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neonatal hydronephrosis

Laura Jackson, Mark Woodward, Richard J Coward
Over recent years routine ultrasound scanning has identified increasing numbers of neonates as having hydronephrosis and pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO). This patient group presents a diagnostic and management challenge for paediatric nephrologists and urologists. In this review we consider the known molecular mechanisms underpinning PUJO and review the potential of utilising this information to develop novel therapeutics and diagnostic biomarkers to improve the care of children with this disorder...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Yury Kozlov, Konstantin Kovalkov, Vladimir Nowogilov
BACKGROUND: This study focuses on the successful application of three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopic surgeries in the treatment of congenital anomalies and acquired diseases in the young pediatric population. The purpose of this scientific work consists in highlighting the spectrum, indications, applicability, and effectiveness of 3D endosurgery in children. METHODS: Our experience is based on 110 endosurgical procedures performed in neonates and infants in the 3D format between January 2014 and May 2015...
December 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Sofia Visuri, Timo Jahnukainen, Seppo Taskinen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants with antenatal hydronephrosis (AHN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of AHN patients admitted to our institution between 2003 and 2013 were identified. Altogether 192 patients with nonrefluxing hydronephrosis (HN, n=135), nonrefluxing hydroureteronephrosis (HUN, n=21), or vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, n=36) were identified. Patients with complex anomalies or neonatal decompression of the urinary tract were excluded...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Ju Sun Heo, Joo Young Song, Eun Young Choi, Eun Hee Kim, Ji Hee Kim, So Eun Park, Ji Hyun Jeon
Neonatal Marfan syndrome (nMFS) is considered to be on the most severe end of the spectrum of type I fibrillinopathies. The common features of nMFS include ascending aortic dilatation, severe mitral and/or tricuspid valve insufficiency, ectopia lentis, arachnodactyly, joint contractures, crumpled ear, loose skin, and pulmonary emphysema.We describe a newborn male diagnosed with nMFS. He presented several atypical features, such as diaphragmatic eventration, severe hydronephrosis with hydroureter, and dilated cisterna magna...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
O Ozbek, H E Kaya, A Nayman, T B Saritas, I Guler, O Koc, H Karakus
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a modified percutaneous nephrostomy procedure for grade III-IV hydronephrosis in neonates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven neonates (five girls, six boys) with a mean age of 13.7days±9.9 (SD) (range, 4-28days) with pronounced hydronephrosis had percutaneous nephrostomy using a modified procedure. In all patients, percutaneous nephrostomy was performed with a trocar catheter under ultrasound guidance and then the catheter was placed into the collecting system without prior dilatation...
October 17, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
Fatma Rabah, Dana Al-Nabhani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Hend Shalaby, Reda Hemida, Hanan Nabil, Mohammad Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in the developing countries have a poor prognosis due to limited experience in antenatal and postnatal management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 3-year retrospective study was carried out from January 2011 to December 2013. The following data were collected and analyzed: maternal age, gravidity, parity, gestational age at diagnosis, and ultrasonography findings. Final diagnosis after birth, the performed surgeries, follow-up data, as well as survival at one year were also analyzed...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Wataru Yoshioka, Tatsuya Kawaguchi, Noriko Nishimura, Toshiya Akagi, Nozomi Fujisawa, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa, Fumio Matsumura, Chiharu Tohyama
Hydronephrosis is a commonly found disease state characterized by the dilation of renal calices and pelvis, resulting in the loss of kidney function in the severest cases. A generally accepted etiology of hydronephrosis involves the obstruction of urine flow along the urinary tract. In the recent years, we have developed a mouse model of hydronephrosis induced by lactational exposure to dioxin and demonstrated a lack of anatomical obstruction in this model. We also showed that prostaglandin E2 synthesis system plays a critical role in the onset of hydronephrosis...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
R Babu, S Hariharasudhan, C Ramesh
INTRODUCTION: There are conflicting reports on the criteria with which to determine success following posterior urethral valve (PUV) ablation. The aims of this study were to assess the value of the posterior urethra: anterior urethra ratio (PAR) in predicting successful PUV ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All neonates and infants with confirmed PUV on voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) were included. Initial PAR was computed by dividing maximum posterior urethral diameter by anterior urethral diameter...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Simin Sadeghi-Bojd, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Alireza Ansari-Moghadam, Somaye Rashidi
BACKGROUND: Prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) is dilation in urinary collecting system and is the most frequent neonatal urinary tract abnormality with an incidence of 1% to 5% of all pregnancies. PNH is defined as anteroposterior diameter (APD) of renal pelvis ≥ 4 mm at gestational age (GA) of < 33 weeks and APD ≥ 7 mm at GA of ≥ 33 weeks to 2 months after birth. All patients need to be evaluated after birth by postnatal renal ultrasonography (US). In the vast majority of cases, watchful waiting is the only thing to do; others need medical or surgical therapy...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Young Hun Choi, Jung-Eun Cheon, Woo Sun Kim, In-One Kim
Widespread use of fetal ultrasonography is accompanied by more frequent detection of antenatal hydronephrosis. Therefore, sonographic evaluation of neonates with a history of antenatal hydronephrosis is becoming more widespread. As an initial postnatal non-invasive imaging modality, ultrasonography is used to screen for persistence of hydronephrosis, determine the level and severity of obstruction, and contribute to appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This review aims to provide a practical overview of the sonographic evaluation of neonatal hydronephrosis and to describe the sonographic findings of conditions associated with hydronephrosis in the newborn...
July 2016: Ultrasonography
Satoshi Oki, Mikihiro Inoue, Kohei Otake, Kohei Matsushita, Yuhki Koike, Keiichi Uchida, Masato Kusunoki
Bladder rupture in a fetus is a rare occurrence. We report the first neonatal case of laparoscopic repair for prenatally diagnosed bladder rupture. A male neonate, who had presented with megacystis, bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureters since 27 weeks-of-gestation, was delivered by emergency cesarean section because of sudden collapse of the bladder with massive ascites at 37 weeks-of-gestation. The diagnosis of bladder rupture was made by retrograde urethrocystography. Laparoscopic repair was carried out subsequent to urethral catheterization...
June 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Paulo Cesar Koch Nogueira, Isabel de Pádua Paz
OBJECTIVE: The abnormalities of the genitourinary tract development are the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. The diagnosis of this disease in Brazil is late and incomplete, which results in increased morbidity and mortality in this age group. Early diagnosis of this condition is the prerogative of generalist pediatricians, and the aim of this study was to review the clinical signs and symptoms associated with developmental abnormalities of the genitourinary tract...
May 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Eduardo A Oliveira, Maria Christina L Oliveira, Robert H Mak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prenatal detection of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) has permitted the early management of these conditions. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the management of neonates with antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH). RECENT FINDINGS: In spite of the continuous advances in the understanding of the genetic basis, clinical course, and outcomes of CAKUT, there are still many controversies regarding the clinical significance, postnatal evaluation, and management of neonates with ANH...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Samuel Nef, Thomas J Neuhaus, Giuseppina Spartà, Marcus Weitz, Kathrin Buder, Josef Wisser, Rita Gobet, Ulrich Willi, Guido F Laube
UNLABELLED: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are common findings on fetal ultrasound. The aim of this prospective observational study was to describe outcome and risk factors in 115 patients born 1995-2001. All prenatally diagnosed children were stratified into low- and high-risk group and followed postnatally clinically and by imaging at defined endpoints. Risk factors were evaluated using odds ratios. Neonatal diagnosis included pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (n = 33), vesicoureteral reflux (n = 27), solitary mild pelvic dilatation (postnatal anteroposterior diameter 5-10 mm; n = 25), and further diagnosis as primary obstructive megaureter, unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney, renal dysplasia and posterior urethral valves...
May 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Seyed Mohammad Vahid Hosseini, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Mansour Kamali, Saeed Gholamzadeh, Babak Sabet, Farzaneh Alipour
BACKGROUND: To compare the results of final renal function by two methods of treatment in patients diagnosed as posterior urethral valve (PUV) (valve ablation vs. vesicostomy). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four boys diagnosed with PUV participated in this study. They were divided into top two groups. Thirty-one of the total were treated with primary valve fulguration (Group 1) and 23 were treated with vesicostomy (Group 2). One-year-creatinine level and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured...
October 2015: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
Lata Bhat, Supriya Bisht, Kavita Khanijo
BACKGROUND: Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome is a rare syndrome, consisting of vascular malformation of blood and lymph vessels. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: A newborn female with respiratory distress from birth, and having vascular malformation involving left thigh. OBSERVATION: The neonate also had hydronephrosis and developed complication of Kasabach Merritt syndrome. MESSAGE: Urogenital abnormalities can be present in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome but hydronephrosis is rare...
November 2015: Indian Pediatrics
Ozgur Haki Yuksel, Mithat Kivrak, Aytac Sahin, Serkan Akan, Ahmet Urkmez, Ayhan Verit
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition with heterogeneous clinical symptoms characterized by polyuria (urine output >4 mL/kg/hr) and polydipsia (water intake >2 L/m (2)/d). In children, acquired nephrogenic DI (NDI) is more common than central DI (CDI). Diagnosis is based on the presence of high plasma osmolality and low urinary osmolality with significant water diuresis. A water deprivation test with vasopressin challenge, though has limitations, is done to differentiate NDI from CDI and diagnose their incomplete forms...
November 2015: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Cem Senol, Metin Onaran, Serhat Gurocak, Ipek Isık Gonul, Mustafa Ozgur Tan
INTRODUCTION: Congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction is one the most common causes of neonatal hydronephrosis. The etiology of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction has not been clearly established. The presence of a hypoplastic, adynamic ureteral segment is thought to be the major cause of an UPJ obstruction. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the distribution of Cajal cells using immunohistologic methods coupled with light microscopy of the UPJ tissues in obstructed and normal UPJs...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Amirhossein Moaddab, Nicolas Sananes, Simone Hernandez-Ruano, Ingrid Schwach Werneck Britto, Yair Blumenfeld, François Stoll, Romain Favre, Rodrigo Ruano
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prenatal findings and postnatal outcomes in fetuses with congenital megalourethra. METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed our experience and the literature between 1989 and 2014. Prenatal findings were evaluated and compared with postnatal findings, including neonatal mortality and abnormal renal function (need for dialysis or renal transplantation). RESULTS: Fifty fetuses with congenital megalourethra were analyzed, including 6 cases diagnosed in our centers...
November 2015: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
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