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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819817/estimation-of-entrance-surface-air-kerma-due-to-diagnostic-x-ray-examinations-of-adult-patients-in-uttarakhand-india-and-establishment-of-local-diagnostic-reference-levels
#1
Satish C Uniyal, Vineet Chaturvedi, Sunil D Sharma, Shailendra Raghuvanshi
It is well established that diagnostic X-ray practices must be optimised to keep patient radiation dose as low as compatible with providing the diagnostic information required. For effective optimisation of diagnostic exposures, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) introduced the concept of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in 1996. The present study aimed to carry out an extensive dose survey of diagnostic radiography installations in the Uttarakhand region of India to establish local DRL Values for the different diagnostic practices...
August 17, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794076/swept-source-oct-angiography-imaging-of-the-macular-capillary-network-in-glaucoma
#2
Handan Akil, Vikas Chopra, Mayss Al-Sheikh, Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Alex S Huang, SriniVas R Sadda, Brian A Francis
PURPOSE: To evaluate the macular capillary network density of superficial and deep retinal layers (SRL/DRL) by swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and to compare the results with those of normal subjects. METHOD: In this prospective study, 24 eyes of 24 normal individuals and 24 eyes of 24 patients with mild to moderate POAG underwent fovea centred 6×6 mm cube macular OCTA imaging by a swept-source OCTA device (Triton, Topcon, Tokyo, Japan)...
August 9, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790900/maladaptive-decision-making-in-adults-with-a-history-of-adolescent-alcohol-use-in-a-preclinical-model-is-attributable-to-the-compromised-assignment-of-incentive-value-during-stimulus-reward-learning
#3
Lauren C Kruse, Abigail G Schindler, Rapheal G Williams, Sophia J Weber, Jeremy J Clark
According to recent WHO reports, alcohol remains the number one substance used and abused by adolescents, despite public health efforts to curb its use. Adolescence is a critical period of biological maturation where brain development, particularly the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, undergoes substantial remodeling. These circuits are implicated in complex decision making, incentive learning and reinforcement during substance use and abuse. An appealing theoretical approach has been to suggest that alcohol alters the normal development of these processes to promote deficits in reinforcement learning and decision making, which together make individuals vulnerable to developing substance use disorders in adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782425/the-effect-of-lighting-conditions-and-use-of-headlights-on-drivers-perception-and-appraisal-of-approaching-vehicles-at-junctions
#4
Yee Mun Lee, Elizabeth Sheppard
Use of Daytime Running Lights (DRL) is mandatory in many countries for motorcycles, and in some for cars. However, in developing countries, DRLs may be optional or compliance low. The effect of car or motorcycle headlights and lighting conditions on Malaysian drivers' ability to perceive and judge the safety of pulling out was investigated. Stimuli were photographs depicting either daytime or nighttime taken at a T-junction with approaching vehicles with headlights on or off. Headlights improved drivers' ability to perceive cars and motorcycles in the nighttime photographs but not the daytime photographs, although this could be due to the bright weather in the photographs...
August 16, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780202/tailor-made-ge-doped-silica-glass-for-clinical-diagnostic-x-ray-dosimetry
#5
Amjad Alyahyawi, T Jupp, M Alkhorayef, D A Bradley
In the modern clinical practice of diagnostic radiology there is a growing demand for radiation dosimetry, it also being recognized that with increasing use of X-ray examinations additional population dose will result, accompanied by an additional albeit low potential for genetic consequences. At the doses typical of diagnostic radiology there is also a low statistical risk for cancer induction; in adhering to best practice, to be also implied is a low but non-negligible potential for deterministic sensitive organ responses, including in regard to the skin and eyes...
July 22, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764964/motor-deficits-impaired-response-inhibition-and-blunted-response-to-methylphenidate-following-neonatal-exposure-to-decabromodiphenyl-ether
#6
Vincent P Markowski, Patrick Miller-Rhodes, Randy Cheung, Calla Goeke, Vincent Pecoraro, Gideon Cohen, Deena J Small
Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) is an applied brominated flame retardant that is widely-used in electronic equipment. After decades of use, decaBDE and other members of its polybrominated diphenyl ether class have become globally-distributed environmental contaminants that can be measured in the atmosphere, water bodies, wildlife, food staples and human breastmilk. Although it has been banned in Europe and voluntarily withdrawn from the U.S. market, it is still used in Asian countries. Evidence from epidemiological and animal studies indicate that decaBDE exposure targets brain development and produces behavioral impairments...
July 29, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757351/estimation-of-effective-dose-and-radiation-risk-in-pediatric-barium-studies-procedures
#7
A Sulieman, B Elhag, M Alkhorayef, E Babikir, K Theodorou, C Kappas, D Bradley
The objectives of this study are to assess pediatric radiation exposure in certain barium studies and to quantify the organ and effective doses and radiation risk resultant from patients' irradiation. A total of 69 pediatric barium studies for upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Patients' radiation dose was quantified in terms of Entrance surface air kerma (ESAKs) using exposure parameters and DosCal software. Organ and effective doses (E) were extrapolated using national Radiological Protection Board software (NRPB-R279)...
July 21, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724867/evaluation-of-the-patient-exposure-in-general-radiography-for-some-facilities-comparison-with-drl-and-evaluation-of-the-difference-among-facilities
#8
Koji Ono, Yuya Kondo, Takuma Ichikawa, Yasuki Asada
The first diagnostic reference levels (DRLs 2015) in Japan were published in June 2015. The purpose of this study was to compare the calculated entrance surface doses with the values of DRLs 2015, and evaluate differences in patient exposure among facilities. Semiconductor dosimeter was installed, and dosimetry was performed using equipment and radiographic condition of each facility. As a result, a dose higher than the value of DRLs 2015 was used in 12 kinds of examination. In child chest examination, the doses of the three facilities (0...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711184/establishing-national-diagnostic-reference-levels-drls-for-computed-tomography-in-egypt
#9
Dina Husseiny Salama, Jenia Vassileva, Gamal Mahdaly, Mona Shawki, Ahmad Salama, Debbie Gilley, Madan Mohan Rehani
OBJECTIVES: To establish national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in Egypt for computed tomography (CT) examinations of adults and identify the potential for optimization. METHODS: Data from 3762 individual patient's undergoing CT scans of head, chest (high resolution), abdomen, abdomen-pelvis, chest-abdomen-pelvis and CT angiography (aorta and both lower limbs) examinations in 50 CT facilities were collected. This represents 20% of facilities in the country and all of the 27 Governorates...
July 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698237/maize-yabby-genes-drooping-leaf1-and-drooping-leaf2-regulate-plant-architecture
#10
Josh Strable, Jason G Wallace, Erica Unger-Wallace, Sarah Briggs, Peter J Bradbury, Edward S Buckler, Erik Vollbrecht
Leaf architecture directly influences canopy structure, consequentially affecting yield. We discovered a maize (Zea mays) mutant with aberrant leaf architecture, which we named drooping leaf1 (drl1). Pleiotropic mutations in drl1 affect leaf length and width, leaf angle, and internode length and diameter. These phenotypes are enhanced by natural variation at the drl2 enhancer locus, including reduced expression of the drl2-Mo17 allele in the Mo17 inbred. A second drl2 allele, produced by transposon mutagenesis, interacted synergistically with drl1 mutants and reduced drl2 transcript levels...
July 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687286/compliance-to-diagnostic-reference-levels-for-radiation-exposure-in-common-radiological-procedures-in-dutch-hospitals-a-nation-wide-survey-carried-out-by-medical-imaging-students
#11
H Bijwaard, G de Vries, J Scheurleer, T Roding, H Erenstein, W Ravensbergen, S Haarmans-Jonkman, F van Welie
INTRODUCTION: In the Netherlands, hospitals have difficulty in implementing the formal procedure of comparing radiation dose values to Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). METHODS: To support the hospitals, train radiography students, and carry out a nationwide dose survey, diagnostic radiography students performed 125 DRL comparisons for nine different procedures in 29 radiology departments. Students were instructed at three Dutch Universities of Applied Sciences with a radiography programme and supervised by medical physicists from the participating hospitals...
August 2017: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649993/kappa-opioid-receptor-activation-in-dopamine-neurons-disrupts-behavioral-inhibition
#12
Antony D Abraham, Harrison M Fontaine, Allisa J Song, Mackenzie M Andrews, Madison A Baird, Brigitte L Kieffer, Benjamin B Land, Charles Chavkin
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system has been previously implicated in the regulation of cognition, but the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms underlying KOR-mediated cognitive disruption are unknown. Here, we used an operational test of cognition involving timing and behavioral inhibition and found that systemic KOR activation impairs performance of male and female C57BL/6 mice in the differential reinforcement of low response rates (DRL) task. Systemic KOR antagonism also blocked stress-induced disruptions of DRL performance...
June 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610702/a-quality-control-based-correction-method-for-displayed-dose-indices-on-ct-scanner-consoles-in-patient-dose-surveys
#13
Masoumeh Parsi, Mehdi Sohrabi, Fereidoun Mianji, Reza Paydar
PURPOSE: A new quality-control-based (QC-based) method is introduced to obtain correction factors to be applied to displayed patient dose indices (CTDIVol and DLP) on CT scanner consoles to verify improvement of dose surveys for diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) determination. METHOD: An available data-base of QC documents and reports of 57 CT scanners in Tehran, Iran was used to estimate CTDIVol, DLP and relevant correction factors for three CT examination types including head, chest and abdomen/pelvis...
June 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545608/differential-regulation-analysis-reveals-dysfunctional-regulatory-mechanism-involving-transcription-factors-and-micrornas-in-gastric-carcinogenesis
#14
Quanxue Li, Junyi Li, Wentao Dai, Yi-Xue Li, Yuan-Yuan Li
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most incident malignancies in the world. Although lots of featured genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, underlying regulatory mechanisms still remain unclear. In order to explore the dysfunctional mechanisms of GC, we developed a novel approach to identify carcinogenesis relevant regulatory relationships, which is characterized by quantifying the difference of regulatory relationships between stages. Firstly, we applied the strategy of differential coexpression analysis (DCEA) to transcriptomic datasets including paired mRNA and miRNA of gastric samples to identify a set of genes/miRNAs related to gastric cancer progression...
March 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527692/regional-differences-in-dopamine-receptor-blockade-affect-timing-impulsivity-that-is-altered-by-d-amphetamine-on-differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-responding-drl-behavior-in-rats
#15
Ruey-Kuang Cheng, Ruey-Ming Liao
The ability to control when to start an action and when to stop is crucial in human and animal behavior. A failure to suppress premature behavior or to carry out an action in a timely manner is commonly seen in several neuropsychological disorders. Despite the phenomenon, the exact neural mechanisms underlying this timing impulsivity remain to be elucidated. Systemic injection of d-amphetamine (AMP) has been shown to disrupt rat's performance in the differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) task that requires both optimal timing and proper impulsive control as measured by peak time and non-reinforced responses, respectively...
July 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523354/investigation-of-reference-levels-and-radiation-dose-associated-with-abdominal-evar-endovascular-aneurysm-repair-procedures-across-several-european-centres
#16
E Tuthill, L O'Hora, M O'Donohoe, S Panci, P Gilligan, D Campion, R Trenti, E Fox, D Catania, L Rainford
OBJECTIVES: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is considered the treatment of choice for abdominal aortic aneurysms with suitable anatomy. In order to improve radiation safety, European Directive (2013/59) requires member states to implement diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in radio-diagnostic and interventional procedures. This study aimed to determine local DRLs for EVAR across five European centres and identify an interim European DRL, which currently remains unestablished. METHODS: Retrospective data was collected for 180 standard EVARs performed between January 2014 and July 2015 from five specialist centres in Ireland (n=2) and Italy (n=3)...
May 18, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515959/impact-of-image-quality-on-oct-angiography-based-quantitative-measurements
#17
Mayss Al-Sheikh, Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Handan Akil, SriniVas R Sadda
BACKGROUND: To study the impact of image quality on quantitative measurements and the frequency of segmentation error with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Seventeen eyes of 10 healthy individuals were included in this study. OCTA was performed using a swept-source device (Triton, Topcon). Each subject underwent three scanning sessions 1-2 min apart; the first two scans were obtained under standard conditions and for the third session, the image quality index was reduced using application of a topical ointment...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499049/quantitative-comparison-of-swept-source-and-spectral-domain-oct-angiography-in-healthy-eyes
#18
Mayss Al-Sheikh, Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Tudor C Tepelus, SriniVas R Sadda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare macular vessel density (VD) and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area in healthy individuals using two different optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) devices. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, comparative study, 25 eyes of 14 healthy subjects underwent fovea-centered 3 mm × 3 mm OCTA-imaging using the Triton (Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) and RS-3000 (Nidek, Gamagori, Japan) OCTA devices. Superficial and deep retinal layers (SRL/DRL) and FAZ were manually graded after threshold standardization to determine macular VD and area of the FAZ...
May 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479283/web-based-platform-for-patient-dose-surveys-in-diagnostic-and-interventional-radiology-in-bulgaria-functionality-testing-and-optimisation
#19
F Simeonov, N Palov, D Ivanova, D Kostova-Lefterova, E Georgiev, A Zagorska, R Madzharova, J Vassileva
In the period 2013-2016 the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP) at the Ministry of Health of Bulgaria has developed a web based platform for performing national patient dose surveys and establishing Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). It is accessible via internet browser, allowing the users to submit data remotely. Electronic questionnaires, specific for radiography, fluoroscopy, image guided interventional procedures, mammography and CT, were provided. Short and clear manuals were added to guide users and minimise human errors...
May 4, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452942/a-double-rate-localization-algorithm-with-one-anchor-for-multi-hop-underwater-acoustic-networks
#20
Jingjie Gao, Xiaohong Shen, Ruiqin Zhao, Haodi Mei, Haiyan Wang
Localization is a basic issue for underwater acoustic networks (UANs). Currently, most localization algorithms only perform well in one-hop networks or need more anchors which are not suitable for the underwater environment. In this paper, we proposed a double rate localization algorithm with one anchor for multi-hop underwater acoustic networks (DRL). The algorithm firstly presents a double rate scheme which separates the localization procedure into two modes to increase the ranging accuracy in multi-hop UANs while maintaining the transmission rate...
April 28, 2017: Sensors
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