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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777756/peroxiredoxin-5-regulates-adipogenesis-attenuating-oxidative-stress-in-obese-mouse-models-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#1
Mi Hye Kim, Sun-Ji Park, Jung-Hak Kim, Jung Bae Seong, Kyung-Min Kim, Hyun Ae Woo, Dong-Seok Lee
Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a hallmark of obesity. Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5), which is a cysteine-dependent peroxidase enzyme, has an intensive ROS scavenging activity because it is located in the cytosol and mitochondria. Therefore, we focused on the role of Prx5 in regulating mitochondrial ROS and adipogenesis. We demonstrated that Prx5 expression was upregulated during adipogenesis and Prx5 overexpression suppressed adipogenesis by regulating cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS generation...
May 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774638/loss-of-sirtuin-1-and-mitofusin-2-contributes-to-enhanced-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-aged-livers
#2
Sung Kook Chun, Sooyeon Lee, Joseph Flores-Toro, Rebecca Y U, Ming-Jim Yang, Kristina L Go, Thomas G Biel, Catherine E Miney, Schiley Pierre Louis, Brian K Law, Mary E Law, Elizabeth M Thomas, Kevin E Behrns, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Jae-Sung Kim
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a causative factor contributing to morbidity and mortality during liver resection and transplantation. Livers from elderly patients have a poorer recovery from these surgeries, indicating reduced reparative capacity with aging. Mechanisms underlying this age-mediated hypersensitivity to I/R injury remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) are affected by I/R in aged livers. Young (3 months) and old (23-26 months) male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to hepatic I/R in vivo...
May 17, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773653/inhibition-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-5-enhances-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#3
Lei Huang, Jehnan Liu, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Katelyn Sibley, Sonia M Najjar, Mary M Lee, Joae Qiong Wu
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) regulates gene expression either transcriptionallyly by symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histones H4R3, H3R8 and H2AR3, or at the post-translational level by methylation of non-histone target proteins. While emerging evidence suggests that PRMT5 functions as an oncogene, its role in metabolic diseases is not well defined. We investigated the role of PRMT5 in promoting high fat-induced hepatic steatosis. High fat diet up-regulated PRMT5 levels in the liver, but not in other metabolically relevant tissues such as skeletal muscle or white and brown adipose tissue...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773145/pathological-and-molecular-characterization-of-systemic-isosporosis-atoxoplasmosis-in-captive-green-winged-saltator-saltator-similis
#4
Ayisa Rodrigues de Oliveira, Tayse Domingues de Souza, Juliana P S Mol, Mayra Cunha Flecher, Emy Hiura, Renato Lima Santos
Systemic isosporosis, also called atoxoplasmosis or visceral coccidiosis, is a disease that affects birds in general. Pathogenesis of systemic isosporosis and its etiologic agent have not been well characterized, but taxonomically Atoxoplasma is currently considered a junior objective synonym of Isospora. The present report aimed to describe pathological and molecular findings of systemic isosporosis in captive green-winged saltators (Saltator similis) from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. In a commercial breeding facility eleven birds with two to nine months of age died from 2015 to 2016...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770896/mitochondrial-morphology-and-function-impaired-by-dimethyl-sulfoxide-and-dimethyl-formamide
#5
Long Ma, Jia-Xin Dong, Wen-Rong Fu, Xue-Yi Li, Jing Chen, Yi Liu
In this work, the effects of two non-ionic, non-hydroxyl organic solvents, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethyl formamide (DMF) on the morphology and function of isolated rat hepatic mitochondria were investigated and compared. Mitochondrial ultrastructures impaired by DMSO and DMF were clearly observed by transmission electron microscopy. Spectroscopic and polarographic results demonstrated that organic solvents induced mitochondrial swelling, enhanced the permeation to H+ /K+ , collapsed the potential inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), and increased the IMM fluidity...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770778/apolipoprotein-e-in-diet-induced-obesity-a-paradigm-shift-from-conventional-perception
#6
Kyriakos E Kypreos, Eleni A Karavia, Caterina Constantinou, Aikaterini Hatziri, Christina Kalogeropoulou, Eva Xepapadaki, Evangelia Zvintzou
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a major protein component of peripheral and brain lipoprotein transport systems. APOE in peripheral circulation does not cross blood brain barrier or blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier. As a result, peripheral APOE expression does not affect brain APOE levels and vice versa. Numerous epidemiological studies suggest a key role of peripherally expressed APOE in the development and progression of coronary heart disease while brain APOE has been associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767079/gluconeogenesis-during-starvation-and-refeeding-phase-is-affected-by-previous-dietary-carbohydrates-levels-and-a-glucose-stimuli-during-early-life-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#7
Xiaofang Liang, Jia Wang, Guan Gong, Min Xue, Yingchao Dong, Xiufeng Wu, Xin Wang, Chunshan Chen, Xufang Liang, Yuchang Qin
Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon ( Acipenser baerii ) previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G) or a low glucose diet (F) from the first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching [dph]). Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H) or a low carbohydrate diet (L) until 20 wk...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763372/acetyl-coa-from-inflammation-induced-fatty-acids-oxidation-promotes-hepatic-malate-aspartate-shuttle-activity-and-glycolysis
#8
Tongxin Wang, Weilei Yao, Ji Li, Qiongyu He, Yafei Shao, Feiruo Huang
Hepatic metabolic syndrome is associated with inflammation, as it stimulates the reprogramming of nutrient metabolism and hepatic mitochondria-generated acetyl-CoA. But how acetyl-CoA affects the reprogramming of nutrient metabolism, especially glucose and fatty acids, in the condition of inflammation is still unclear. Here, we used an acute inflammation model in which pigs were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and found that hepatic glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation are both promoted. Acetyl-proteome profiling of LPS-infected pigs liver showed that inflammatory stress exacerbates the acetylation of mitochondrial proteins...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761172/loss-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-aggravates-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-mediated-inflammation-during-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#9
Tomohiro Suzuki, Shoko Minagawa, Takashi Yamazaki, Takatomo Arai, Mai Kanai, Satoko Shinjo, Nobuhito Goda
Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury is closely associated with acute hepatic inflammation. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is activated during immunological processes and regulates gene expressions in various types of immune cells. Although HIF-1 controls the differentiation and functions of conventional T cells in chronic inflammation, the pathological importance of HIF-1 in innate-like T cells during acute inflammation remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of HIF-1 in innate-like γδ T cells during APAP-induced acute liver injury...
May 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755549/evaluation-of-diabetogenic-mechanism-of-high-fat-diet-in-combination-with-arsenic-exposure-in-male-mice
#10
Akram Ahangarpour, Soheila Alboghobeish, Mohsen Rezaei, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Ali Akbar Oroojan, Marzieh Zainvand
Obesity is a main reason of type 2 diabetes and also chronic exposure to arsenic (As) can produce diabetic symptoms. In previous studies, the association between high-fat diet and arsenic in the incidence of diabetes was found, but the role of beta cells activity, liver mitochondrial oxidative stress, and hepatic enzymes (leptin, adiponectin and beta amylase) was unclear. Thus, present study was conducted to evaluate the diabetogenic mechanism of arsenic followed by concomitant administration of high-fat diet (HFD) in male mice...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753871/combinatorial-usage-of-fungal-polysaccharides-from-cordyceps-sinensis-and-ganoderma-atrum-ameliorate-drug-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#11
Songtao Fan, Xiaojun Huang, Sunan Wang, Chang Li, Zhihong Zhang, Mingyong Xie, Shaoping Nie
This study investigated the possible protective effect of combined fungal polysaccharides (CFP), consisting of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP) and Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides (PSG) with well-defined structural characteristics, against cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Our results indicated CFP effectively prevented the liver injury by decreasing toxicity markers (aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase). Further biochemical and molecular analysis indicated CSP particularly inhibited the activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and its related inflammatory signals, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 to modulate hepatic inflammation response...
May 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752478/bafilomycin-c1-induces-g0-g1-cell-cycle-arrest-and-mitochondrial-mediated-apoptosis-in-human-hepatocellular-cancer-smmc7721-cells
#12
Xiaoxiao Gao, Li Han, Nan Ding, Yu Mu, Peipei Guan, Caijuan Hu, Xueshi Huang
Bafilomycin C1, which was isolated from Streptomyces albolongus in our previous work, exhibited strong cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. This study aimed to evaluate its antitumor effect on human hepatocellular cancer SMMC7721 cells and the underlying mechanism in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay revealed that bafilomycin C1 retarded SMMC7721 cell growth and proliferation. Western blot and real-time qPCR analysis revealed that bafilomycin C1 caused partial G0/G1 phase cell-cycle arrest, downregulated the expression of cyclin D3, cyclin E1, CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6 and upregulated the expression of p21...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752158/immortalization-of-chicken-embryonic-liver-derived-cell-line-by-stable-expression-of-hmrp18s-2-for-serotype-4-fowl-adenovirus-propagation
#13
Lei Feng, Li Chen, Junwen Yun, Zhixiang Bi, Yinghua Tang, Peipei Wu, Jibo Hou
Inclusion body hepatitis and hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome caused by serotype 4 fowl adenovirus (FAdV-4) have emerged in China since 2013. FAdV is usually propagated in primary chicken embryonic liver cells or embryo yolk sac. The aim of this work was to develop an immortalized CEL cell line by stable expression of human mitochondrial ribosomal protein 18S-2, named CEL-hMRP18S-2 cells, for the propagation of FAdV-4. The maximum cell density of CEL-hMRP18S-2 cells could reach 2.65 × 106  cells/ml in four-days culture...
May 8, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751151/different-administration-patterns-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-combating-cytotoxic-manifestations-due-to-arsenic-trioxide-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-drug-induced-redox-imbalance-in-hepatocytes
#14
S Abhilash, R Siviyasankar, P Binu, P Arathi, R Harikumaran Nair
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) obtained from fish and plant sources is an essential dietary fatty acid and an important cell membrane structural component. The acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) drug arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ), causes hepatotoxicity. We evaluated the protective potential of DHA as pre/ combination/ post-administration patterns against As2 O3 induced toxicity. The therapeutic concentration of As2 O3 (10 µM) resulted in cytotoxicity with a significant (p < 0.05) variation from the control group...
May 8, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751030/high-throughput-toxicity-testing-of-chemicals-and-mixtures-in-organotypic-multi-cellular-cultures-of-primary-human-hepatic-cells
#15
Sophia M Orbach, Marion F Ehrich, Padmavathy Rajagopalan
High-throughput screening (HTS) of liver toxicants can bridge the gap in understanding adverse effects of chemicals on humans. Toxicity testing of mixtures is time consuming and expensive, since the number of possible combinations increases exponentially with the number of chemicals. The combination of organotypic culture models and HTS assays can lead to the rapidly evaluation of chemical toxicity in a cost and time-effective manner while prioritizing chemicals that warrant additional investigation. We describe the design, assembly and toxicant response of multi-cellular hepatic organotypic culture models comprised of primary human or rat cells assembled in 96-well plates (denoted as μOCMs)...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748608/hepatic-steatosis-associated-with-decreased-%C3%AE-oxidation-and-mitochondrial-function-contributes-to-cell-damage-in-obese-mice-after-thermal-injury
#16
Li Diao, Christopher Auger, Hisato Konoeda, Ali-Reza Sadri, Saeid Amini-Nik, Marc G Jeschke
Severely burned patients who are morbidly obese have poor clinical outcomes with aggravated metabolic consequences, a higher incidence of multiple organ dysfunction/failure, and significantly increased morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms of these adverse outcomes are essentially unknown. Since the liver is one of the central metabolic organs, we hypothesized that thermal injury in obese patients leads to substantially increased lipolysis, hepatic fat infiltration, resulting in profound hepatic cellular and organellar alterations, consequently causing liver damage and severely augmented metabolic dysfunction...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746885/curcumin-inhibits-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-via-suppression-of-succinate-associated-hif-1%C3%AE-induction
#17
Linlin She, Dan Xu, Zixia Wang, Yirui Zhang, Qingli Wei, Jiye Aa, Guangji Wang, Baolin Liu, Yuan Xie
PURPOSE: Aberrant succinate accumulation emerges as a unifying mechanism for inflammation and oxidative stress. This study aims to investigate whether curcumin ameliorates hepatic fibrosis via blocking succinate signaling. METHODS: We investigated the effects of curcumin on hepatic succinate accumulation and liver fibrosis in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Meanwhile, we stimulated mouse primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) with succinate and observed the inhibitory effects of curcumin on succinate signaling...
May 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740925/metformin-directly-targets-the-h3k27me3-demethylase-kdm6a-utx
#18
Elisabet Cuyàs, Sara Verdura, Laura Llorach-Pares, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Noemí Cabré, Jan Stursa, Lukas Werner, Begoña Martin-Castillo, Benoit Viollet, Jiri Neuzil, Jorge Joven, Alfons Nonell-Canals, Melchor Sanchez-Martinez, Javier A Menendez
Metformin, the first drug chosen to be tested in a clinical trial aimed to target the biology of aging per se, has been clinically exploited for decades in the absence of a complete understanding of its therapeutic targets or chemical determinants. We here outline a systematic chemoinformatics approach to computationally predict biomolecular targets of metformin. Using several structure- and ligand-based software tools and reference databases containing 1,300,000 chemical compounds and more than 9,000 binding sites protein cavities, we identified 41 putative metformin targets including several epigenetic modifiers such as the member of the H3K27me3-specific demethylase subfamily, KDM6A/UTX...
May 8, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740774/sirtuin-signaling-controls-mitochondrial-function-in-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia
#19
Jun-Ho Cho, Goo-Young Kim, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) deficient in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α) is a metabolic disorder characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and a long-term complication of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma (HCA/HCC). Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in GSD-Ia but the underlying mechanism and its contribution to HCA/HCC development remain unclear. We have shown that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency leads to downregulation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signaling that underlies defective hepatic autophagy in GSD-Ia...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740394/metabolic-syndrome-and-antipsychotics-the-role-of-mitochondrial-fission-fusion-imbalance
#20
Andrea Del Campo, Catalina Bustos, Carolina Mascayano, Claudio Acuña-Castillo, Rodrigo Troncoso, Leonel E Rojo
Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are known to increase cardiovascular risk through several physiological mechanisms, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, hyperphagia, and accelerated weight gain. There are limited prophylactic interventions to prevent these side effects of SGAs, in part because the molecular mechanisms underlying SGAs toxicity are not yet completely elucidated. In this perspective article, we introduce an innovative approach to study the metabolic side effects of antipsychotics through the alterations of the mitochondrial dynamics, which leads to an imbalance in mitochondrial fusion/fission ratio and to an inefficient mitochondrial phenotype of muscle cells...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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