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Infant airway compression

Lisel Richter-Joubert, Savvas Andronikou, Lesley Workman, Heather J Zar
BACKGROUND: Because small, pliable paediatric airways are easily compressed by enlarged lymph nodes, detection of radiographic airway compression might be an objective criterion for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency and inter-observer agreement of airway compression on chest radiographs in children with pulmonary tuberculosis compared to those with a different lower respiratory tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chest radiographs of children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were read by two readers according to a standardised format and a third reader when there was disagreement...
May 29, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
Friedrich Reichert, Peter Amrhein, Frank Uhlemann
A 7 week old infant was admitted with respiratory failure. Chest X-ray showed an atelectatic right upper lobe, herniation of right middle and lower lobe into the left thorax, and compression-atelectasis of the left lung. Thoracic CT showed complete occlusion of the right superior bronchus with a radiopaque foreign material. Six weeks prior, an impression for a palate plate using polyvinylsiloxane was taken. The material was removed with a rigid endoscopy, in readiness of extracorporeal oxygenation in case of tracheal obstruction or bronchial rupture...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
An-Wei Chen, Tao Wang, Ying-Ying Huang, Shao-Hua Liu
PURPOSE: The management of extensive head and neck lymphatic malformations (LMs) in infants is challenging because of life-threatening upper airway compression. The aim of this study was to present a management protocol and evaluate the clinical outcomes for preventing tracheotomy in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen infants with extensive head and neck LMs and airway involvement were enrolled from August 2010 through September 2015 at the Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Jinan, China)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Payman Barikbin, Hannes Sallmon, Silke Wilitzki, Joachim Photiadis, Christoph Bührer, Petra Koehne, Gerd Schmalisch
BACKGROUND: The indications and strategies for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) are controversial, and the safety and long-term benefits of surgical PDA closure remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare the lung function of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants after successful PDA treatment with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor or secondary surgical ligation. METHODS: A total of 114 VLBW infants (birth weight < 1500 g), including 94 infants (82%) with a birth weight < 1000 g, who received treatment for hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA), were examined at a median postmenstrual age of 48 weeks...
January 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
B Sztanó, G Kiss, K Márai, G Rácz, I Szegesdi, K Rácz, G Katona, L Rovó
OBJECTIVE: The solution of severe tracheobronchial obstructions in early childhood means a great challenge. Biodegradable stents were intended to be a minimally invasive temporary solution which may decrease the number of interventions and limit the possible complications of stenting procedures. However, our first experiences have brought out a new, - especially in childhood - potentially life-threatening complication of this concept. METHODS: Five SX-ELLA biodegradable polydioxanone stents was applied in three patients because of severe tracheobronchial obstruction: congenital tracheomalacia (7 day-old), acquired tracheomalacia (10 month-old), and congenital trachea-bronchomalacia (10 month-old)...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Luigi Arcieri, Paola Serio, Raffaella Nenna, Marco Di Maurizio, Roberto Baggi, Nadia Assanta, Riccardo Moschetti, Bruno Noccioli, Lorenzo Mirabile, Bruno Murzi
OBJECTIVES: We reviewed the role of posterior aortopexy for left mainstem bronchus compression in infants and children. METHODS: Eighteen children with respiratory symptoms were enrolled between 2005 and 2015 for surgical decompression of the left mainstem bronchus. The children were managed from diagnosis to follow-up by a dedicated tracheal team. Primary outcomes were the complete relief of symptoms or improvement with respect to preoperative clinical status. RESULTS: The median age was 4 years (0...
November 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
J Gien, J P Kinsella
In infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), a posterolateral diaphragmatic defect results in herniation of abdominal contents into the chest and compression of the intrathoracic structures. In the most severe cases, hypoplasia of the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs, severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) and left ventricular (LV) hypoplasia/dysfunction all contribute to increased mortality. The management of PH in CDH is complicated by structural and functional changes in the heart, pulmonary vasculature, airways and lung parenchyma; consequently, determining optimal management strategies is challenging...
June 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Takeshi Ueno, Nobuyasu Komasawa, Nozomi Majima, Ryosuke Mihara, Toshiaki Minami
BACKGROUND: Tracheal tube placement during infant resuscitation is essential for definite airway protection. Accidental extubation due to tracheal tube displacement is a rare event, but it results in severe complications, especially in infants. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated how infant tracheal tube displacement is affected by tape vs. tube holder fixation using a manikin. METHODS: A tracheal tube with internal diameter of 3.5 mm was placed 10 cm from the gum ridge in an advanced life support (ALS) Baby(®) simulator (Laerdal, Stavanger, Norway)...
April 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Francesca Landolfo, Andrea Conforti, Claudia Columbo, Ferdinando Savignoni, Pietro Bagolan, Andrea Dotta
BACKGROUND: Newborn babies with esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) are prone to respiratory tract disorders. Functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) are commonly considered useful and sensitive tools to investigate lung function and early detecting airways diseases. The aim of the present study is to report the first series of EA/TEF infants prospectively evaluated for FRC and LCI. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study of all patients treated for EA/TEF...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Jasminkumar Bharatbhai Patel, Howard Kilbride, Lorien Paulson
Branchial cleft cysts are common causes of congenital neck masses in the pediatric population. However, neonatal presentation of branchial cleft cysts is uncommon, but recognizable secondary to acute respiratory distress from airway compression or complications secondary to infection. We report a 1-day-old infant presenting with an air-filled neck mass that enlarged with Valsalva and was not associated with respiratory distress. The infant was found to have a third branchial cleft cyst with an internal opening into the pyriform sinus...
October 2015: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Michal Rygl, Petra Rounova, Jan Sulc, Krystof Slaby, Zbynek Stranak, Karel Pycha, Tamara Svobodova, Petr Pohunek, Richard Skaba
AIMS: The aim of the study was to analyze lung growth and abnormality of infant pulmonary function tests (IPFT) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors younger than three years of age with respect to unfavorable prognostic factors. METHODS: Thirty high-risk CDH survivors at the age of 1.32±0.54 years, body weight 9.76±1.25 kg were examined using IPFT: tidal breathing analysis, baby resistance/compliance, whole baby body plethysmography and rapid thoraco-abdominal compression...
September 2015: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Hendrik Stefan Fischer, Lia Carlotta Puder, Silke Wilitzki, Jakob Usemann, Christoph Bührer, Simon Godfrey, Gerd Schmalisch
OBJECTIVE: Computerized respiratory sound analysis (CORSA) has been validated in the assessment of wheeze in infants, but it is unknown whether automatically detected wheeze is associated with impaired lung function. This study investigated the relationship between wheeze detection and conventional lung function testing (LFT) parameters. METHODS: CORSA was performed using the PulmoTrack® monitor in 110 infants, of median (interquartile range) postmenstrual age 50 (46-56) weeks and median body weight 4,810 (3,980-5,900) g, recovering from neonatal intensive care...
April 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
José Fernando Polanski, Anna Clara Plawiak, Angela Ribas
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of hearing rehabilitation with bone anchored hearing aid in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome. CASE DESCRIPTION: 3 years old patient, male, with Treacher Collins syndrome and severe complications due to the syndrome, mostly related to the upper airway and hearing. He had bilateral atresia of external auditory canals, and malformation of the pinna. The initial hearing rehabilitation was with bone vibration arch, but there was poor acceptance due the discomfort caused by skull compression...
December 2015: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Rieko Yamada, Hiroyuki Mitono, Yuki Sugiyama, Mikito Kawamata
An 18-month-old female infant was scheduled for resection of a laryngeal saccular cyst inducing narrow airway. Since the cyst protruded from the left side of the epiglottis and the vocal cord was compressed to the right side, a difficult airway was anticipated. In addition, there was a risk of tracheal occlusion by rupture of the cyst Awake intubation was considered to be dangerous. Slow induction with sevoflurane and neuromusclar blockade was attempted, preparing reversal of the neuromusclar blockade. Fortunately, mask ventilation was achieved without difficulty...
February 2015: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Adler M Salazar, Christopher Cjl Newth, Robinder G Khemani, Hammer Jürg, Patrick A Ross
AIM: Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) is found in 3-6% of patients with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Along with findings of TOF, absence of pulmonary valve tissue results in aneurysmal dilatation of the main and branch pulmonary arteries compressing the trachea, main-stem, and intrapulmonary bronchi leading to obstructive airways disease. Our objective was to review pulmonary function tests (PFT) in TOF-APVS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight PFT were performed on five mechanically ventilated TOF-APVS patients in the intensive care unit...
May 2015: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
Saikat Niyogi, Pradipta Mitra, Jayanta Chakraborty, Sankari Santra, Tapobroto Mitra, Sabyasachi Nandy, Amita Acharya
A meningomyelocele is herniation of meninges along with neural elements through a congenital defect in the cranium or vertebral column. Reported incidence of occipital meningomyelocele is 1 in 5000 live births. Children with meningomyelocele may have varying degrees of sensory and motor deficits and other important associated congenital defects with clinical features of brain stem compression. The major anaesthetic challenges associated with myelomeningocoele repair includes difficulty in securing airway, intra-operative prone positioning, accurate assessment of blood loss and prevention of hypothermia...
January 2014: Journal of the Indian Medical Association
Robert J Morrison, Scott J Hollister, Matthew F Niedner, Maryam Ghadimi Mahani, Albert H Park, Deepak K Mehta, Richard G Ohye, Glenn E Green
Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the potential for rapid customization of medical devices. The advent of 3D-printable biomaterials has created the potential for device control in the fourth dimension: 3D-printed objects that exhibit a designed shape change under tissue growth and resorption conditions over time. Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is a condition of excessive collapse of the airways during respiration that can lead to life-threatening cardiopulmonary arrests. We demonstrate the successful application of 3D printing technology to produce a personalized medical device for treatment of TBM, designed to accommodate airway growth while preventing external compression over a predetermined time period before bioresorption...
April 29, 2015: Science Translational Medicine
Gianluigi Perri, Sonia B Albanese, Adriano Carotti
OBJECTIVE: We analyze the incidence of postoperative severe airflow limitation after single-stage unifocalization in patients with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA/VSD/MAPCAs) and comment on the treatment performed. METHODS: From 1994 until 2014, 118 patients with diagnosis of PA, VSD, MAPCAs underwent surgical treatment. Four patients (3.4%) developed severe airflow complications postoperatively. Chromosome 22q11 deletion was present in three of them...
May 2015: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Pierre Goussard, Robert P Gie, Jacques T Janson, Pieter le Roux, Sharon Kling, Savvas Andronikou, Gawie J Roussouw
BACKGROUND: Large airway compression by enlarged tuberculosis (TB) lymph nodes results in life-threatening airway obstruction in a small proportion of children. The indications, safety, and efficacy of TB lymph node decompression are inadequately described. This study aims to describe the indications and efficacy of TB lymph node decompression in children with severe airway compression and investigate variables influencing outcome. METHODS: A prospective cohort of children (aged 3 months to 13 years) with life-threatening airway obstruction resulting from TB lymph node compression of the large airways were enrolled...
April 2015: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Hanako Kohama, Nobuyasu Komasawa, Ryusuke Ueki, Yoshiroh Kaminoh, Shin-ichi Nishi
Current guidelines for pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation suggest that supraglottic devices are alternatives for tracheal intubation with minimal interruption of chest compression. We examined the utility of three intubating supraglottic devices, air-Q® (air-Q), Ambu® aura-i (aura-i), and i-gel® (i-gel), utilizing manikin simulation. Twenty-two novice physicians performed securing of airway on an infant manikin with the three devices. We measured the rate of success on ventilation and the insertion time with or without chest compression...
2015: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
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