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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458004/real-time-analysis-of-cleavage-and-religation-activity-of-human-topoisomerase-1-based-on-ternary-fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer-dna-substrate
#1
Zhenxing Wang, Hui Ouyang, Cinzia Tesauro, Alessio Ottaviani, Yong He, Paola Fiorani, Hui Xie, Alessandro Desideri, Zhifeng Fu
Human topoisomerase 1B is a ubiquitous and essential enzyme involved in relaxing the topological state of supercoiled DNA to allow the progression of fundamental DNA metabolism. Its enzymatic catalytic cycle consists of cleavage and religation reaction. A ternary fluorescence resonance energy transfer biosensor based on a suicide DNA substrate conjugated with three fluorophores has been developed to monitor both cleavage and religation Topoisomerase I catalytic function. The presence of fluorophores does not alter the specificity of the enzyme catalysis on the DNA substrate...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457691/apportioning-bacterial-carbon-source-utilization-in-soil-using-14-c-isotope-analysis-of-fish-targeted-bacterial-populations-sorted-by-fluorescence-activated-cell-sorting-facs-14-c-fish-facs
#2
Christos Gougoulias, Andrew Meade, Liz J Shaw
An unresolved need in microbial ecology is methodology to enable quantitative analysis of in situ microbial substrate carbon use at the population level. Here, we evaluated if a novel combination of radiocarbon- labelled substrate tracing, Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH) and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) to sort the FISH-targeted population for quantification of incorporated radioactivity (14 C-FISH-FACS) can address this need. Our test scenario used FISH probe PSE1284 targeting Pseudomonas spp...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455653/novel-targeted-therapies-and-immunotherapy-for-advanced-thyroid-cancers
#3
REVIEW
George E Naoum, Michael Morkos, Brian Kim, Waleed Arafat
Thyroid cancer is a frequently encountered endocrine malignancy. Despite the favorable prognosis of this disease, 15-20% of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) cases and most anaplastic types, remain resistant to standard treatment options, including radioactive iodine (RAI). In addition, around 30% of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show resistance after surgery. The evolving understanding of disease-specific molecular therapeutic targets has led to the approval of two targeted therapies (Sorafenib and Lenvatinib) for RAI refractory DTC and another two drugs (Vandetanib and Cabozantinib) for MTC...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453646/estimation-of-radionuclide-concentrations-and-average-annual-committed-effective-dose-due-to-ingestion-for-the-population-in-the-red-river-delta-vietnam
#4
Tran Thi Van, Luu Tam Bat, Dang Duc Nhan, Nguyen Hao Quang, Bui Duy Cam, Luu Viet Hung
Radioactivity concentrations of nuclides of the 232 Th and 238 U radioactive chains and 40 K, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu were surveyed for raw and cooked food of the population in the Red River delta region, Vietnam, using α-, γ-spectrometry, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. The concentration of 40 K in the cooked food was the highest compared to those of other radionuclides ranging from (23 ± 5) (rice) to (347 ± 50) Bq kg -1 dw (tofu). The 210 Po concentration in the cooked food ranged from its limit of detection (LOD) of 5 mBq kg -1 dw (rice) to (4...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453521/safety-and-feasibility-of-breast-lesion-localization-using-magnetic-seeds-magseed-a-multi-centre-open-label-cohort-study
#5
James R Harvey, Yit Lim, John Murphy, Miles Howe, Julie Morris, Amit Goyal, Anthony J Maxwell
PURPOSE: Wire localization has several disadvantages, notably wire migration and difficulty scheduling the procedure close to surgery. Radioactive seed localization overcomes these disadvantages, but implementation is limited due to radiation safety requirements. Magnetic seeds potentially offer the logistical benefits and transcutaneous detection equivalence of a radioactive seed, with easier implementation. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using magnetic seeds for breast lesion localization...
February 16, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453251/a-novel-adipokine-fam19a5-inhibits-postinjury-neointima-formation-through-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-2
#6
Yingbao Wang, Dixin Chen, Yan Zhang, Pingzhang Wang, Can Zheng, Songyang Zhang, Bing Yu, Lu Zhang, Guizhen Zhao, Baihui Ma, Zeyu Cai, Nan Xie, Shiyang Huang, Ziyi Liu, Xiaoning Mo, Youfei Guan, Xian Wang, Yi Fu, Dalong Ma, Ying Wang, Wei Kong
Background -Obesity plays crucial roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the mechanisms that link obesity and CVDs remain elusive. Compelling evidence indicates that adipokines play an important role in obesity-related CVDs. Here, we found a new adipokine named family with sequence similarity 19, member A5 (FAM19A5), a protein with unknown function that was predicted to be distantly related to the CC-chemokine family. We aimed to test whether adipose-derived FAM19A5 regulates vascular pathology upon injury...
February 16, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453061/effect-of-u-vi-aqueous-speciation-on-the-binding-of-uranium-by-the-cell-surface-of-rhodotorula-mucilaginosa-a-natural-yeast-isolate-from-bentonites
#7
Margarita Lopez-Fernandez, Maria Romero-González, Alix Günther, Pier L Solari, Mohamed L Merroun
This study presents the effect of aqueous uranium speciation (U-hydroxides and U-hydroxo-carbonates) on the interaction of this radionuclide with the cells of the yeast Rhodotorula mucigilanosa BII-R8. This strain was isolated from Spanish bentonites considered as reference materials for the engineered barrier components of the future deep geological repository of radioactive waste. X-ray absorption and infrared spectroscopy showed that the aqueous uranium speciation has no effect on the uranium binding process by this yeast strain...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451744/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-bivalent-ligands-targeting-dopamine-d2-like-receptors-and-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor
#8
Mingcheng Qian, Lakshmi Vasudevan, Jelle Huysentruyt, Martijn D P Risseeuw, Christophe Stove, Patrick M L Vanderheyden, Kathleen Van Craenenbroeck, Serge Van Calenbergh
Nowadays, there is mounting evidence that intermolecular receptor-receptor interactions may result in altered receptor recognition, pharmacology and signaling. Heterobivalent ligands have been proven useful molecular probes for confirming and targeting heteromeric receptors. This paper describes the design and synthesis of novel heterobivalent ligands for dopamine D2-like receptors (D2-likeR) and the µ opioid receptor (µOR) and their evaluation using radioactive ligand binding and functional assays.
February 16, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451686/an-iminium-ion-metabolite-hampers-the-production-of-the-pharmacologically-active-metabolite-of-a-multikinase-inhibitor-kw-2449-in-primates-irreversible-inhibition-of-aldehyde-oxidase-and-covalent-binding-with-endogenous-proteins
#9
Jun Hosogi, Rui Ohashi, Hiroshi Maeda, Kazuhiro Fujita, Junko Ushiki, Takashi Kuwabara, Yorihiro Yamamoto, Toru Imamura
We previously reported that KW-2449, (E)-1-{4-[2-(1H-Indazol-3-yl)vinyl]benzoyl}piperazine, a novel multikinase inhibitor developed for the treatment of leukemia patients, was oxidized to an iminium ion intermediate by monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and then converted to its oxo-piperazine form (M1) by aldehyde oxidase (AO). However, we found that the significant decrease in the pharmacologically active metabolite M1 following repeated administration of KW-2449 in primates might hamper the effectiveness of the drug...
February 16, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451563/a-highly-sensitive-non-radioactive-activity-assay-for-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk
#10
Yan Yan, Xin Gu, H Eric Xu, Karsten Melcher
While many methods exist to quantitatively determine protein kinase activities,32 P-based radioactive assays remain the workhorse of many laboratories due to their high sensitivity, high signal to noise ratio, lack of interference by fluorescent and light-absorbing small molecules, and easy quantitation. Here, we demonstrate that the interaction between the yeast Rad53 Forkhead-associated (FHA) domain and a peptide optimized for phosphorylation by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), which has previously been exploited for the generation of intracellular phosphorylation sensors, can serve as a readout for a highly sensitive two-step AMPK AlphaScreen kinase assay with exceptional signal-to-noise ratio...
March 2018: Methods Protoc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451489/-hiroshima-nagasaki-survivors-and-their-offspring-results-of-longterm-epidemiological-studies
#11
Bertrand Jordan
After the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, long-term epidemiological studies were undertaken on the irradiated survivors and their offspring, and are still underway. These thorough studies involving tens of thousands of persons and published in hundreds of papers have shown a moderate increase in cancer incidence for irradiated survivors, with limited impact on their life span (loss of one year at most). In studies on the offspring of these survivors, no statistically significant deleterious effect on malformation frequency, incidence of mutations or mortality from cancer and other diseases has been seen so far...
February 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451392/evaluation-of-cams-for-14-c-microtracer-adme-studies-opportunities-to-change-the-current-drug-development-paradigm
#12
Frédéric Lozac'h, Simon Fahrni, Daniele De Maria, Caroline Welte, Joël Bourquin, Hans-Arno Synal, David Pearson, Markus Walles, Gian Camenisch
AIM: Although regulatory guidances require human metabolism information of drug candidates early in the development process, the human mass balance study (or hADME study), is performed relatively late. hADME studies typically involve the administration of a 14 C-radiolabelled drug where biological samples are measured by conventional scintillation counting analysis. Another approach is the administration of therapeutic doses containing a 14 C-microtracer followed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis, enabling hADME studies completion much earlier...
February 16, 2018: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449933/a-simplified-characterization-of-s-adenosyl-l-methionine-consuming-enzymes-with-1-step-ez-mtase-a-universal-and-straightforward-coupled-assay-for-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-setting
#13
Emmanuel S Burgos, Ryan O Walters, Derek M Huffman, David Shechter
Methyltransferases use S -adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to deposit methyl marks. Many of these epigenetic 'writers' are associated with gene regulation. As cancer etiology is highly correlated with misregulated methylation patterns, methyltransferases are emerging therapeutic targets. Successful assignment of methyltransferases' roles within intricate biological networks relies on (1) the access to enzyme mechanistic insights and (2) the efficient screening of chemical probes against these targets. To characterize methyltransferases in vitro and in vivo , we report a highly-sensitive one-step deaminase-linked continuous assay where the S -adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) enzyme-product is rapidly and quantitatively catabolized to S -inosyl-l-homocysteine (SIH)...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449447/tracers-for-fluorescence-guided-surgery-how-elongation-of-the-polymethine-chain-in-cyanine-dyes-alters-the-pharmacokinetics-of-a-bimodal-c-rgdyk-tracer
#14
Tessa Buckle, Danny M van Willigen, Silvia J Spa, Albertus W Hensbergen, Steffen van der Wal, Clarize M de Korne, Mick M Welling, Henk G van der Poel, James C H Hardwick, Fijs W B van Leeuwen
Objectives: The potential of (receptor-mediated) fluorescence-based image-guided surgery tracers is generally linked to the near-infrared emission profile and good manufacturing production (GMP) availability of fluorescent dyes. Surprisingly, little is known about the critical interaction between the structural composition of the dye and the pharmacokinetics of the tracers. In this study, a bimodal/hybrid tracer design was used to systematically and quantitatively evaluate the influence of elongation of the polymethine chain in a fluorescent cyanine (Cy) dye on the imaging potential of a targeted (RGD-based) tracer...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449040/xenon-adsorption-on-geological-media-and-implications-for-radionuclide-signatures
#15
M J Paul, S R Biegalski, D A Haas, H Jiang, H Daigle, J D Lowrey
The detection of radioactive noble gases is a primary technology for verifying compliance with the pending Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A fundamental challenge in applying this technology for detecting underground nuclear explosions is estimating the timing and magnitude of the radionuclide signatures. While the primary mechanism for transport is advective transport, either through barometric pumping or thermally driven advection, diffusive transport in the surrounding matrix also plays a secondary role...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448195/factors-affecting-the-7-be-surface-concentration-and-its-extremely-high-occurrences-over-the-scandinavian-peninsula-during-autumn-and-winter
#16
J Ajtić, E Brattich, D Sarvan, V Djurdjevic, M A Hernández-Ceballos
Relationships between the beryllium-7 activity concentrations in surface air and meteorological parameters (temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation), teleconnection indices (Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Scandinavian pattern) and number of sunspots are investigated using two multivariate statistical techniques: hierarchical cluster and factor analysis. The beryllium-7 surface measurements over 1995-2011, at four sampling sites located in the Scandinavian Peninsula, are obtained from the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring Database...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448165/y90-radioembolization-dosimetry-using-a-simple-semi-quantitative-method-in-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-glass-versus-resin-microspheres
#17
Nariman Nezami, Nima Kokabi, Juan C Camacho, David M Schuster, Minzhi Xing, Hyun S Kim
INTRODUCTION: There are two different types of Y90 Microspheres, glass and resin, in the market for Y90 radioembolization (Y90-RE). This study aimed to investigate the dose of radiation delivered through glass vs. resin-based Y90-RE to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). METHODS: In this retrospective study, 10 patients with ICC underwent Y90-RE, five underwent glass (Glass group) and other 5 resin (Resin group) microspheres. Technetium-99m macro-aggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) shunt study was performed two weeks before Y90-RE...
January 16, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445712/radioprotective-effects-of-sulfur-containing-mineral-water-of-ramsar-hot-spring-with-high-natural-background-radiation-on-mouse-bone-marrow-cells
#18
A H Heidari, A Shabestani Monfared, H Mozdarani, A Mahmoudzadeh, A Razzaghdoust
Background: We intend to study the inhibitory effect of sulfur compound in Ramsar hot spring mineral on tumor-genesis ability of high natural background radiation. Objective: The radioprotective effect of sulfur compounds was previously shown on radiation-induced chromosomal aberration, micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells and human peripheral lymphocyte. Ramsar is known for having the highest level of natural background radiation on Earth. This study was performed to show the radioprotective effect of sulfur-containing Ramsar mineral water on mouse bone marrow cells...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444996/a-model-of-analysis-in-analytical-methodology-for-biopharmaceutical-quality-control
#19
Cleyton Andrade, Miguel de la O Herrera, Elezer Lemes
One key quality control parameter for biopharmaceutical products is the analysis of residual cellular DNA (rcDNA). To determine small amounts of DNA (around 100pg) that may be in a biologically-derived drug substance, an analytical method should be sensitive, robust, reliable and accurate. In principle, three techniques have the ability to measure rcDNA: radioactive dot-blot a type of Hybridization; Threshold and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Quality Risk Management (QRM) is a systematic process for evaluating, controlling and reporting of risks which may affects method capabilities and supports a scientific and practical approach to decision making...
February 14, 2018: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444310/radiological-hazard-indices-of-granitic-rocks-used-for-the-construction-of-buildings-from-nuba-mountains-sudan
#20
Nooreldin Fadol, Hajo Idriss, Isam Salih, Nserdin A Ragab, Safa Osman, Adam K Sam
This study was conducted to assess the level of radioactivity and the radiation hazards associated with granite rocks used for construction of buildings. The measurement of radioactivity content of the rock samples was performed with gamma-spectrometry equipped with Nal (TI) detector. From the results obtained in this study the average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 20.64, 30.50 and 295.19 Bq kg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rate in air at 1 m above ground level, the annual effective dose and the gamma index were determined with the aim to assess the possible radiological impact on inhabitants of dwellings built using such rocks...
February 12, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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