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Infant airway compression

Luigi Arcieri, Paola Serio, Raffaella Nenna, Marco Di Maurizio, Roberto Baggi, Nadia Assanta, Riccardo Moschetti, Bruno Noccioli, Lorenzo Mirabile, Bruno Murzi
OBJECTIVES: We reviewed the role of posterior aortopexy for left mainstem bronchus compression in infants and children. METHODS: Eighteen children with respiratory symptoms were enrolled between 2005 and 2015 for surgical decompression of the left mainstem bronchus. The children were managed from diagnosis to follow-up by a dedicated tracheal team. Primary outcomes were the complete relief of symptoms or improvement with respect to preoperative clinical status. RESULTS: The median age was 4 years (0...
July 5, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
J Gien, J P Kinsella
In infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), a posterolateral diaphragmatic defect results in herniation of abdominal contents into the chest and compression of the intrathoracic structures. In the most severe cases, hypoplasia of the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs, severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) and left ventricular (LV) hypoplasia/dysfunction all contribute to increased mortality. The management of PH in CDH is complicated by structural and functional changes in the heart, pulmonary vasculature, airways and lung parenchyma; consequently, determining optimal management strategies is challenging...
June 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Takeshi Ueno, Nobuyasu Komasawa, Nozomi Majima, Ryosuke Mihara, Toshiaki Minami
BACKGROUND: Tracheal tube placement during infant resuscitation is essential for definite airway protection. Accidental extubation due to tracheal tube displacement is a rare event, but it results in severe complications, especially in infants. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated how infant tracheal tube displacement is affected by tape vs. tube holder fixation using a manikin. METHODS: A tracheal tube with internal diameter of 3.5 mm was placed 10 cm from the gum ridge in an advanced life support (ALS) Baby(®) simulator (Laerdal, Stavanger, Norway)...
April 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Francesca Landolfo, Andrea Conforti, Claudia Columbo, Ferdinando Savignoni, Pietro Bagolan, Andrea Dotta
BACKGROUND: Newborn babies with esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) are prone to respiratory tract disorders. Functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) are commonly considered useful and sensitive tools to investigate lung function and early detecting airways diseases. The aim of the present study is to report the first series of EA/TEF infants prospectively evaluated for FRC and LCI. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study of all patients treated for EA/TEF...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Jasminkumar Bharatbhai Patel, Howard Kilbride, Lorien Paulson
Branchial cleft cysts are common causes of congenital neck masses in the pediatric population. However, neonatal presentation of branchial cleft cysts is uncommon, but recognizable secondary to acute respiratory distress from airway compression or complications secondary to infection. We report a 1-day-old infant presenting with an air-filled neck mass that enlarged with Valsalva and was not associated with respiratory distress. The infant was found to have a third branchial cleft cyst with an internal opening into the pyriform sinus...
October 2015: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Michal Rygl, Petra Rounova, Jan Sulc, Krystof Slaby, Zbynek Stranak, Karel Pycha, Tamara Svobodova, Petr Pohunek, Richard Skaba
AIMS: The aim of the study was to analyze lung growth and abnormality of infant pulmonary function tests (IPFT) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors younger than three years of age with respect to unfavorable prognostic factors. METHODS: Thirty high-risk CDH survivors at the age of 1.32±0.54 years, body weight 9.76±1.25 kg were examined using IPFT: tidal breathing analysis, baby resistance/compliance, whole baby body plethysmography and rapid thoraco-abdominal compression...
September 2015: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Hendrik Stefan Fischer, Lia Carlotta Puder, Silke Wilitzki, Jakob Usemann, Christoph Bührer, Simon Godfrey, Gerd Schmalisch
OBJECTIVE: Computerized respiratory sound analysis (CORSA) has been validated in the assessment of wheeze in infants, but it is unknown whether automatically detected wheeze is associated with impaired lung function. This study investigated the relationship between wheeze detection and conventional lung function testing (LFT) parameters. METHODS: CORSA was performed using the PulmoTrack® monitor in 110 infants, of median (interquartile range) postmenstrual age 50 (46-56) weeks and median body weight 4,810 (3,980-5,900) g, recovering from neonatal intensive care...
April 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
José Fernando Polanski, Anna Clara Plawiak, Angela Ribas
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of hearing rehabilitation with bone anchored hearing aid in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome. CASE DESCRIPTION: 3 years old patient, male, with Treacher Collins syndrome and severe complications due to the syndrome, mostly related to the upper airway and hearing. He had bilateral atresia of external auditory canals, and malformation of the pinna. The initial hearing rehabilitation was with bone vibration arch, but there was poor acceptance due the discomfort caused by skull compression...
December 2015: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Rieko Yamada, Hiroyuki Mitono, Yuki Sugiyama, Mikito Kawamata
An 18-month-old female infant was scheduled for resection of a laryngeal saccular cyst inducing narrow airway. Since the cyst protruded from the left side of the epiglottis and the vocal cord was compressed to the right side, a difficult airway was anticipated. In addition, there was a risk of tracheal occlusion by rupture of the cyst Awake intubation was considered to be dangerous. Slow induction with sevoflurane and neuromusclar blockade was attempted, preparing reversal of the neuromusclar blockade. Fortunately, mask ventilation was achieved without difficulty...
February 2015: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Adler M Salazar, Christopher Cjl Newth, Robinder G Khemani, Hammer Jürg, Patrick A Ross
AIM: Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) is found in 3-6% of patients with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Along with findings of TOF, absence of pulmonary valve tissue results in aneurysmal dilatation of the main and branch pulmonary arteries compressing the trachea, main-stem, and intrapulmonary bronchi leading to obstructive airways disease. Our objective was to review pulmonary function tests (PFT) in TOF-APVS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight PFT were performed on five mechanically ventilated TOF-APVS patients in the intensive care unit...
May 2015: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
Saikat Niyogi, Pradipta Mitra, Jayanta Chakraborty, Sankari Santra, Tapobroto Mitra, Sabyasachi Nandy, Amita Acharya
A meningomyelocele is herniation of meninges along with neural elements through a congenital defect in the cranium or vertebral column. Reported incidence of occipital meningomyelocele is 1 in 5000 live births. Children with meningomyelocele may have varying degrees of sensory and motor deficits and other important associated congenital defects with clinical features of brain stem compression. The major anaesthetic challenges associated with myelomeningocoele repair includes difficulty in securing airway, intra-operative prone positioning, accurate assessment of blood loss and prevention of hypothermia...
January 2014: Journal of the Indian Medical Association
Robert J Morrison, Scott J Hollister, Matthew F Niedner, Maryam Ghadimi Mahani, Albert H Park, Deepak K Mehta, Richard G Ohye, Glenn E Green
Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the potential for rapid customization of medical devices. The advent of 3D-printable biomaterials has created the potential for device control in the fourth dimension: 3D-printed objects that exhibit a designed shape change under tissue growth and resorption conditions over time. Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is a condition of excessive collapse of the airways during respiration that can lead to life-threatening cardiopulmonary arrests. We demonstrate the successful application of 3D printing technology to produce a personalized medical device for treatment of TBM, designed to accommodate airway growth while preventing external compression over a predetermined time period before bioresorption...
April 29, 2015: Science Translational Medicine
Gianluigi Perri, Sonia B Albanese, Adriano Carotti
OBJECTIVE: We analyze the incidence of postoperative severe airflow limitation after single-stage unifocalization in patients with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA/VSD/MAPCAs) and comment on the treatment performed. METHODS: From 1994 until 2014, 118 patients with diagnosis of PA, VSD, MAPCAs underwent surgical treatment. Four patients (3.4%) developed severe airflow complications postoperatively. Chromosome 22q11 deletion was present in three of them...
May 2015: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Pierre Goussard, Robert P Gie, Jacques T Janson, Pieter le Roux, Sharon Kling, Savvas Andronikou, Gawie J Roussouw
BACKGROUND: Large airway compression by enlarged tuberculosis (TB) lymph nodes results in life-threatening airway obstruction in a small proportion of children. The indications, safety, and efficacy of TB lymph node decompression are inadequately described. This study aims to describe the indications and efficacy of TB lymph node decompression in children with severe airway compression and investigate variables influencing outcome. METHODS: A prospective cohort of children (aged 3 months to 13 years) with life-threatening airway obstruction resulting from TB lymph node compression of the large airways were enrolled...
April 2015: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Hanako Kohama, Nobuyasu Komasawa, Ryusuke Ueki, Yoshiroh Kaminoh, Shin-ichi Nishi
Current guidelines for pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation suggest that supraglottic devices are alternatives for tracheal intubation with minimal interruption of chest compression. We examined the utility of three intubating supraglottic devices, air-Q® (air-Q), Ambu® aura-i (aura-i), and i-gel® (i-gel), utilizing manikin simulation. Twenty-two novice physicians performed securing of airway on an infant manikin with the three devices. We measured the rate of success on ventilation and the insertion time with or without chest compression...
2015: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Nobuyasu Komasawa, Ryusuke Ueki, Yoshiroh Kaminoh, Shin-ichi Nishi
OBJECTIVE: Recent guidelines for neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation emphasize the importance of adequate ventilation. In cases of failed resuscitation with positive pressure ventilation, tracheal intubation and chest compressions are recommended. The present study compared the utility of the Miller laryngoscope (Mil) and the videolaryngoscope Pentax-AWS Airway Scope (AWS; Hoya, Tokyo, Japan) with an infant or neonatal-sized Intlock (AWS-N; Pentax) during chest compressions on a neonatal manikin...
July 2015: American Journal of Perinatology
Robert M Sutton, Robert A Berg, Vinay Nadkarni
Advances in resuscitation science have improved pediatric cardiac arrest outcomes substantially over the past 25 years. The performance of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been highlighted as an important determinant of survival of both adult and pediatric cardiac arrest. In short, performance of high quality Basic Life Support (BLS) saves childrens' lives. This article will focus specifically on cardiopulmonary resuscitation "technique" for infants and children. In concert with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) and the American Heart Association (AHA), the available scientific evidence supporting current resuscitation guidelines for hand position, chest compression rate and depth, minimizing interruptions, and full chest recoil will be discussed...
2013: Current Pediatric Reviews
Reyaz A Lone, Julien Chapron, Aslam Faris, Jiju John, Sandra Abou Samaan, Akhlaque Nabi Bhat
Extrinsic compression of airways is one the most important causes of respiratory insufficiency in the perioperative period in children with congenital heart disease. This is especially true of pathologies that involve surgery of the aortic arch or conduit replacement of the right ventricular outflow tract. However bronchial obstruction is uncommon in the setting of bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt alone. We report the case of an infant with a functionally univentricular heart who had a bidirectional superior cavopulmonary shunt and disconnection of the main pulmonary artery from the ventricular mass with oversewing of pulmonary valve...
2014: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
Seo Moon, Jessica Mayor, Ramzi Younis
Double aortic vascular ring is a complete vascular ring that is formed when the distal portion of the right dorsal aorta fails to regress and the ascending aorta bifurcates to surround and compress both trachea and esophagus and rejoins to form the descending aorta.
October 2014: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
Paul Nolan, Hari Gourabathini, Chau Tran, Saloni Paudel, Elena Romero
Pediatric Medicine PostersSESSION TYPE: Original Investigation PosterPRESENTED ON: Wednesday, October 29, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMPURPOSE: There are no published guidelines, clinical trials or case series in the management of recalcitrant atelectasis in the infants and toddlers with high frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO).METHODS: A retrospective case series of the clinical experience in the management of atelectasis with HFCWO in post term infants and toddlers was conducted at Driscoll Children's Hospital including noncardiac, cardiac, non PICU and PICU patients from December 2010 to March 2014...
October 1, 2014: Chest
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