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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313972/the-role-of-signals-in-two-variations-of-differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-procedures
#1
Jessica L Becraft, John C Borrero, Barbara J Davis, Amber E Mendres-Smith, Mariana I Castillo
Differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules are used to decrease the overall rate of, but not eliminate, a target response. Two variations of DRL, spaced-responding and full-session, exist. Preliminary comparative analyses suggest that the two schedules function differently when unsignaled. We compared response rates under these two DRL variations with and without signals. In Experiment 1, five preschool students played a game in which points were earned under DRL schedules. In some sessions, a stimulus signaled when responses would be reinforced (S+) or not reinforced (S-)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281973/polymorphic-duplicate-genes-and-persistent-non-coding-sequences-reveal-heterogeneous-patterns-of-mitochondrial-dna-loss-in-salamanders
#2
Rebecca A Chong, Rachel Lockridge Mueller
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are the site of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In metazoans, the mitochondrial genome is a small, circular molecule averaging 16.5 kb in length. Despite evolutionarily conserved gene content, metazoan mitochondrial genomes show a diversity of gene orders most commonly explained by the duplication-random loss (DRL) model. In the DRL model, (1) a sequence of genes is duplicated in tandem, (2) one paralog sustains a loss-of-function mutation, resulting in selection to retain the other copy, and (3) the non-functional paralog is eventually deleted from the genome...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279172/using-diagnostic-reference-levels-to-evaluate-the-improvement-of-patient-dose-optimisation-and-the-influence-of-recent-technologies-in-radiography-and-computed-tomography
#3
Patrice Roch, David Célier, Cécile Dessaud, Cécile Etard
OBJECTIVES: Twelve years since the implementation of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL) process in France, the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection French Institute (IRSN) presents its latest analyses performed on the most recent national data. METHODS: Statutorily, each year, medical imaging departments must perform patient exposure evaluation from their clinical practice for at least 2 types of radiographic and computed tomography (CT) examinations freely chosen in the regulatory list...
January 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259019/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-analysis-of-foveal-microvascular-changes-and-inner-retinal-layer-thinning-in-patients-with-diabetes
#4
Kiyoung Kim, Eung Suk Kim, Seung-Young Yu
AIM: To evaluate the correlation between inner retinal layer thinning and the foveal microvasculature in type 2 diabetes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: A cross-sectional study involved 155 diabetic eyes. All patients were divided into two groups based on diabetic retinopathy (DR) grade: no DR (NDR, n=80) and mild-to-moderate non-proliferative DR (NPDR, n=75). Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, FAZ circularity index, FAZ perimeter, vessel density and perfusion index of parafoveal and perifoveal area were calculated using OCTA...
December 19, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247674/developmental-exposure-to-low-level-ambient-ultrafine-particle-air-pollution-and-cognitive-dysfunction
#5
D A Cory-Slechta, J L Allen, K Conrad, E Marvin, M Sobolewski
Developmental exposures to ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) can produce multiple neuropathological and neurochemical changes that might contribute to persistent alterations in cognitive-type functions. The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that developmental UFP exposure produced impairments in learning, memory and impulsive-like behaivors and to determine whether these were selective and thus independent of deficits in other behavioral domains such as motor activity or motivation...
December 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247394/dose-monitoring-in-pediatric-and-young-adult-head-and-cervical-spine-ct-studies-at-two-emergency-duty-departments
#6
Hannele Niiniviita, Timo Kiljunen, Minna Huuskonen, Simo Teperi, Jarmo Kulmala
PURPOSE: As the number of pediatric computed tomography (CT) imaging is increasing, there is a need for real-time radiation dose monitoring and evaluation of the imaging protocols. The aim of this study was to present the imaging data, patient doses, and observations of pediatric and young adult trauma-and routine head CT and cervical spine CT collected by a dose monitoring software. METHODS: Patient age, study date, imaging parameters, and patient dose as volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) were collected from two emergency departments' CT scanners for 2-year period...
December 16, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235202/three-dimensional-static-articulation-accuracy-of-virtual-models-part-i-system-trueness-and-precision
#7
Sophia Hui Xin Yee, Roxanna Jean Esguerra, Amelia Anya Qin'An Chew, Keng Mun Wong, Keson Beng Choon Tan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the 3D static articulation accuracy of 3 model scanner-CAD systems (Ceramill Map400 [AG], inEos X5 [SIR], Scanner S600 Arti [ZKN]) using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Trueness and precision for each system will be reported in Part I. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The master model simulated a single crown opposing a 3-unit fixed dental prosthesis. Five mounted stone cast sets were prepared, and one set was randomly selected. Reference values were obtained by measuring interarch and interocclusal reference features with the CMM...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217953/assessment-of-pediatrics-radiation-dose-from-routine-x-ray-examination-at-jimma-university-hospital-southwest-ethiopia
#8
Mesfin Zewdu, Elias Kadir, Melkamu Berhane
Background: Given the fact that children are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than adults, with an increased risk of developing radiation-induced cancer, special care should be taken when they undergo X-ray examinations. The main aim of the current study was to determine Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) to pediatric patients arising from routine x-ray examination in the Radiology Department of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on pediatric patients less than 15 years of age who visited to seek x-ray examinations in JUSH...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210502/three-dimensional-static-articulation-accuracy-of-virtual-models-part-ii-effect-of-model-scanner-cad-systems-and-articulation-method
#9
Sophia Hui Xin Yee, Roxanna Jean Esguerra, Amelia Anya Qin'An Chew, Keng Mun Wong, Keson Beng Choon Tan
PURPOSE: Accurate maxillomandibular relationship transfer is important for CAD/CAM prostheses. This study compared the 3D-accuracy of virtual model static articulation in three laboratory scanner-CAD systems (Ceramill Map400 [AG], inEos X5 [SIR], Scanner S600 Arti [ZKN]) using two virtual articulation methods: mounted models (MO), interocclusal record (IR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The master model simulated a single crown opposing a 3-unit fixed partial denture. Reference values were obtained by measuring interarch and interocclusal reference features with a coordinate measuring machine (CMM)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160904/three-dimensional-accuracy-of-digital-static-interocclusal-registration-by-three-intraoral-scanner-systems
#10
Kuan Yee Wong, Roxanna Jean Esguerra, Vanessa Ai Ping Chia, Ying Han Tan, Keson Beng Choon Tan
PURPOSE: Prior studies have defined the accuracy of intraoral scanner (IOS) systems but the accuracy of the digital static interocclusal registration function of these systems has not been reported. This study compared the three-dimensional (3D) accuracy of the digital static interocclusal registration of 3 IOS systems using the buccal bite scan function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three IOS systems compared were 3MTM True Definition Scanner (TDS), TRIOS Color (TRC), and CEREC AC with CEREC Omnicam (CER)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157077/how-does-early-maternal-separation-and-chronic-stress-in-adult-rats-affect-the-immunoreactivity-of-serotonergic-neurons-within-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus
#11
Antonella Pollano, Verónica Trujillo, Marta M Suárez
Vulnerability to emotional disorders like depression derives from interactions between early and late environments, including stressful conditions. The serotonin (5HT) system is strongly affected by stress and chronic unpredictable stress can alter the 5HT system. We evaluated the distribution of active serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) through immunohistochemistry in maternally separated and chronically stressed rats treated with an antidepressant, tianeptine, whose mechanism of action is still under review...
November 20, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136248/determination-of-national-diagnostic-reference-levels-in-computed-tomography-examinations-of-iran-by-a-new-quality-control-based-dose-survey-method
#12
Mehdi Sohrabi, Masoumeh Parsi, Fereidoun Mianji
National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) of Iran were determined for the four most common CT examinations including head, sinus, chest and abdomen/pelvis. A new 'quality control (QC)-based dose survey method', as developed by us, was applied to 157 CT scanners in Iran (2014-15) with different slice classes, models and geographic spread across the country. The NDRLs for head, sinus, chest and abdomen/pelvis examinations are 58, 29, 12 and 14 mGy for CTDIVol and 750, 300, 300 and 650 mGy.cm for DLP, respectively...
November 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127575/bright-light-therapy-improves-cancer-related-fatigue-in-cancer-survivors-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Jillian A Johnson, Sheila N Garland, Linda E Carlson, Josée Savard, J Steven A Simpson, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Tavis S Campbell
PURPOSE: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common and distressing symptom that can persist after cancer treatment has concluded. Bright light therapy has shown preliminary efficacy in reducing CRF, but its impact on other psychosocial factors is unclear. The purpose was to examine the impact of a 1-month light therapy intervention on fatigue, mood, and quality of life in cancer survivors with fatigue. METHODS: This 4-week blinded randomized controlled trial recruited cancer survivors who met diagnostic criteria for CRF...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065425/multimodal-evaluation-of-the-fellow-eye-of-patients-with-retinal-angiomatous-proliferation
#14
Amélia Martins, Cláudia Farinha, Miguel Raimundo, Marta Lopes, Ana Rita Santos, Pedro Melo, Marco Marques, João Pedro Marques, Patrícia Barreto, Maria Luz Cachulo, Catarina Neves, José Cunha-Vaz, Rufino Silva
INTRODUCTION: We conducted a multimodal, cross-sectional evaluation. METHODS: Eyes were divided into 4 study groups: controls, early/intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD), fellow eyes of retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), and RAP eyes. Patients were evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), enhanced depth imaging-OCT, and OCT angiography (OCTA). OCTA images were processed to generate maps of the vessel density and perfusion density of the superficial and deep retinal layers (SRL and DRL) and the choriocapillaris level (CL)...
October 25, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059890/design-of-semg-detecting-circuit-for-emg-bridge
#15
Xiao-Bin Chen, Yu-Xuan Zhou, Hai-Peng Wang, Xiao-Ying Lu, Zhi-Gong Wang
A surface electromyography (sEMG) signal typically results from the electrical activities of many muscle fibers, and can be utilized as a signal source in prostheses due to its abundance of movement information. This paper proposes an sEMG-detection circuit for the acquisition of the controlling signal in EMG-Bridge (EMGB) systems. The detection circuit mainly comprises a preamplifier, a driven right leg (DRL) circuit, a high-pass filter (HPF), a low-pass filter (LPF), and a gain adjustable amplifying circuit...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059849/an-integrated-multichannel-neural-recording-analog-front-end-asic-with-area-efficient-driven-right-leg-circuit
#16
Tao Tang, Wang Ling Goh, Lei Yao, Jia Hao Cheong, Yuan Gao
This paper describes an integrated multichannel neural recording analog front end (AFE) with a novel area-efficient driven right leg (DRL) circuit to improve the system common mode rejection ratio (CMRR). The proposed AFE consists of an AC-coupled low-noise programmable-gain amplifier, an area-efficient DRL block and a 10-bit SAR ADC. Compared to conventional DRL circuit, the proposed capacitor-less DRL design achieves 90% chip area reduction with enhanced CMRR performance, making it ideal for multichannel biomedical recording applications...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057780/5-drl-for-computed-tomography-examination
#17
Kosuke Matsubara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040783/patient-exposure-from-nuclear-medicine-in-france-national-follow-up-and-influence-of-the-technology-through-diagnostic-reference-levels-data-analysis
#18
Patrice Roch, David Celier, Cécile Dessaud, Cécile Etard
The Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection French Institute (IRSN) presents its latest assessment from up-to-date diagnostic reference levels (DRL) national data in nuclear medicine (NM). NM departments annually send data to IRSN to estimate the representativeness of current DRLs. Complementary analyses of the data have been performed to evaluate the influence of equipment evolution on practice and patient radiation exposure. Based on data from almost 90% of the French NM departments, some DRL update are proposed...
October 13, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034482/deep-reinforcement-learning-for-automated-radiation-adaptation-in-lung-cancer
#19
Huan-Hsin Tseng, Yi Luo, Sunan Cui, Jen-Tzung Chien, Randall K Ten Haken, Issam El Naqa
PURPOSE: To investigate deep reinforcement learning (DRL) based on historical treatment plans for developing automated radiation adaptation protocols for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that aim to maximize tumor local control at reduced rates of radiation pneumonitis grade 2 (RP2). METHODS: In a retrospective population of 114 NSCLC patients who received radiotherapy, a three-component neural networks framework was developed for deep reinforcement learning (DRL) of dose fractionation adaptation...
December 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021989/patient-dose-monitoring-and-the-use-of-diagnostic-reference-levels-for-the-optimization-of-protection-in-medical-imaging-current-status-and-challenges-worldwide
#20
Hannu Järvinen, Jenia Vassileva, Ehsan Samei, Anthony Wallace, Eliseo Vano, Madan Rehani
Optimization is one of the key concepts of radiation protection in medical imaging. In practice, it involves compromising between the image quality and dose to the patient; the dose should not be higher than necessary to achieve an image quality (or diagnostic information) needed for the clinical task. Monitoring patient dose is a key requirement toward optimization. The concept of diagnostic reference level (DRL) was introduced by the International Commission on Radiological Protection as a practical tool for optimization...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
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