence and absence of treatment...
November 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
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