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Emanuela Pedrazzini, Alessandro Vitale
The endoplasmic reticulum takes care of the folding, assembly, and quality control of thousands of proteins destined to the different compartments of the endomembrane system, or to be secreted in the apoplast. Here we describe how these early events in the life of all these proteins can be followed biochemically by using velocity or isopycnic ultracentrifugation, metabolic labeling with radioactive amino acids, and immunoprecipitation in various conditions.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
L van Andel, H Rosing, Z Zhang, L Hughes, V Kansra, M Sanghvi, M M Tibben, A Gebretensae, J H M Schellens, J H Beijnen
INTRODUCTION: Niraparib (Zejula™) is a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the maintenance treatment of patients with recurrent platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who are in a complete or partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy. The pivotal phase III clinical trial has shown improved progression-free survival in patients receiving niraparib compared with those receiving placebo...
October 17, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Elizabeth E Kritzberger, Liliana Navarrete
Whether it be the sun or natural substances we encounter; we are subject to radiation every day. There are some items that can be found in the home that are either naturally radioactive or have a component containing radioactive material. This study was conducted to identify radioactive elements and to assess the exposure we receive from items that have been previously studied. We used four types of radiation detectors to obtain quantitative and qualitative information regarding the radioactive properties of items that can be found in the home like Fiestaware, smoke detectors, Brazil nuts, and granite...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Mingeon Kim, Wook Jae Yoo, Bongsoo Lee
In nuclear medicine, obtaining information on the exact location, size, and dose of radiopharmaceuticals distributed on lesions is critically important. Therefore, we have fabricated a novel fiber-optic gamma endoscope (FOGE) to measure the shape and size of the radioisotope as well as the gamma-ray distribution simultaneously. To evaluate the performance of the novel FOGE, we obtained optical images and gamma images by using a USAF 1951 target and radioisotope sources, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that the FOGE could be utilized to obtain both the location and the distribution of the radioactive isotope that emitted gamma-rays...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
Azusa Ishizaki, Yukihisa Sanada, Mutsushi Ishida, Masahiro Munakata
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident in 2011, aerial radiation monitoring (ARM) using a manned helicopter was conducted to rapidly measure air dose rates and the deposition of radioactive nuclides over a large area. Typically, the air dose rate is obtained by conversion from the count rate using conventional flat source model (FSM). The converted dose rate obtained via aerial monitoring poorly matches the results of ground measurement in the mountain and forest areas because FSM does not consider topographical effects...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
S Heinitz, D Kiselev, N Kivel, D Schumann
Large amounts of (10)Be are produced at the PSI muon production facility by high-energy proton spallation in polycrystalline graphite. For the extraction of (10)Be out of large amounts of carbon, pyrolysis followed by chemical purification has been performed. Approx. 270g of graphite from Target E92, which had received a total proton charge of 29 Ah between 2002 and 2005, have been burned at 1000°C in a stream of oxygen. The volatile radioactive oxidation product (3)H2O was trapped in 3 water bubblers connected in series...
October 6, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
J Suran, P Kovar, J Smoldasova, J Solc, L Skala, D Arnold, S Jerome, P de Felice, B Pedersen, T Bogucarska, F Tzika, R van Ammel
This paper addresses the measurement facilities for pre-selection of waste materials prior to measurement for repository acceptance or possible free release (segregation measurement system); and free release (free release measurement system), based on a single standardized concept characterized by unique, patented lead-free shielding. The key objective is to improve the throughput, accuracy, reliability, modularity and mobility of segregation and free-release measurement. This will result in a more reliable decision-making with regard to the safe release and disposal of radioactive wastes into the environment and, resulting in positive economic outcomes...
September 28, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jing Chen, Michael W Cooke, Jean-Francois Mercier
Historical results of natural radioactivity in drinking water were reviewed for a total of 21 communities across Canada from 1975 to 2016. Analyses for 226Ra, 210Pb and total uranium were carried out on monthly composite samples of drinking water from selected Canadian municipalities. Generally speaking, levels of 226Ra, 210Pb and total uranium were found to be low compared to national and international standards for drinking water quality. Because levels were low, federal monitoring programs were discontinued in most communities in 1986 except for Regina, Elliot Lake and Port Hope...
October 13, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Yoomi Choi, Eun-Hee Kim
Assessing the environmental dispersion of radioactive effluents from a nuclear facility under normal operation is a prerequisite in applying for the construction permit and operation license of the facility. In Korea, the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission requires at least 1- and 2-year periods of site-specific meteorological data to assess the atmospheric dispersion of the effluents from a nuclear reactor facility for a construction permit and operating license, respectively. In this study, we investigated if an extended period of meteorological data would be certainly preferable for the prospective assessment of dispersion of the atmospheric effluents under current data handling approaches...
October 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Negar Babaei Omali, Lakshman N Subbaraman, Miriam Heynen, Zohra Fadli, Chantal Coles-Brennan, Lyndon W Jones
SIGNIFICANCE: Albumin deposition on contact lenses could be detrimental to contact lens (CL) wear because this may increase the risk of bacterial binding and reduce comfort. Lysozyme deposition on selected lens materials would reduce albumin deposition on lenses. PURPOSE: This study aims to determine if lysozyme deposition on CLs could act as a barrier against subsequent albumin adsorption, using an in vitro model. METHODS: Six hydrogel CL materials (etafilcon A, polymacon, nelfilcon A, omafilcon A, ocufilcon B, and nesofilcon A) were evaluated...
October 16, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Ji Min Oh, Ho Won Lee, Senthilkumar Kalimuthu, Prakash Gangadaran, Se Hwan Baek, Man-Hoon Han, Chae Moon Hong, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
We optimized the protocol for thyroid ablation in living mice using radioactive iodine (RAI) and a low-iodine diet (LID). To examine the effect of LID on thyroid ablation, mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: Vehicle, (131)I 2.775 MBq, (131)I 5.55 MBq, and LID + (131)I 2.775 MBq. The LID group was fed a LID for up to 7 days and then mice in the (131)I 2.775, (131)I 5.55, and LID + (131)I 2.775 MBq groups were intravenously administrated with (131)I, respectively. Scintigraphy imaging with (99m)Tc pertechnetate was performed once in 2 weeks for 4 weeks...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
M R Drout, A L Piro, B J Shappee, C D Kilpatrick, J D Simon, C Contreras, D A Coulter, R J Foley, M R Siebert, N Morrell, K Boutsia, F Di Mille, T W-S Holoien, D Kasen, J A Kollmeier, B F Madore, A J Monson, A Murguia-Berthier, Y-C Pan, J X Prochaska, E Ramirez-Ruiz, A Rest, C Adams, K Alatalo, E Bañados, J Baughman, T C Beers, R A Bernstein, T Bitsakis, A Campillay, T T Hansen, C R Higgs, A P Ji, G Maravelias, J L Marshall, C Moni Bidin, J L Prieto, K C Rasmussen, C Rojas-Bravo, A L Strom, N Ulloa, J Vargas-González, Z Wan, D D Whitten
On 17 August 2017, gravitational waves were detected from a binary neutron star merger, GW170817, along with a coincident short gamma-ray burst, GRB170817A. An optical transient source, Swope Supernova Survey 17a (SSS17a), was subsequently identified as the counterpart of this event. We present ultraviolet, optical, and infrared light curves of SSS17a extending from 10.9 hours to 18 days post-merger. We constrain the radioactively powered transient resulting from the ejection of neutron-rich material. The fast rise of the light curves, subsequent decay, and rapid color evolution are consistent with multiple ejecta components of differing lanthanide abundance...
October 16, 2017: Science
C D Kilpatrick, R J Foley, D Kasen, A Murguia-Berthier, E Ramirez-Ruiz, D A Coulter, M R Drout, A L Piro, B J Shappee, K Boutsia, C Contreras, F Di Mille, B F Madore, N Morrell, Y-C Pan, J X Prochaska, A Rest, C Rojas-Bravo, M R Siebert, J D Simon, N Ulloa
11 hours after the detection of gravitational wave source GW170817 by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Virgo Interferometers, an associated optical transient, SSS17a, was identified in the galaxy NGC 4993. While the gravitational wave data indicate GW170817 is consistent with the merger of two compact objects, the electromagnetic observations provide independent constraints of the nature of that system. We synthesize the optical to near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of SSS17a collected by the One-Meter Two-Hemisphere collaboration, finding that SSS17a is unlike other known transients...
October 16, 2017: Science
Renske M Raaphorst, Heli Savolainen, Mariangela Cantore, Evita van de Steeg, Aren van Waarde, Nicola A Colabufo, Philip H Elsinga, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Albert D Windhorst, Gert Luurtsema
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the blood-brain barrier can be important in neurological diseases where P-gp is affected, such as Alzheimer´s disease. Radiotracers used in the imaging studies are present at very small, nanomolar, concentration, whereas in vitro assays where these tracers are characterized, are usually performed at micromolar concentration, causing often discrepant in vivo and in vitro data. We had in vivo rodent PET data of [(11)C]verapamil, (R)-N-[(18)F]fluoroethylverapamil, (R)-O-[(18)F]fluoroethyl-norverapamil, [(18)F]MC225 and [(18)F]MC224 and we included also two new molecules [(18)F]MC198 and [(18)F]KE64 in this study...
September 20, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
F Kabrt, A Baumgartner, M Stietka, F J Maringer
The radioactive noble gas radon is identified as the highest risk factor for lung cancer after smoking. The exhalation of radon from building materials can contribute to the radon indoor activity concentration. Therefore, the emanation of radon might be a crucial factor. It is defined as the release of radon from the solid soil matter into the pore space of the material. This article describes a new on-site measurement method for the emanation of radon from building materials at industrial sites. Therefore, a closed vessel with sample material and a passive radon detector inside is used to measure the integrated build-up-curve of the activity concentration...
September 19, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
P P S Otahal, I Burian, J Ondracek, V Zdimal, R F Holub
The activity size distribution of the Equilibrium-Equivalent Concentration (EER) of 222Rn is one of the most important parameters for the estimation of radiation dose by inhalation of radon decay products. A series of measurements of the EER activity size distribution were performed by the screen diffusion battery in Radon-Aerosol chamber (10 m3) at the National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Protection (SUJCHBO). These measurements were performed at different levels of radon concentration...
September 19, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
M Vasyanovich, M Y A Mostafa, M Zhukovsky
Cascade impactors based on inertial deposition of aerosols are widely used to determine the size distribution of radioactive aerosols. However, there are situations where radioactive aerosols are represented by particles with a diameter of 1-5 nm. In this case, ultrafine aerosols can be deposited on impactor cascades by diffusion mechanism. The influence of ultrafine aerosols (1-5 nm) on the response of three different types of cascade impactors was studied. It was shown that the diffusion deposition of ultrafine aerosols can distort the response of the cascade impactor...
September 19, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Gordon K Livingston, Maria Escalona, Alvis Foster, Adayabalam S Balajee
Our previous studies demonstrated the cytogenetic effects in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a 34-year-old male patient who received ablative radioactive 131iodine therapy (RIT) on two different occasions in 1992 and 1994. Assessment of RIT-induced chromosomal damage by the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) showed the persistence of elevated micronucleus frequency in this patient for more than two decades since the first RIT. Subsequent cytogenetic analysis performed in 2012 revealed both stable and unstable aberrations, whose frequencies were higher than the baseline reported in the literature...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
K Skubacz, S Chalupnik, P Urban, M Wysocka
The article presents the advantages of the radon chamber with volume of 17 m3, that belongs to Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity and its applicability for calibration of equipment designed to measure the radon concentration and its short-lived decay products. The chamber can be operated under controlled conditions in the range from -20 to 60°C and relative humidity from 20 to 90%. There is also discussed the influence of aerosol concentration and their size distribution on the calibration results...
September 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
O I Molchanov, Y N Soroka, A A Podrezov, M N Soroka
The article presents results of investigation on search and mapping of the old buried tailings with radioactive wastes on the territory of Kamianske City. For solving the problem used complex of methods. These methods are as follows: soil-gas 222Rn measurement and measurement of 222Rn flux density from the ground surface, gamma-radiation survey, prospecting drilling, gamma-ray logging and laboratory analysis of radionuclides. The leading method in this complex was the method of soil-gas 222Rn measurement. Using this method location of the tailings has been precisely defined...
September 19, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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