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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735181/effects-of-cellulose-degradation-products-on-the-mobility-of-eu-iii-in-repositories-for-low-and-intermediate-level-radioactive-waste
#1
Veronica Diesen, Kerstin Forsberg, Mats Jonsson
The deep repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste SFR in Sweden will contain large amounts of cellulosic waste materials contaminated with radionuclides. Over time the repository will be filled with water and alkaline conditions will prevail. In the present study degradation of cellulosic materials and the ability of cellulosic degradation products to solubilize and thereby mobilise Eu(III) under repository conditions has been investigated. Further, the possible immobilization of Eu(III) by sorption onto cement in the presence of degradation products has been investigated...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733410/radioactive-labeling-and-fractionation-of-fission-yeast-walls
#2
Pilar Pérez, Juan C Ribas
Fungal cells contain an essential structure external to the cell, made of polysaccharides and proteins, termed the cell wall. Polysaccharides represent ∼96% of the cell wall on a dry-weight basis. They are complex insoluble polymers connected to each other by covalent linkages and hydrogen bonds with specific localizations in the cell wall and septum. Fission yeast contains three β-glucans (a major branched β(1,3)-glucan, a minor linear β(1,3)-glucan, and a minor branched β(1,6)-glucan), two α-glucans (a major α(1,3)-glucan and a minor α(1,4)-glucan), and a minor amount of galactomannan-linked glycoproteins...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733200/hypothermic-cooling-measured-by-thermal-mri-imaging-feasibility-and-implications-for-virtual-imaging-in-the-urogenital-pelvis
#3
Douglas Skarecky, Hon Yu, Jennifer Linehan, Blanca Morales, Min-Ying Su, Peter Fwu, Thomas Ahlering
OBJECTIVE: To study the combination of thermal MRI imaging and novel hypothermic cooling, via an Endorectal Cooling Balloon (ECB) to assess the effective dispersion and temperature drop in pelvic tissue to potentially reduce inflammatory cascade in surgical applications. METHODS: Three male subjects, prior to undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), were cooled via an ECB, rendered MRI compatible by for patient safety Prior to ECB hypothermia. MRI studies were performed using a 3T scanner and included T2w anatomical scan for the pelvic structures, followed by a temperature mapping scan...
July 18, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732021/in-vitro-comparison-of-213bi-and-177lu-radiation-for-peptide-receptor-radionuclide-therapy
#4
Ho Sze Chan, Erik de Blois, Alfred Morgenstern, Frank Bruchertseifer, Marion de Jong, Wouter Breeman, Mark Konijnenberg
BACKGROUND: Absorbed doses for α-emitters are different from those for β-emitters, as the high linear energy transfer (LET) nature of α-particles results in a very dense energy deposition over a relatively short path length near the point of emission. This highly localized and therefore high energy deposition can lead to enhanced cell-killing effects at absorbed doses that are non-lethal in low-LET type of exposure. Affinities of DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-octreotate (DOTATATE), 115In-DOTATATE, 175Lu-DOTATATE and 209Bi-DOTATATE were determined in the K562-SST2 cell line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731471/changes-in-nutrient-stoichiometry-elemental-homeostasis-and-growth-rate-of-aquatic-litter-associated-fungi-in-response-to-inorganic-nutrient-supply
#5
Vladislav Gulis, Kevin A Kuehn, Louie N Schoettle, Desiree Leach, Jonathan P Benstead, Amy D Rosemond
Aquatic fungi mediate important energy and nutrient transfers in freshwater ecosystems, a role potentially altered by widespread eutrophication. We studied the effects of dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and ratios on fungal stoichiometry, elemental homeostasis, nutrient uptake and growth rate in two experiments that used (1) liquid media and a relatively recalcitrant carbon (C) source and (2) fungi grown on leaf litter in microcosms. Two monospecific fungal cultures and a multi-species assemblage were assessed in each experiment...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730290/a-phase-i-study-to-investigate-the-metabolism-excretion-and-pharmacokinetics-of-14-c-fruquintinib-a-novel-oral-selective-vegfr-inhibitor-in-healthy-chinese-male-volunteers
#6
Sufeng Zhou, Feng Shao, Zhaoqiang Xu, Lu Wang, Ke Jin, Lijun Xie, Juan Chen, Yun Liu, Hongwen Zhang, Ning Ou
PURPOSE: Fruquintinib (HMPL-013) is a novel, potent, and highly selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (1, 2 and 3). This study was conducted to investigate the metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of HMPL-013 after a single oral dose to healthy Chinese men. METHODS: Six subjects were administrated an oral suspension containing 5 mg of (14)C-labeled HMPL-013 (100 μCi) in a fasted state. Blood and excreta samples were collected at the designated time points or intervals for pharmacokinetics and radiometric analyses...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729772/serial-stimulated-thyroglobulin-measurements-are-more-specific-for-detecting-distant-metastatic-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-before-radioiodine-therapy
#7
Teng Zhao, Jun Liang, Tianjun Li, Wen Gao, Yansong Lin
OBJECTIVE: Preablative stimulated thyroglobulin (ps-Tg) has the potential to be used in identifying distant metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DM-DTC), but its single level can be affected by remnant thyroid tissue and thyrotropin (TSH). The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the value of serial ps-Tg measurements in identifying DM-DTC specifically. METHODS: A total of 317 DTC patients with serial measurements of ps-Tg, TSH and anti-Tg antibody were divided into M1 (n=72) and M0 (n=245) according to the presence of distant metastasis (DM) or not...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728127/is-bacterial-luminescence-response-to-low-dose-radiation-associated-with-mutagenicity
#8
T V Rozhko, O A Guseynov, V E Guseynova, A A Bondar, A N Devyatlovskaya, N S Kudryasheva
Luminous marine bacteria are widely used in bioassays with luminescence intensity being a physiological parameter tested. The purpose of the study was to determine whether bacterial genetic alteration is responsible for bioluminescence kinetics change under low-dose radiation exposure. The alpha-emitting radionuclide (241)Am and beta-emitting radionuclide (3)H were used as the sources of low-dose ionizing radiation. Changes of bioluminescence kinetics of Photobacterium phosphoreum in solutions of (241)Am(NO3)3, 7 kBq/L, and tritiated water, 100 MBq/L, were studied; bioluminescence kinetics stages (absence of effect, activation, and inhibition) were determined...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727912/multivariate-analysis-for-quantification-of-plutonium-iv-in-nitric-acid-based-on-absorption-spectra
#9
Amanda M Lines, Susan R Adami, Sergey I Sinkov, Gregg J Lumetta, Samuel A Bryan
Development of more effective, reliable, and fast methods for monitoring process streams is a growing opportunity for analytical applications. Many fields can benefit from on-line monitoring, including the nuclear fuel cycle where improved methods for monitoring radioactive materials will facilitate maintenance of proper safeguards and ensure safe and efficient processing of materials. On-line process monitoring with a focus on optical spectroscopy can provide a fast, non-destructive method for monitoring chemical species...
July 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727659/patient-release-criteria-following-radioactive-iodine-131-treatment-in-the-light-of-international-practice-where-does-south-africa-fit-in
#10
Modisenyane S Mongane, William I D Rae
The release from hospital of patients treated with radioactive iodine-131 (I) remains a controversial issue as a result of the range of guidelines implemented by national regulatory bodies responsible for radiation protection in various countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to review and analyse the literature on patient release criteria (PRC) applied internationally in an attempt to achieve a justifiable approach to setting equivalent criteria in South Africa. In 2016, the South African Department of Health, Directorate: Radiation Control added conditions (numbers 50 and 90), to licences to use radioactive nuclides...
July 19, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726679/accuracy-of-rhenium-188-spect-ct-activity-quantification-for-applications-in-radionuclide-therapy-using-clinical-reconstruction-methods
#11
Pedro L Esquinas, Carlos F Uribe, M Gonzalez, Cristina Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Urs O Häfeli, Anna Celler
The main applications of (188)Re in radionuclide therapies include trans-arterial liver radioembolization and palliation of painful bone-metastases. In order to optimize (188)Re therapies, the accurate determination of radiation dose delivered to tumors and organs at risk is required. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used to perform such dosimetry calculations. However, the accuracy of dosimetry estimates strongly depends on the accuracy of activity quantification in (188)Re images...
July 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724406/iodine-concentration-calculated-by-dual-energy-computed-tomography-dect-as-a-functional-parameter-to-evaluate-thyroid-metabolism-in-patients-with-hyperthyroidism
#12
Duong Duc Binh, Takahito Nakajima, Hidenori Otake, Tetsuya Higuchi, Yoshito Tsushima
BACKGROUND: Thyroid function in patients with Grave's disease is usually evaluated by thyroid scintigraphy with radioactive iodine. Recently, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with two different energy X-rays can calculate iodine concentrations and can be applied for iodine measurements in thyroid glands. This study aimed to assess the potential use of DECT for the functional assessment of the thyroid gland. METHODS: Thirteen patients with Grave's disease treated at our hospital from May to September 2015 were included in this retrospective study...
July 19, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724245/radioactively-hot-particles-detected-in-dusts-and-soils-from-northern-japan-by-combination-of-gamma-spectrometry-autoradiography-and-sem-eds-analysis-and-implications-in-radiation-risk-assessment
#13
Marco Kaltofen, Arnie Gundersen
After the March 11, 2011, nuclear reactor meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi, 180 samples of Japanese particulate matter (dusts and surface soils) and 235 similar U.S. and Canadian samples were collected and analyzed sequentially by gamma spectrometry, autoradiography, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Samples were collected and analyzed over a five-year period, from 2011 to 2016. Detectable levels of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were found in 142 of 180 (80%) Japanese particulate matter samples...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722828/bioaccumulation-based-silver-nanoparticle-toxicity-in-daphnia-magna-and-maternal-impacts
#14
Sunandan Pakrashi, Cheng Tan, Wen-Xiong Wang
In this study, we tested whether the bioaccumulation in specific tissues of Daphnia magna could explain silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) toxicity. Daphnids were exposed to different concentrations of well suspended AgNPs and AgNO3 . The accumulations of Ag in the whole body, guts and non-gut tissues, as well as the mortality of daphnids were recorded over a period of 7 days. Regression analysis showed higher degree of positive correlation between the concentration of Ag in the non-gut tissues than gut tissues and the mortality of the daphnids...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721305/fully-automated-gmp-production-of-68-ga-ga-do3a-vs-cys-40-exendin-4-for-clinical-use
#15
Irina Velikyan, Ulrika Rosenstrom, Olof Eriksson
[(68)Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys(40)-Exendin-4/PET-CT targeting glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) has previously demonstrated its potential clinical value for the detection of insulinomas. The production and accessibility of this radiopharmaceutical is one of the critical factors in realization of clinical trials and routine clinical examinations. Previously, the radiopharmaceutical was prepared manually, however larger scale of clinical trials and healthcare requires automation of the production process in order to limit the operator radiation dose as well as improve tracer manufacturing robustness and on-line documentation for enhanced good manufacturing practice (GMP) compliance...
2017: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720762/quantitative-measurement-of-the-thyroid-uptake-function-of-mouse-by-cerenkov-luminescence-imaging
#16
Chien-Chih Ke, Zi-Ming He, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Chia-Wen Huang, Jia-Je Li, Luen Hwu, Yi-An Chen, Bang-Hung Yang, Chi-Wei Chang, Wen-Sheng Huang, Ren-Shyan Liu
Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) has been an evolutional and alternative approach of nuclear imaging in basic research. This study aimed to measure the (131)I thyroid uptake of mouse using CLI for assessment of thyroid function. Quantification of (131)I thyroid uptake of mice in euthyroid, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid status was performed by CLI and γ-scintigraphy at 24 hours after injection of (131)I. The (131)I thyroid uptake was calculated using the equation: (thyroid counts - background counts)/(counts of injected dose of (131)I) × 100%...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720758/multi-pinhole-fluorescent-x-ray-computed-tomography-for-molecular-imaging
#17
Tenta Sasaya, Naoki Sunaguchi, Kazuyuki Hyodo, Tsutomu Zeniya, Tetsuya Yuasa
We propose a multi-pinhole fluorescent x-ray computed tomography (mp-FXCT) technique for preclinical molecular imaging that can provide the complete data necessary to produce 3-D tomographic images during anaesthesia. In this method, multiple projections are simultaneously acquired through a multi-pinhole collimator with a 2-D detector and full-field volumetric beam to accelerate the data acquisition process and enhance the signal-to-noise ratios of the projections. We constructed a 15-pinhole mp-FXCT imaging system at beamline ARNE-7A at KEK and performed preliminary experiments to investigate its imaging properties using physical phantoms and a non-radioactive I imaging agent...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719852/rapid-gamma-spectrometric-analysis-of-soil-samples-after-radioactive-fallout-using-a-conjugate-view-technique
#18
M Isaksson, M Fahlström, N Ossipova, K Rosén
A method for fast determination of the activity in soil samples by measuring a fresh soil core sample from both ends with an HPGe-detector is proposed. The method was tested by simulations, as well as by measurements on spiked soil samples. Both simulations and measurements showed that the geometrical mean of the count rates when the sample is measured twice, with the bottom and the top end, respectively, facing the detector closely resembles the count rate from a measurement on a homogenized sample. Therefore, an efficiency calibration for homogenized samples could be used even if the activity is highly inhomogeneous in the soil core, as is the case with fresh fallout...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719807/evaluation-of-a-novel-radiotracer-for-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Alan A Wilson, Oleg Sadovski, José N Nobrega, Roger J Raymond, Francis R Bambico, Mina G Nashed, Armando Garcia, Peter M Bloomfield, Sylvain Houle, Romina Mizrahi, Junchao Tong
INTRODUCTION: Few, if any, radiotracers are available for the in vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the central nervous system. ROS play a critical role in normal cell processes such as signaling and homeostasis but overproduction of ROS is implicated in several disorders. We describe here the radiosynthesis and initial ex vivo and in vivo evaluation of [(11)C]hydromethidine ([(11)C]HM) as a radiotracer to image ROS using positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: [(11)C]HM and its deuterated isotopologue [(11)C](4) were produced using [(11)C]methyl triflate in a one-pot, two-step reaction and purified by high performance liquid chromatography...
June 1, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718772/performance-evaluation-of-macaco-a-multilayer-compton-camera
#20
Enrique Muñoz, John Barrio, Ane Etxebeste, Pablo Garcia Ortega, Carlos Lacasta, Josep Francisco Oliver, Carles Solaz, Gabriela Llosa
Compton imaging devices have been proposed and studied for a wide range of applications. We have developed a Compton camera prototype which can be operated with two or three detector layers based on monolithic lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) crystals coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), to be used for proton range verification in hadron therapy. In this work, we present the results obtained with our prototype in laboratory tests with radioactive sources and in simulation studies...
July 18, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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