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Jessica A Gray, P Scott Chandry, Mandeep Kaur, Chawalit Kocharunchitt, John P Bowman, Edward M Fox
High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs) due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
P A J van Oort
Maps of abiotic stresses for rice can be useful for (1) prioritizing research and (2) identifying stress hotspots, for directing technologies and varieties to those areas where they are most needed. Large-scale maps of stresses are not available for Africa. This paper considers four abiotic stresses relevant for rice in Africa (drought, cold, iron toxicity and salinity/sodicity). Maps showing hotspots of the stresses, the countries most affected and total potentially affected area are presented. In terms of relative importance, the study identified drought as the most important stress (33% of rice area potentially affected), followed by iron toxicity (12%) and then cold (7%) and salinity/sodicity (2%)...
April 15, 2018: Field Crops Research
Andrew M Hudson, Natalie L Stephenson, Cynthia Li, Eleanor Trotter, Adam J Fletcher, Gitta Katona, Patrycja Bieniasz-Krzywiec, Matthew Howell, Chris Wirth, Simon Furney, Crispin J Miller, John Brognard
A major challenge in cancer genomics is identifying "driver" mutations from the many neutral "passenger" mutations within a given tumor. To identify driver mutations that would otherwise be lost within mutational noise, we filtered genomic data by motifs that are critical for kinase activity. In the first step of our screen, we used data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and The Cancer Genome Atlas to identify kinases with truncation mutations occurring within or before the kinase domain...
April 17, 2018: Science Signaling
Christopher M Sande, Brian Chang, Varun Monga, Aaron D Bossler, Deqin Ma
Recent studies are discovering TP53 mutations with gain of function (GOF) properties that promote tumorigenesis via a variety of mechanisms. To our knowledge, all reported compound mutations are allelic. We identified two patients with biallelic GOF TP53 mutations in their tumors and a third with allelic compound variants. The correlation with p53 expression was also examined. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and mutational analysis was performed using Ion AmpliSeq™Cancer HotSpot Panel V2...
April 2018: Cancer Genetics
Rodolfo L B Nóbrega, Alphonce C Guzha, Gabriele Lamparter, Ricardo S S Amorim, Eduardo G Couto, Harold J Hughes, Hermann F Jungkunst, Gerhard Gerold
Studies on the impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in active deforestation zones of the Amazon agricultural frontier are limited and have often used low-temporal-resolution datasets. Moreover, these impacts are not concurrently assessed in well-established agricultural areas and new deforestations hotspots. We aimed to identify these impacts using an experimental setup to collect high-temporal-resolution hydrological and hydrochemical data in two pairs of low-order streams in catchments under contrasting land use and land cover (native vegetation vs...
April 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ulrich Kreidenweis, Florian Humpenöder, Laura Kehoe, Tobias Kuemmerle, Benjamin Leon Bodirsky, Hermann Lotze-Campen, Alexander Popp
Agricultural expansion is a leading driver of biodiversity loss across the world, but little is known on how future land-use change may encroach on remaining natural vegetation. This uncertainty is, in part, due to unknown levels of future agricultural intensification and international trade. Using an economic land-use model, we assessed potential future losses of natural vegetation with a focus on how these may threaten biodiversity hotspots and intact forest landscapes. We analysed agricultural expansion under proactive and reactive biodiversity protection scenarios, and for different rates of pasture intensification...
April 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
Jaime Martinez-Urtaza, Joaquin Trinanes, Michel Abanto, Antonio Lozano-Leon, Jose Llovo-Taboada, Marta Garcia-Campello, Anxela Pousa, Andy Powell, Craig Baker-Austin, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona
Galicia in northwestern Spain has been considered a hotspot for Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections. Infections abruptly emerged in 1998 and, over the next 15 years, were associated with large outbreaks caused by strains belonging to a single clone. We report a recent transition in the epidemiologic pattern in which cases throughout the region have been linked to different and unrelated strains. Global genome-wide phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the pathogenic strains isolated from infections were associated with globally diverse isolates, indicating frequent episodic introductions from disparate and remote sources...
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Dan Wang, Mengna Zhang, Honghong Pei
Exosomes are of great importance in cell communication and information transmission, which have become a hotspot in recent years. Most studies have focused on the transport of microRNA (miRNA) and proteins, that mediated by exosomes, as well as exosomes as a drug delivery carrier of the feasibility. Therefore, exosomes can be an important method of treatment for systemic inflammatory diseases. This article reviews the relevant literature, mainly on the related characteristics of exosomes, its association with clinical disease, and its application in sepsis...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Yi Zhang, Yi Cheng, Cong Chen, Qi Liu, Xinyu Bi, Lei Duan, Jiamin Liu, Mengqi Wan, Lanye Huang, Ke Hu
Tumor metastasis and invasiveness are research hotspots in tumor therapy. Previous research demonstrated that cells expressing high level of CD36 might initiate metastasis in certain human oral carcinomas cell lines. Multicellular spheroids (MCS) culture technique has been extensively studied both in fundamental and applied research. In our previous research, we invented novel 3D anisotropic magnetic hydrogels (AMHs) which were composed of magnetic nanoparticle assemblies and biocompatible hydrogels. We further applied them as cell culture substrate in vitro...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
John D McLennan
Objective: Telehealth to schools may be a strategic approach to expand child mental health service delivery, however, there are only a few published examples. This report describes video-conferencing telehealth linkage attempts to schools to facilitate mental health consultation. Methods: A series of synchronous video-conferencing linkage strategies were attempted to connect a mental health consultation service to multiple schools in a Canadian setting. Consultation to support the implementation of the Daily Report Card, for students with attentional and behavioural problems, was the core content of this pilot linkage attempt...
April 2018: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Martin Wartenberg, Silvia Cibin, Inti Zlobec, Erik Vassella, Serenella M M Eppenberger-Castori, Luigi Terracciano, Micha Eichmann, Mathias Worni, Beat Gloor, Aurel Perren, Eva Karamitopoulou
PURPOSE: Current clinical classification of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unable to predict prognosis or response to chemo- or immunotherapy and does not take into account the host reaction to PDAC-cells. Our aim is to classify PDAC according to host- and tumor-related factors into clinically/biologically relevant subtypes by integrating molecular and microenvironmental findings. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A well-characterized PDAC-cohort (n=110) underwent next-generation sequencing with a hotspot cancer panel, while Next-generation Tissue-Microarrays were immunostained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, PD-L1, p63, hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM) and DNA mismatch-repair proteins...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Yemin Wang, Anthony N Karnezis, Jamie Magrill, Basile Tessier-Cloutier, Amy Lum, Janine Senz, C Blake Gilks, W Glenn McCluggage, David G Huntsman, Friedrich Kommoss
AIMS: Gynandroblastoma is a rare ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor characterized by the presence of both male (Sertoli and/or Leydig cells) and female (granulosa cells) components. We investigated the mutational status of DICER1, FOXL2 and AKT1 genes at hotspot regions that are known to be the key driving events in the development of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (SLCT), adult granulosa cell tumor (aGCT) and juvenile granulosa cell tumor (jGCT), respectively, to gain insights into the molecular pathogenesis of gynandroblastoma...
April 16, 2018: Histopathology
Yoichi Naito, Hideaki Takahashi, Kohei Shitara, Wataru Okamoto, Hideaki Bando, Takeshi Kuwata, Yasutoshi Kuboki, Shingo Matsumoto, Izumi Miki, Takeharu Yamanaka, Atsushi Watanabe, Motohiro Kojima
Background: To confirm the feasibility and explore the clinical applicability of amplicon sequencing by next generation sequencing (NGS) of biopsy samples from patients with advanced solid tumors, we conducted a prospective study. Methods: Patients with unresectable, advanced, or recurrent solid tumors were included. Key eligibility criteria were as follows: 20 years or older, any planned systemic therapy, adequate lesion for biopsy, and written informed consent...
April 12, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Abhishek Chaudhary, Christopher P F Marinangeli, Denis Tremorin, Alexander Mathys
Incorporating low cost pulses, such as yellow peas, that are rich in nutrients and low in fertilizer requirements, into daily food items, can improve the nutritional and sustainability profile of national diets. This paper systematically characterized the effect of using Canadian grown whole yellow pea and refined wheat flours on nutritional density and carbon footprint in cereal-based food products. Canada-specific production data and the levels of 27 macro- and micronutrients were used to calculate the carbon footprint and nutrient balance score (NBS), respectively, for traditional and reformulated pan bread, breakfast cereal, and pasta...
April 16, 2018: Nutrients
M K Lange, F Penagos-Tabares, J Hirzmann, K Failing, R Schaper, Y R Van Bourgonie, T Backeljau, C Hermosilla, A Taubert
Metastrongyloid parasites represent sparsely studied parasites of dogs and cats in Germany. Recent European surveys indicate that these parasites are spreading in Europe. Actual data on prevalence of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs and foxes reveal several endemic foci in Germany. However, actual data on the prevalence of A. vasorum and other metastrongyloid lungworm larvae in a wide range of slug and snail intermediate hosts, such as Arion lusitanicus, are missing for Germany. To fill this gap, we conducted an epidemiological survey on native German slugs in selected regions of Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Thomas J Mitchell, Samra Turajlic, Andrew Rowan, David Nicol, James H R Farmery, Tim O'Brien, Inigo Martincorena, Patrick Tarpey, Nicos Angelopoulos, Lucy R Yates, Adam P Butler, Keiran Raine, Grant D Stewart, Ben Challacombe, Archana Fernando, Jose I Lopez, Steve Hazell, Ashish Chandra, Simon Chowdhury, Sarah Rudman, Aspasia Soultati, Gordon Stamp, Nicos Fotiadis, Lisa Pickering, Lewis Au, Lavinia Spain, Joanna Lynch, Mark Stares, Jon Teague, Francesco Maura, David C Wedge, Stuart Horswell, Tim Chambers, Kevin Litchfield, Hang Xu, Aengus Stewart, Reza Elaidi, Stéphane Oudard, Nicholas McGranahan, Istvan Csabai, Martin Gore, P Andrew Futreal, James Larkin, Andy G Lynch, Zoltan Szallasi, Charles Swanton, Peter J Campbell
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by near-universal loss of the short arm of chromosome 3, deleting several tumor suppressor genes. We analyzed whole genomes from 95 biopsies across 33 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We find hotspots of point mutations in the 5' UTR of TERT, targeting a MYC-MAX-MAD1 repressor associated with telomere lengthening. The most common structural abnormality generates simultaneous 3p loss and 5q gain (36% patients), typically through chromothripsis...
April 4, 2018: Cell
Ping Xie
The Escherichia coli RecBCD enzyme is a heterotrimeric helicase-nuclease complex responsible for processing of double-stranded DNA breaks for repair by homologous recombination. It is a highly processive, duplex unwinding and degrading motor, with its activities being regulated by the octameric recombination hotspot, Chi, which is read as a single-stranded DNA sequence. Here, a model is presented for DNA unwinding by the RecBCD complex and its regulation by Chi recognition. With the model we study analytically the dynamics of DNA unwinding of both wild-type RecBCD and mutant RecBCDK177Q with the motor function of RecD being inactivated by mutagenesis, giving quantitative explanations of the available single-molecule experimental data...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Ata Allah Nadiri, Sina Sadeghfam, Maryam Gharekhani, Rahman Khatibi, Elham Akbari
Proof-of-concept is presented in this paper to a methodology formulated for indexing risks to groundwater aquifers exposed to impacts of diffuse contaminations from anthropogenic and geogenic origins. The methodology is for mapping/indexing, which refers to relative values but not their absolute values. The innovations include: (i) making use of the Origins-Source-Pathways-Receptors-Consequences (OSPRC) framework; and (ii) dividing a study area into modular Risk (OSPRC) Cells to capture their idiosyncrasies with different origins...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Mathew Joseph Valamparampil, Ananth Mohan, Chinu Jose, Deepthi Kottassery Sadheesan, Jemin Jose Aby, Prasannakumar Vasudevakaimal, Sara Varghese, Anish Tekkumkara Surendrannair, Achu Laila Ashokan, Resmi Santhakumari Madhusoodhanan, Insija Selene Ilyas, Amjith Rajeevan, Sreekanth Balakrishnan Karthikeyan, Krishna Sulochana Devadhas, Rajesh Raghunath, Sethulekshmi Surendran, Harikrishnan Muraleedharanpillai, Zinia Thajudeen Nujum
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. The determinants of CVD in an urban population using conventional and geographic information system techniques were attempted as a community-based census-type cross-sectional study in Kerala, India, among 1649 individuals residing in 452 households. Sociodemographic details, risk factor exposures, and self-reported disease prevalence were determined. Location of houses, wells from which subjects drew drinking water, and distances of the house from the outer road (proxy for air pollution) were mapped using differential global positioning system and pH of water samples determined...
April 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Muhammad Khalid Khan Niazi, Thomas Erol Tavolara, Vidya Arole, Douglas J Hartman, Liron Pantanowitz, Metin N Gurcan
The World Health Organization (WHO) has clear guidelines regarding the use of Ki67 index in defining the proliferative rate and assigning grade for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET). WHO mandates the quantification of Ki67 index by counting at least 500 positive tumor cells in a hotspot. Unfortunately, Ki67 antibody may stain both tumor and non-tumor cells as positive depending on the phase of the cell cycle. Likewise, the counter stain labels both tumor and non-tumor as negative. This non-specific nature of Ki67 stain and counter stain therefore hinders the exact quantification of Ki67 index...
2018: PloS One
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