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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202634/energy-cost-of-common-physical-activities-in-preschoolers
#1
Mirko Brandes, Berit Steenbock, Norman Wirsik
BACKGROUND: To determine the energy cost of common physical activities in preschoolers and to compare it with the Compendium of Energy Expenditure for Youth (CEEY). METHODS: In total, 42 children [age: 4.8 (0.8) y; body mass index: 15.3 (2.0) kg/m2; 22 boys] completed 13 common physical activities covering sedentary to vigorous intensities, while energy expenditure (EE) was measured continuously by indirect calorimetry. Activity-specific metabolic equivalents (AME) were calculated as the EE observed during each single activity divided by the EE during observed rest...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202322/accident-frequency-and-unrealistic-optimism-children-s-assessment-of-risk
#2
Mary Sissons Joshi, Morag Maclean, Claire Stevens
Accidental injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children, warranting research on their risk perceptions. Three hundred and seven children aged 10-11 years assessed the frequency, danger and personal risk likelihood of 8 accidents. Two social-cognitive biases were manifested. The frequency of rare accidents (e.g. drowning) was overestimated, and the frequency of common accidents (e.g. bike accidents) underestimated; and the majority of children showed unrealistic optimism tending to see themselves as less likely to suffer these accidents in comparison to their peers, offering superior skills or parental control of the environment as an explanation...
December 1, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201290/ergospirometry-with-concurrent-fibre-optic-laryngoscopy-a-randomised-crossover-study
#3
Kiran Kafila Mirza, Emil Schwarz Walsted, Vibeke Backer
Background: Patients suffering from exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) are subjected to several exhausting tests. We aimed to assess the feasibility of using a single test to obtain diagnostic measurements for maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). Methods: Patients referred to the outpatient respiratory clinic at the University Hospital of Bispebjerg, Copenhagen with exercise-induced dyspnoea were evaluated for inclusion over 13 months. Eligible patients were aged 18-43 years, had a known EILO diagnosis (moderate or severe) and were inactive (self-reported activity) with less than 3 hours activity per week...
2017: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194186/the-impact-of-different-cross-training-modalities-on-performance-and-injury-related-variables-in-high-school-cross-country-runners
#4
Max R Paquette, Shelby A Peel, Ross E Smith, Mark Temme, Jeffrey N Dwyer
There are many different types of aerobic cross-training modalities currently available. It is important to consider the effects that these different modalities have on running performance and injury risks. The purpose of this study was to compare movement quality, running economy and performance, injury-related biomechanical variables and, hip muscle strength before and after training with different cross-training modalities in high school runners. Thirty-one high school male runners trained for four weeks in one of three cross-training modalities, in addition to a running-only (RUN, n=9) group, for which training sessions replaced two easy runs per week: cycling (CYCLE; n=6), indoor elliptical (ELLIP; n=7) and, outdoor elliptical bike (EBIKE; n=9)...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191770/auditory-motor-coupling-affects-phonetic-encoding
#5
Maren Schmidt-Kassow, Katharina Thöne, Jochen Kaiser
Recent studies have shown that moving in synchrony with auditory stimuli boosts attention allocation and verbal learning. Furthermore rhythmic tones are processed more efficiently than temporally random tones ('timing effect'), and this effect is increased when participants actively synchronize their motor performance with the rhythm of the tones, resulting in auditory-motor synchronization. Here, we investigated whether this applies also to sequences of linguistic stimuli (syllables). We compared temporally irregular syllable sequences with two temporally regular conditions where either the interval between syllable onsets (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA) or the interval between the syllables' vowel onsets was kept constant...
November 27, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185788/risk-factors-for-motorcycle-loss-of-control-crashes
#6
Dan Wu, Martine Hours, Jean-Louis Martin
OBJECTIVE: The present paper identifies and assesses the effect of critical factors on the risk of motorcycle loss-of-control (LOC) crashes. METHOD: Data come from a French project on road crashes, which comprises all fatal road crashes and a random sample of 1/20th of non-fatal crashes in France in 2011, based on police reports. A case-control study was carried out on a sample of 903 crashes for 444 LOC motorcycle riders (case) and 470 non-LOC and non-responsible motorcycle riders (control)...
November 29, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182418/associations-between-bicycling-and-fall-related-physical-performance-in-older-adults
#7
Stephen Harvey, Chris Rissel, Mirjam Pijnappels
Falls among older adults remains a significant public health issue. Bicycling positively influences falls risk factors including reduced balance, muscle weakness, and low self-perceived confidence in maintaining balance. However, this association has not been systematically examined. We recruited 107 community-dwelling participants aged 65 and over in the Netherlands to determine the relationship between bicycling and fall risk factors. Participants completed 3 questionnaires on cycling behaviour and balance confidence, and undertook 5 fall related physical performance tasks encompassing tests of balance, strength, gait and endurance...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167788/examining-capacity-and-functioning-of-bicycle-coalitions-a-descriptive-study
#8
Melissa Bopp, Dangaia Sims, Nicole Vairo, Emily Hentz-Leister
Background: Bicycle coalitions represent a strong partner in creating bike-friendly communities through advocacy for physical infrastructure, encouragement for biking, or education about safety. Despite their versatility, little is known about their functioning. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine capacity, strengths, and weaknesses of these organizations. Methods: Bicycle coalitions/advocacy groups from English-speaking countries were recruited to take part in an online survey via email invitation...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166946/noise-exposure-while-commuting-in-toronto-a-study-of-personal-and-public-transportation-in-toronto
#9
Christopher M K L Yao, Andrew K Ma, Sharon L Cushing, Vincent Y W Lin
BACKGROUND: With an increasing proportion of the population living in cities, mass transportation has been rapidly expanding to facilitate the demand, yet there is a concern that mass transit has the potential to result in excessive exposure to noise, and subsequently noise-induced hearing loss. METHODS: Noise dosimetry was used to measure time-integrated noise levels in a representative sample of the Toronto Mass Transit system (subway, streetcar, and buses) both aboard moving transit vehicles and on boarding platforms from April - August 2016...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166687/-how-probable-is-it-that-seniors-using-an-e-bike-will-have-an-accident-a-new-health-care-topic-also-for-consulting-doctors
#10
Raphael Weiss, Christian Juhra, Britta Wieskötter, Udo Weiss, Susanne Jung, Michael Raschke
Background In Germany there are more than 70 million bicycles. Because of technical progress, over 200,000 electro-assisted bikes were sold in Germany in 2010 alone. In 2013, the number increased to 410,000. Currently more than 1.6 million electric bicycles are used here. One of the largest user groups are seniors. Accident researchers fear an increased risk of accidents/injuries. Methods For one year, all cycling accidents involving electric bicycles and senior citizens were collected and analysed in 23 hospitals of the TraumaNetwork NorthWest and by the local police authorities...
November 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166249/qualitative-exploration-of-cross-sector-perspectives-on-the-contributions-of-local-health-departments-in-land-use-and-transportation-policy
#11
Meera Sreedhara, Karin Valentine Goins, Semra A Aytur, Rodney Lyn, Jay E Maddock, Robin Riessman, Thomas L Schmid, Heather Wooten, Stephenie C Lemon
INTRODUCTION: Transportation and land-use policies can affect the physical activity of populations. Local health departments (LHDs) are encouraged to participate in built-environment policy processes, which are outside their traditional expertise. Cross-sector collaborations are needed, yet stakeholders' perceptions of LHD involvement are not well understood. The objective of this study was to describe the perceived value of LHD participation in transportation and land-use decision making and potential contributions to these processes among stakeholders...
November 22, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165126/associations-between-the-duration-of-active-commuting-to-school-and-academic-achievement-in-rural-chilean-adolescents
#12
Antonio García-Hermoso, Jose M Saavedra, Jordi Olloquequi, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Habitual active commuting to school may be positively associated with academic achievement. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between duration of walking or otherwise actively commuting to school and academic achievement. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 389 adolescents from seven rural schools (12-13 years). Mode and duration of active commuting to school (use of active means such as walking or biking to and from school) and screen time were self-reported...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158726/enhanced-aerobic-exercise-performance-in-women-by-a-combination-of-three-mineral-chelates-plus-two-conditionally-essential-nutrients
#13
Robert A DiSilvestro, Staci Hart, Trisha Marshall, Elizabeth Joseph, Alyssa Reau, Carmen B Swain, Jason Diehl
Background: Certain essential and conditionally essential nutrients (CENs) perform functions involved in aerobic exercise performance. However, increased intake of such nutrient combinations has not actually been shown to improve such performance. Methods: For 1 mo, aerobically fit, young adult women took either a combination of 3 mineral glycinate complexes (daily dose: 36 mg iron, 15 mg zinc, and 2 mg copper) + 2 CENs (daily dose: 2 g carnitine and 400 mg phosphatidylserine), or the same combination with generic mineral complexes, or placebo (n = 14/group)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158655/bikeshare-use-in-urban-communities-individual-and-neighborhood-factors
#14
Gabriela R Oates, Bryant W Hamby, Sejong Bae, Maria C Norena, H Olivia Hart, Mona N Fouad
Objective: Bicycling is an affordable way to increase access to employment, schooling, and services and an effective measure against obesity. Bikeshare programs can make bicycling accessible to diverse populations, but little evidence exists on their adoption in low-resource neighborhoods. Our study examined factors associated with bikeshare use in a metropolitan area in the southern United States. Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of a database of clients (N=815) who rented a bicycle from Zyp Bikeshare in Birmingham, Alabama between October 2015 and November 2016...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154609/influence-of-sedentary-social-and-physical-alternatives-on-food-reinforcement
#15
Katelyn A Carr, Leonard H Epstein
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the potential for nonfood alternative activities to compete with the reinforcing value of food. Participants rated the frequency and pleasantness of engaging in a variety of activities and made hypothetical choices between food and 4 types of alternatives; cognitive-enriching (reading, listening to music), social (attending a party or event), sedentary (watching TV), and physically active (running, biking). METHOD: Two-hundred seventy-six adults completed an online survey using a crowdsourcing platform...
November 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154592/college-females-with-maltreatment-histories-have-atypical-autonomic-regulation-and-poor-psychological-wellbeing
#16
Lourdes P Dale, Samia K Shaikh, Laura C Fasciano, Vanessa D Watorek, Keri J Heilman, Stephen W Porges
OBJECTIVES: This study uniquely examined the impact of maltreatment (without a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) on physiological responses to a physical and an emotional stressor. The study sample was composed exclusively of women, because men may differ in maltreatment experience and neural regulation of physiological reactivity. METHOD: Participants were 60 female college students. A significant proportion of the participants reported experiencing childhood maltreatment without a history of PTSD...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141506/triathlon-transition-study-quantifying-differences-in-running-movement-pattern-and-precision-after-bike-run-transition
#17
Christian Weich, Randall L Jensen, Manfred Vieten
Various publications discuss the discrepancies of running in triathlons and stand-alone runs. However, those methods, such as analysing step-characteristics or ground-contact time, lack the ability to quantitatively discriminate between subtle running differences. The attractor method can be applied to overcome those shortcomings. The purpose was to detect differences in athletes' running patterns (δM) and movement precision (δD) by comparing a 5,000 m run after a prior cycling session (TRun) with an isolated run over the same distance (IRun)...
November 15, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140621/australian-leadership-saving-lives-with-crush-prevention-devices
#18
Melvin L Myers
The burden of injury and death due to quad bike [all-terrain vehicle, or ATV] use cannot be allowed to continue unchecked, and ongoing delay in action may permit to further avoidable tragedies." -Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (2016, p. 13).
January 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136559/determinants-of-pedestrian-and-bicyclist-crash-severity-by-party-at-fault-in-san-francisco-ca
#19
Deborah Salon, Andrew McIntyre
Pedestrian and bicyclist safety is of growing concern, especially given the increasing numbers of urban residents choosing to walk and bike. Sharing the roads with automobiles, these road users are particularly vulnerable. An intuitive conceptual model is proposed of the determinants of injury severity in crashes between vehicles and nonmotorized road users. Using 10 years of crash data from San Francisco, CA, we estimate logistic regression models to illuminate key determinants of crash severity for both pedestrian and bicyclist collisions...
November 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135638/mountain-biking-injuries
#20
Majid Ansari, Ruhollah Nourian, Morteza Khodaee
With the increasing popularity of mountain biking, also known as off-road cycling, and the riders pushing the sport into extremes, there has been a corresponding increase in injury. Almost two thirds of acute injuries involve the upper extremities, and a similar proportion of overuse injuries affect the lower extremities. Mountain biking appears to be a high-risk sport for severe spine injuries. New trends of injury patterns are observed with popularity of mountain bike trail parks and freeride cycling. Using protective gear, improving technical proficiency, and physical fitness may somewhat decrease the risk of injuries...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
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