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Infant airway compression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542112/laryngeal-mask-airway-versus-bag-mask-ventilation-or-endotracheal-intubation-for-neonatal-resuscitation
#1
REVIEW
Mosarrat J Qureshi, Manoj Kumar
BACKGROUND: Providing effective positive pressure ventilation is considered to be the single most important component of successful neonatal resuscitation. Ventilation is frequently initiated manually with bag and face mask (BMV) followed by endotracheal intubation if respiratory depression continues. These techniques may be difficult to perform successfully resulting in prolonged resuscitation or neonatal asphyxia. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) may achieve initial ventilation and successful resuscitation faster than a bag-mask device or endotracheal intubation...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489401/cervical-spine-injury-from-unrecognized-craniocervical-instability-in-severe-pierre-robin-sequence-associated-with-skeletal-dysplasia
#2
Xiao Zhu, Kelly N Evans, Areeg El-Gharbawy, Jonathan Y Lee, Jack E Brooker, Noel Jabbour, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Suneeta Madan-Khertarpal, Joseph E Losee, Jesse A Goldstein
Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) can be associated with skeletal dysplasias, presenting with craniocervical instability and devastating spinal injury if unrecognized. The authors present the case of an infant with PRS and a type II collagenopathy who underwent multiple airway-securing procedures requiring spinal manipulation before craniocervical instability was identified. This resulted in severe cervical cord compression due to odontoid fracture and occipitoatlantoaxial instability. This case highlights the importance of early cervical spine imaging and cautious manipulation in infants with PRS and suspected skeletal dysplasia...
May 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355460/infantile-intrathoracic-large-airway-obstruction-in-a-setting-with-a-high-prevalence-of-tuberculosis-hiv
#3
Benjamin Wybrand Barnard, Anne-Marie Du Plessis, Pierre Goussard, Richard Denys Pitcher
Background There has been no detailed analysis of the cause of intrathoracic large airway obstruction in infants in a resource-limited environment with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Aim To define the aetiology and severity of intrathoracic large airway obstruction in infants in a tertiary South African hospital with a high prevalence of PTB and HIV. Methods A retrospective study of infants was conducted with computerised tomography (CT) evidence of intrathoracic large airway obstruction from 1 January 2011 to 31 May 2014...
January 22, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333884/use-of-tidal-breathing-curves-for-evaluating-expiratory-airway-obstruction-in-infants
#4
Avigdor Hevroni, Aliza Goldman, Miriam Blank-Brachfeld, Wiessam Abu Ahmad, Lior Ben-Dov, Chaim Springer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tidal breathing (TB) flow-volume and flow-time curves for identification of expiratory airway obstruction in infants. METHODS: Pulmonary function tests were analyzed retrospectively in 156 infants aged 3-24 months with persistent or recurrent respiratory complaints. Parameters derived from TB curves were compared to maximal expiratory flow at functional residual capacity ([Formula: see text]maxFRC) measured by rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307026/correlation-of-symptoms-with-bronchoscopic-findings-in-children-with-a-prenatal-diagnosis-of-a-right-aortic-arch-and-left-arterial-duct
#5
Trisha V Vigneswaran, Eva Kapravelou, Aaron J Bell, Andrew Nyman, Kuberan Pushparajah, John M Simpson, Andrew Durward, Vita Zidere
A right aortic arch (RAA) with a left arterial duct (LAD) together encircle the trachea and have the potential to cause tracheobronchial compression and published guidelines recommend bronchoscopy in symptomatic patients. The aim of the study was to describe the incidence of tracheal compression in a cohort of prenatally diagnosed RAA and LAD. Retrospective review of clinical course and imaging of prenatal cases of RAA and LAD assessed with flexible bronchoscopy over an 11-year period. 34 cases of prenatally diagnosed RAA with LAD underwent bronchoscopy at median age of 9 months (range 0...
January 6, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306493/delivery-room-resuscitation-and-short-term-outcomes-in-moderately-preterm-infants
#6
Monika Bajaj, Girija Natarajan, Seetha Shankaran, Myra Wyckoff, Abbot R Laptook, Edward F Bell, Barbara J Stoll, Waldemar A Carlo, Betty R Vohr, Shampa Saha, Krisa P Van Meurs, Pablo J Sanchez, Carl T D'Angio, Rosemary D Higgins, Abhik Das, Nancy Newman, Michele C Walsh
OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and extent of delivery room resuscitation and evaluate the association of delivery room resuscitation with neonatal outcomes in moderately preterm (MPT) infants. STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational cohort study of MPT infants delivered at 290/7 to 336/7 weeks' gestational age (GA) enrolled in the Neonatal Research Network MPT registry. Infants were categorized into 5 groups based on the highest level of delivery room intervention: routine care, oxygen and/or continuous positive airway pressure, bag and mask ventilation, endotracheal intubation, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation including chest compressions and/or epinephrine use...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174256/mid-term-results-of-correction-of-tetralogy-of-fallot-with-absent-pulmonary-valve
#7
Sachin Talwar, Aabha Divya, Shiv Kumar Choudhary, Saurabh Kumar Gupta, Sivasubramanian Ramakriahnan, Shyam Sunder Kothari, Rajnish Juneja, Anita Saxena, Balram Airan
BACKGROUND: Tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve (TOF/APV) is associated with significant pulmonary artery dilatation and airway compression. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 73 consecutive patients who underwent repair for TOF/APV between January 2005-August 2015. Mean age was 6.4±5.6years (28days-22years). The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) was reconstructed using varied techniques. Freedom from RVOT gradients and re-operation was studied...
November 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861941/early-follow-up-of-lung-disease-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis-using-the-raised-volume-rapid-thoracic-compression-technique-and-computed-tomography-during-quiet-breathing
#8
Rémi Gauthier, Yann Cabon, Marie Agnes Giroux-Metges, Cecile Du Boisbaudry, Phillipe Reix, Muriel Le Bourgeois, Raphael Chiron, Nicolas Molinari, Magali Saguintaah, Francis Amsallem, Stefan Matecki
BACKGROUND: Among the different techniques used to monitor lung disease progression in infants with CF diagnosed by Newborn screening (NBS), raised volume-rapid thoracic compression (RVRTC) remains a promising tool. However, the need of sedation and positive pressure ventilation considerably limits its clinical use. We recently described a semi-quantitative method to evaluate air trapping by chest tomography during quite breathing without sedation (CTqb score). This parameter is the radiological sign of airway obstruction and could be also used for lung disease follow-up in infants with CF...
October 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757838/anesthetic-management-for-lobectomy-of-a-2-month-old-infant-with-bronchogenic-cyst-case-report-along-with-review-of-literature
#9
T Bansal, S Kiran, K Kamal, N Bangarwa
Bronchogenic cyst, a benign congenital cystic lesion of the lung, is a rare cause of respiratory distress in children comprising 7.5% of all mediastinal masses. A thorough preoperative evaluation is crucial to plan for definitive intra- and post-operative management. All patients should be thoroughly evaluated for the presence of compression, deviation or distortion of airways and great veins. The easiest means of providing one lung ventilation in pediatrics is to intubate the main stem bronchus of the nonoperated lung...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555322/assessment-of-airway-compression-on-chest-radiographs-in-children-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#10
Lisel Richter-Joubert, Savvas Andronikou, Lesley Workman, Heather J Zar
BACKGROUND: Because small, pliable paediatric airways are easily compressed by enlarged lymph nodes, detection of radiographic airway compression might be an objective criterion for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency and inter-observer agreement of airway compression on chest radiographs in children with pulmonary tuberculosis compared to those with a different lower respiratory tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chest radiographs of children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were read by two readers according to a standardised format and a third reader when there was disagreement...
May 29, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440911/unnoticed-aspiration-of-palate-plate-impression-material-in-a-neonate-diagnosis-therapy-outcome
#11
Friedrich Reichert, Peter Amrhein, Frank Uhlemann
A 7 week old infant was admitted with respiratory failure. Chest X-ray showed an atelectatic right upper lobe, herniation of right middle and lower lobe into the left thorax, and compression-atelectasis of the left lung. Thoracic CT showed complete occlusion of the right superior bronchus with a radiopaque foreign material. Six weeks prior, an impression for a palate plate using polyvinylsiloxane was taken. The material was removed with a rigid endoscopy, in readiness of extracorporeal oxygenation in case of tracheal obstruction or bronchial rupture...
October 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390757/multistage-sclerotherapy-for-extensive-lymphatic-malformations-with-airway-involvement-in-infant-a-protocol-to-prevent-tracheotomy
#12
An-Wei Chen, Tao Wang, Ying-Ying Huang, Shao-Hua Liu
PURPOSE: The management of extensive head and neck lymphatic malformations (LMs) in infants is challenging because of life-threatening upper airway compression. The aim of this study was to present a management protocol and evaluate the clinical outcomes for preventing tracheotomy in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen infants with extensive head and neck LMs and airway involvement were enrolled from August 2010 through September 2015 at the Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Jinan, China)...
September 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056907/lung-function-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-after-pharmacological-and-surgical-treatment-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-a-retrospective-analysis
#13
Payman Barikbin, Hannes Sallmon, Silke Wilitzki, Joachim Photiadis, Christoph Bührer, Petra Koehne, Gerd Schmalisch
BACKGROUND: The indications and strategies for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) are controversial, and the safety and long-term benefits of surgical PDA closure remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare the lung function of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants after successful PDA treatment with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor or secondary surgical ligation. METHODS: A total of 114 VLBW infants (birth weight < 1500 g), including 94 infants (82%) with a birth weight < 1000 g, who received treatment for hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA), were examined at a median postmenstrual age of 48 weeks...
January 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863648/biodegradable-airway-stents-in-infants-potential-life-threatening-pitfalls
#14
B Sztanó, G Kiss, K Márai, G Rácz, I Szegesdi, K Rácz, G Katona, L Rovó
OBJECTIVE: The solution of severe tracheobronchial obstructions in early childhood means a great challenge. Biodegradable stents were intended to be a minimally invasive temporary solution which may decrease the number of interventions and limit the possible complications of stenting procedures. However, our first experiences have brought out a new, - especially in childhood - potentially life-threatening complication of this concept. METHODS: Five SX-ELLA biodegradable polydioxanone stents was applied in three patients because of severe tracheobronchial obstruction: congenital tracheomalacia (7 day-old), acquired tracheomalacia (10 month-old), and congenital trachea-bronchomalacia (10 month-old)...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382044/the-role-of-posterior-aortopexy-in-the-treatment-of-left-mainstem-bronchus-compression
#15
Luigi Arcieri, Paola Serio, Raffaella Nenna, Marco Di Maurizio, Roberto Baggi, Nadia Assanta, Riccardo Moschetti, Bruno Noccioli, Lorenzo Mirabile, Bruno Murzi
OBJECTIVES: We reviewed the role of posterior aortopexy for left mainstem bronchus compression in infants and children. METHODS: Eighteen children with respiratory symptoms were enrolled between 2005 and 2015 for surgical decompression of the left mainstem bronchus. The children were managed from diagnosis to follow-up by a dedicated tracheal team. Primary outcomes were the complete relief of symptoms or improvement with respect to preoperative clinical status. RESULTS: The median age was 4 years (0...
November 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225962/management-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#16
REVIEW
J Gien, J P Kinsella
In infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), a posterolateral diaphragmatic defect results in herniation of abdominal contents into the chest and compression of the intrathoracic structures. In the most severe cases, hypoplasia of the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs, severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) and left ventricular (LV) hypoplasia/dysfunction all contribute to increased mortality. The management of PH in CDH is complicated by structural and functional changes in the heart, pulmonary vasculature, airways and lung parenchyma; consequently, determining optimal management strategies is challenging...
June 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26823135/tracheal-tube-position-shift-during-infant-resuscitation-by-chest-compression-a-simulation-comparison-by-fixation-method-and-with-or-without-cuff
#17
Takeshi Ueno, Nobuyasu Komasawa, Nozomi Majima, Ryosuke Mihara, Toshiaki Minami
BACKGROUND: Tracheal tube placement during infant resuscitation is essential for definite airway protection. Accidental extubation due to tracheal tube displacement is a rare event, but it results in severe complications, especially in infants. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated how infant tracheal tube displacement is affected by tape vs. tube holder fixation using a manikin. METHODS: A tracheal tube with internal diameter of 3.5 mm was placed 10 cm from the gum ridge in an advanced life support (ALS) Baby(®) simulator (Laerdal, Stavanger, Norway)...
April 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26607967/functional-residual-capacity-and-lung-clearance-index-in-infants-treated-for-esophageal-atresia-and-tracheoesophageal-fistula
#18
Francesca Landolfo, Andrea Conforti, Claudia Columbo, Ferdinando Savignoni, Pietro Bagolan, Andrea Dotta
BACKGROUND: Newborn babies with esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) are prone to respiratory tract disorders. Functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) are commonly considered useful and sensitive tools to investigate lung function and early detecting airways diseases. The aim of the present study is to report the first series of EA/TEF infants prospectively evaluated for FRC and LCI. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study of all patients treated for EA/TEF...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26495186/neonatal-presentation-of-an-air-filled-neck-mass-that-enlarges-with-valsalva-a-case-report
#19
Jasminkumar Bharatbhai Patel, Howard Kilbride, Lorien Paulson
Branchial cleft cysts are common causes of congenital neck masses in the pediatric population. However, neonatal presentation of branchial cleft cysts is uncommon, but recognizable secondary to acute respiratory distress from airway compression or complications secondary to infection. We report a 1-day-old infant presenting with an air-filled neck mass that enlarged with Valsalva and was not associated with respiratory distress. The infant was found to have a third branchial cleft cyst with an internal opening into the pyriform sinus...
October 2015: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365934/abnormalities-in-pulmonary-function-in-infants-with-high-risk-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#20
Michal Rygl, Petra Rounova, Jan Sulc, Krystof Slaby, Zbynek Stranak, Karel Pycha, Tamara Svobodova, Petr Pohunek, Richard Skaba
AIMS: The aim of the study was to analyze lung growth and abnormality of infant pulmonary function tests (IPFT) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors younger than three years of age with respect to unfavorable prognostic factors. METHODS: Thirty high-risk CDH survivors at the age of 1.32±0.54 years, body weight 9.76±1.25 kg were examined using IPFT: tidal breathing analysis, baby resistance/compliance, whole baby body plethysmography and rapid thoraco-abdominal compression...
September 2015: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
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