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L Alejo, E Corredoira, F Sánchez-Muñoz, C Huerga, Z Aza, R Plaza-Núñez, A Serrada, M Bret-Zurita, M Parrón, C Prieto-Areyano, G Garzón-Moll, R Madero, E Guibelalde
Objective: The new 2013/59 EURATOM Directive (ED) demands dosimetric optimisation procedures without undue delay. The aim of this study was to optimise paediatric conventional radiology exams applying the ED without compromising the clinical diagnosis. METHODS: Automatic dose management software (ADMS) was used to analyse 2678 studies of children from birth to 5 years of age, obtaining local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of entrance surface air kerma. Given local DRL for infants and chest exams exceeded the European Commission (EC) DRL, an optimisation was performed decreasing the kVp and applying the automatic control exposure...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Mohammadbagher Tavakoli, Reihane Faraji, Zahra Alirezaei, Zohre Nateghian
Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) has generated a great interest over the past two decades, due to its high diagnostic accuracy and efficacy in the assessment of patients having coronary artery disease. This method is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Effective dose (E) is a single parameter meant to reflect the relative risk from exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to calculate this parameter to indicate ionizing radiation relative risk...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
Thiago V M Lima, Silvano Gnesin, Nick Ryckx, Klaus Strobel, Nicolas Stritt, Reto Linder
A multidisciplinary working group led by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health was formed to plan and perform a nationwide survey of patient radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) in hybrid devices across Nuclear Medicine departments. The survey included 16 departments (of which 5 were university hospitals) and the submitted responses included 10,673 entries for the 33 different protocols proposed (11 in PET and 22 in SPECT). The working group determined the selection and exclusion criteria applied to the analysis...
February 17, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
Zuzana Bárdyová, Martina Horváthová, Denisa Nikodemová
The coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a frequent diagnostic method connected with large variability of effective dose. Therefore, it is the type of examination where optimization is very important and the use of a national diagnostic reference level (DRL) recommended. In Slovakia the DRL for interventional radiology examinations until now fails. The objective of our study was to propose the national DRL for CCTA examinations in Slovak Republic, on the basis of a cross-sectional multicenter study, performed in four departments of radiology...
February 16, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Takashi Iimori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Yoshihiro Nakada, Yasuo Okuda, Tatsuya Tsuge, Jyunichi Suzuki, Hiroshi Sakamoto, Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, Yasuhiko Konishi, Takeshi Tsujimoto, Shigeo Nishiki, Toshimitsu Satoh, Nobukazu Aoyama, Kyohei Morimoto, Masamichi Aita, Yusuke Yamashita, Takayasu Yoshitake, Masami Mukai, Yuki Yokooka, Noriya Yokohama, Keiichi Akahane
The present work describes that we try to construct a system that collects dose information that performed CT examination from multiple facilities and unified management. The results of analysis are compared with other National diagnostic reference level (DRL), and the results are fed back to each facility and the cause of the abnormal value is investigated for dose optimization. Medical information collected 139 144 tests from 33 CT devices in 13 facilities. Although the DRL of this study is lower than that of Japan DRL, it was higher than the DRL of each country...
February 7, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Masoumeh Parsi, Mehdi Sohrabi, Fereidoun Mianji, Reza Paydar
A new "quality-control-based (QC-based) dose survey method" has been developed for determination of diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Computed Tomography (CT) examinations. The "QC-based dose survey method" is based on the use of retrospective data in the QC documents and reports, which are typically available from the National Regulatory Authority database. The method was applied to 70 CT scanners in Tehran, Iran, by using the available QC reports from the database. The commonly used "data collection method" was also applied by filling each questionnaire on-site to validate the new method...
March 2018: Health Physics
Hideyuki Kato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Ali B Alhailiy, Peter L Kench, Mark F McEntee, Patrick C Brennan, Elaine A Ryan
Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a commonly used diagnostic imaging tool for cardiovascular disease. Despite constant improvements to imaging technologies, the radiation dose to patients remains a concern when using this procedure. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are used as a trigger to identify and alert individual facilities that are using high doses during CT. This study aims to assess patient radiation dose and establish new national DRLs (NDRL) associated with CCTA in Saudi clinical practices...
January 17, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Bhupendra Singh Rana, Sanjeev Kumar, Inderjeet Singh Sandhu, Narinder Paul Singh
The present work reports dosimetry data on adult and pediatric patients for some common radiographic examinations during the standard hospital routine. The measurements are the part of quality assurance program to determine radiation exposures to patients in these examinations. The entrance skin doses (ESDs) of the patients were measured from 2451 projection for 12 diagnostic examinations in digital radiography (DR). The ESDs in adult patient were measured using thermoluminescence dosemeters placed on the skin of the patient...
January 12, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Jessica L Becraft, John C Borrero, Barbara J Davis, Amber E Mendres-Smith, Mariana I Castillo
Differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules are used to decrease the overall rate of, but not eliminate, a target response. Two variations of DRL, spaced-responding and full-session, exist. Preliminary comparative analyses suggest that the two schedules function differently when unsignaled. We compared response rates under these two DRL variations with and without signals. In Experiment 1, five preschool students played a game in which points were earned under DRL schedules. In some sessions, a stimulus signaled when responses would be reinforced (S+) or not reinforced (S-)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Rebecca A Chong, Rachel Lockridge Mueller
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are the site of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In metazoans, the mitochondrial genome is a small, circular molecule averaging 16.5 kb in length. Despite evolutionarily conserved gene content, metazoan mitochondrial genomes show a diversity of gene orders most commonly explained by the duplication-random loss (DRL) model. In the DRL model, (1) a sequence of genes is duplicated in tandem, (2) one paralog sustains a loss-of-function mutation, resulting in selection to retain the other copy, and (3) the non-functional paralog is eventually deleted from the genome...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
Patrice Roch, David Célier, Cécile Dessaud, Cécile Etard
OBJECTIVES: Twelve years since the implementation of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL) process in France, the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection French Institute (IRSN) presents its latest analyses performed on the most recent national data. METHODS: Statutorily, each year, medical imaging departments must perform patient exposure evaluation from their clinical practice for at least 2 types of radiographic and computed tomography (CT) examinations freely chosen in the regulatory list...
January 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Kiyoung Kim, Eung Suk Kim, Seung-Young Yu
AIM: To evaluate the correlation between inner retinal layer thinning and the foveal microvasculature in type 2 diabetes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: A cross-sectional study involved 155 diabetic eyes. All patients were divided into two groups based on diabetic retinopathy (DR) grade: no DR (NDR, n=80) and mild-to-moderate non-proliferative DR (NPDR, n=75). Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, FAZ circularity index, FAZ perimeter, vessel density and perfusion index of parafoveal and perifoveal area were calculated using OCTA...
December 19, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
D A Cory-Slechta, J L Allen, K Conrad, E Marvin, M Sobolewski
Developmental exposures to ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) can produce multiple neuropathological and neurochemical changes that might contribute to persistent alterations in cognitive-type functions. The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that developmental UFP exposure produced impairments in learning, memory and impulsive-like behaivors and to determine whether these were selective and thus independent of deficits in other behavioral domains such as motor activity or motivation...
December 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
Hannele Niiniviita, Timo Kiljunen, Minna Huuskonen, Simo Teperi, Jarmo Kulmala
PURPOSE: As the number of pediatric computed tomography (CT) imaging is increasing, there is a need for real-time radiation dose monitoring and evaluation of the imaging protocols. The aim of this study was to present the imaging data, patient doses, and observations of pediatric and young adult trauma-and routine head CT and cervical spine CT collected by a dose monitoring software. METHODS: Patient age, study date, imaging parameters, and patient dose as volume CT dose index (CTDIvol ) and dose length product (DLP) were collected from two emergency departments' CT scanners for 2-year period...
December 16, 2017: Emergency Radiology
Sophia Hui Xin Yee, Roxanna Jean Esguerra, Amelia Anya Qin'An Chew, Keng Mun Wong, Keson Beng Choon Tan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the 3D static articulation accuracy of 3 model scanner-CAD systems (Ceramill Map400 [AG], inEos X5 [SIR], Scanner S600 Arti [ZKN]) using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Trueness and precision for each system will be reported in Part I. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The master model simulated a single crown opposing a 3-unit fixed dental prosthesis. Five mounted stone cast sets were prepared, and one set was randomly selected. Reference values were obtained by measuring interarch and interocclusal reference features with the CMM...
February 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Mesfin Zewdu, Elias Kadir, Melkamu Berhane
Background: Given the fact that children are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than adults, with an increased risk of developing radiation-induced cancer, special care should be taken when they undergo X-ray examinations. The main aim of the current study was to determine Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) to pediatric patients arising from routine x-ray examination in the Radiology Department of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on pediatric patients less than 15 years of age who visited to seek x-ray examinations in JUSH...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Sophia Hui Xin Yee, Roxanna Jean Esguerra, Amelia Anya Qin'An Chew, Keng Mun Wong, Keson Beng Choon Tan
PURPOSE: Accurate maxillomandibular relationship transfer is important for CAD/CAM prostheses. This study compared the 3D-accuracy of virtual model static articulation in three laboratory scanner-CAD systems (Ceramill Map400 [AG], inEos X5 [SIR], Scanner S600 Arti [ZKN]) using two virtual articulation methods: mounted models (MO), interocclusal record (IR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The master model simulated a single crown opposing a 3-unit fixed partial denture. Reference values were obtained by measuring interarch and interocclusal reference features with a coordinate measuring machine (CMM)...
February 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Kuan Yee Wong, Roxanna Jean Esguerra, Vanessa Ai Ping Chia, Ying Han Tan, Keson Beng Choon Tan
PURPOSE: Prior studies have defined the accuracy of intraoral scanner (IOS) systems but the accuracy of the digital static interocclusal registration function of these systems has not been reported. This study compared the three-dimensional (3D) accuracy of the digital static interocclusal registration of 3 IOS systems using the buccal bite scan function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three IOS systems compared were 3MTM True Definition Scanner (TDS), TRIOS Color (TRC), and CEREC AC with CEREC Omnicam (CER)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
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