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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649993/kappa-opioid-receptor-activation-in-dopamine-neurons-disrupts-behavioral-inhibition
#1
Antony D Abraham, Harrison M Fontaine, Allisa J Song, Mackenzie M Andrews, Madison A Baird, Brigitte L Kieffer, Benjamin B Land, Charles Chavkin
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system has been previously implicated in the regulation of cognition, but the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms underlying KOR-mediated cognitive disruption are unknown. Here, we used an operational test of cognition involving timing and behavioral inhibition and found that systemic KOR activation impairs performance of male and female C57BL/6 mice in the differential reinforcement of low response rates (DRL) task. Systemic KOR antagonism also blocked stress-induced disruptions of DRL performance...
June 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610702/a-quality-control-based-correction-method-for-displayed-dose-indices-on-ct-scanner-consoles-in-patient-dose-surveys
#2
Masoumeh Parsi, Mehdi Sohrabi, Fereidoun Mianji, Reza Paydar
PURPOSE: A new quality-control-based (QC-based) method is introduced to obtain correction factors to be applied to displayed patient dose indices (CTDIVol and DLP) on CT scanner consoles to verify improvement of dose surveys for diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) determination. METHOD: An available data-base of QC documents and reports of 57 CT scanners in Tehran, Iran was used to estimate CTDIVol, DLP and relevant correction factors for three CT examination types including head, chest and abdomen/pelvis...
June 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545608/differential-regulation-analysis-reveals-dysfunctional-regulatory-mechanism-involving-transcription-factors-and-micrornas-in-gastric-carcinogenesis
#3
Quanxue Li, Junyi Li, Wentao Dai, Yi-Xue Li, Yuan-Yuan Li
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most incident malignancies in the world. Although lots of featured genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, underlying regulatory mechanisms still remain unclear. In order to explore the dysfunctional mechanisms of GC, we developed a novel approach to identify carcinogenesis relevant regulatory relationships, which is characterized by quantifying the difference of regulatory relationships between stages. Firstly, we applied the strategy of differential coexpression analysis (DCEA) to transcriptomic datasets including paired mRNA and miRNA of gastric samples to identify a set of genes/miRNAs related to gastric cancer progression...
March 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527692/regional-differences-in-dopamine-receptor-blockade-affect-timing-impulsivity-that-is-altered-by-d-amphetamine-on-differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-responding-drl-behavior-in-rats
#4
Ruey-Kuang Cheng, Ruey-Ming Liao
The ability to control when to start an action and when to stop is crucial in human and animal behavior. A failure to suppress premature behavior or to carry out an action in a timely manner is commonly seen in several neuropsychological disorders. Despite the phenomenon, the exact neural mechanisms underlying this timing impulsivity remain to be elucidated. Systemic injection of d-amphetamine (AMP) has been shown to disrupt rat's performance in the differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) task that requires both optimal timing and proper impulsive control as measured by peak time and non-reinforced responses, respectively...
July 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523354/investigation-of-reference-levels-and-radiation-dose-associated-with-abdominal-evar-endovascular-aneurysm-repair-procedures-across-several-european-centres
#5
E Tuthill, L O'Hora, M O'Donohoe, S Panci, P Gilligan, D Campion, R Trenti, E Fox, D Catania, L Rainford
OBJECTIVES: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is considered the treatment of choice for abdominal aortic aneurysms with suitable anatomy. In order to improve radiation safety, European Directive (2013/59) requires member states to implement diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in radio-diagnostic and interventional procedures. This study aimed to determine local DRLs for EVAR across five European centres and identify an interim European DRL, which currently remains unestablished. METHODS: Retrospective data was collected for 180 standard EVARs performed between January 2014 and July 2015 from five specialist centres in Ireland (n=2) and Italy (n=3)...
May 18, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515959/impact-of-image-quality-on-oct-angiography-based-quantitative-measurements
#6
Mayss Al-Sheikh, Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Handan Akil, SriniVas R Sadda
BACKGROUND: To study the impact of image quality on quantitative measurements and the frequency of segmentation error with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Seventeen eyes of 10 healthy individuals were included in this study. OCTA was performed using a swept-source device (Triton, Topcon). Each subject underwent three scanning sessions 1-2 min apart; the first two scans were obtained under standard conditions and for the third session, the image quality index was reduced using application of a topical ointment...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499049/quantitative-comparison-of-swept-source-and-spectral-domain-oct-angiography-in-healthy-eyes
#7
Mayss Al-Sheikh, Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Tudor C Tepelus, SriniVas R Sadda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare macular vessel density (VD) and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area in healthy individuals using two different optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) devices. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, comparative study, 25 eyes of 14 healthy subjects underwent fovea-centered 3 mm × 3 mm OCTA-imaging using the Triton (Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) and RS-3000 (Nidek, Gamagori, Japan) OCTA devices. Superficial and deep retinal layers (SRL/DRL) and FAZ were manually graded after threshold standardization to determine macular VD and area of the FAZ...
May 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479283/web-based-platform-for-patient-dose-surveys-in-diagnostic-and-interventional-radiology-in-bulgaria-functionality-testing-and-optimisation
#8
F Simeonov, N Palov, D Ivanova, D Kostova-Lefterova, E Georgiev, A Zagorska, R Madzharova, J Vassileva
In the period 2013-2016 the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP) at the Ministry of Health of Bulgaria has developed a web based platform for performing national patient dose surveys and establishing Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). It is accessible via internet browser, allowing the users to submit data remotely. Electronic questionnaires, specific for radiography, fluoroscopy, image guided interventional procedures, mammography and CT, were provided. Short and clear manuals were added to guide users and minimise human errors...
May 4, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452942/a-double-rate-localization-algorithm-with-one-anchor-for-multi-hop-underwater-acoustic-networks
#9
Jingjie Gao, Xiaohong Shen, Ruiqin Zhao, Haodi Mei, Haiyan Wang
Localization is a basic issue for underwater acoustic networks (UANs). Currently, most localization algorithms only perform well in one-hop networks or need more anchors which are not suitable for the underwater environment. In this paper, we proposed a double rate localization algorithm with one anchor for multi-hop underwater acoustic networks (DRL). The algorithm firstly presents a double rate scheme which separates the localization procedure into two modes to increase the ranging accuracy in multi-hop UANs while maintaining the transmission rate...
April 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423775/combining-different-privacy-preserving-record-linkage-methods-for-hospital-admission-data
#10
Jürgen Stausberg, Andreas Waldenburger, Christian Borgs, Rainer Schnell
Record linkage (RL) is the process of identifying pairs of records that correspond to the same entity, for example the same patient. The basic approach assigns to each pair of records a similarity weight, and then determines a certain threshold, above which the two records are considered to be a match. Three different RL methods were applied under privacy-preserving conditions on hospital admission data: deterministic RL (DRL), probabilistic RL (PRL), and Bloom filters. The patient characteristics like names were one-way encrypted (DRL, PRL) or transformed to a cryptographic longterm key (Bloom filters)...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418405/adenosine-a2a-receptor-and-erk-driven-impulsivity-potentiates-hippocampal-neuroblast-proliferation
#11
A Oliveros, C H Cho, A Cui, S Choi, D Lindberg, D Hinton, M-H Jang, D-S Choi
Dampened adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) function has been implicated in addiction through enhancement of goal-directed behaviors. However, the contribution of the A2AR to the control of impulsive reward seeking remains unknown. Using mice that were exposed to differential reward of low rate (DRL) schedules during Pavlovian-conditioning, second-order schedule discrimination, and the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), we demonstrate that deficits of A2AR function promote impulsive responses. Antagonism of the A2AR lowered ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation in the dorsal hippocampus (dHip) and potentiated impulsivity during Pavlovian-conditioning and the 5-CSRTT...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405108/assessment-of-regional-pediatric-computed-tomography-dose-indices-in-tamil-nadu
#12
A Saravanakumar, K Vaideki, K N Govindarajan, S Jayakumar, B Devanand
The aim of this article is to assess Tamil Nadu pediatric computed tomography (CT) diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by collecting radiation dose data for the most commonly performed CT examinations. This work was performed for thirty CT scanners installed in various parts of the Tamil Nadu region. The patient cohort was divided into two age groups: <1 year, and 1-5 years. CT dose indices were measured using a 10 cm(3) pencil ion chamber with pediatric head and body polymethyl methacrylate phantoms. Dose data such as volumetric CT dose index (CTDIv) and dose length product (DLP) on a minimum of twenty average-sized pediatric patients in each category were recorded to calculate a mean site CTDIv and DLP value...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359881/ku32-prevents-5-fluorouracil-induced-cognitive-impairment
#13
Michael J Sofis, David P Jarmolowicz, Sam V Kaplan, Rachel C Gehringer, Shea M Lemley, Gaurav Garg, Brian S Blagg, Michael A Johnson
Chemotherapy induced cognitive impairment (i.e. chemobrain) involves acute and long-term deficits in memory, executive function, and processing speed. Animal studies investigating these cognitive deficits have had mixed results, potentially due to variability in the complexity of behavioral tasks across experiments. Further, common chemotherapy treatments such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) break down myelin integrity corresponding to hippocampal neurodegenerative deficits and mitochondrial dysfunction. There is little evidence, however, of pharmacological treatments that may target mitochondrial dysfunction...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341610/differential-effects-of-social-and-novelty-enrichment-on-individual-differences-in-impulsivity-and-behavioral-flexibility
#14
Maya Zhe Wang, Andrew T Marshall, Kimberly Kirkpatrick
Early life experience profoundly impacts behavior and cognitive functions in rats. The present study investigated how the presence of conspecifics and/or novel objects, could independently influence individual differences in impulsivity and behavioral flexibility. Twenty-four rats were reared in an isolated condition, an isolated condition with a novel object, a pair-housed social condition, or a pair-housed social condition with a novel object. The rats were then tested on an impulsive choice task, a behavioral flexibility task, and an impulsive action task...
June 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328259/follow-up-study-on-fetal-ct-radiation-dose-in-japan-validating-the-decrease-in-radiation-dose
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Osamu Miyazaki, Hideaki Sawai, Takahiro Yamada, Jun Murotsuki, Gen Nishimura
OBJECTIVE: In 2011, we collected data on fetal CT radiation dose to determine the diagnostic reference level (DRL); however, continuous evaluation of the DRL is necessary. The hypothesis of this study is that the fetal CT radiation dose has decreased, and we predict a widespread use of iterative reconstruction (IR). We also predict that the national decrease in exposure is because of the DRL reported as a result of the previous national study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Various testing protocols from each site were summarized as part of the study results...
April 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318637/impact-of-multiple-en-face-image-averaging-on-quantitative-assessment-from-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-images
#16
Akihito Uji, Siva Balasubramanian, Jianqin Lei, Elmira Baghdasaryan, Mayss Al-Sheikh, SriniVas R Sadda
PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of multiple en face image averaging on quantitative measurements of the retinal microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). DESIGN: Prospective, observational, cross-sectional case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one healthy individuals with normal eyes. METHODS: Macular OCTA images were acquired from all participants using the Zeiss Cirrus 5000 with Angioplex OCTA software (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA)...
March 16, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301651/quantification-of-retinal-microvascular-density-in-optical-coherence-tomographic-angiography-images-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#17
Mary K Durbin, Lin An, Nathan D Shemonski, Mário Soares, Torcato Santos, Marta Lopes, Catarina Neves, Jose Cunha-Vaz
Importance: Quantitative measurements based on optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) may have value in managing diabetic retinopathy (DR), but there is limited information on the ability of OCTA to distinguish eyes with DR. Objective: To evaluate the ability of measurements of retinal microvasculature using OCTA to distinguish healthy eyes from eyes with DR. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective cross-sectional study, OCTA was used to examine the eyes of participants with type 2 diabetes with or without DR and the eyes of participants without diabetes from September 17, 2015, to April 6, 2016...
April 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269391/design-and-validation-of-a-wearable-drl-less-eeg-using-a-novel-fully-reconfigurable-architecture
#18
Ruhi Mahajan, Bashir I Morshed, Gavin M Bidelman
The conventional EEG system consists of a driven-right-leg (DRL) circuit, which prohibits modularization of the system. We propose a Lego-like connectable fully reconfigurable architecture of wearable EEG that can be easily customized and deployed at naturalistic settings for collecting neurological data. We have designed a novel Analog Front End (AFE) that eliminates the need for DRL while maintaining a comparable signal quality of EEG. We have prototyped this AFE for a single channel EEG, referred to as Smart Sensing Node (SSN), that senses brain signals and sends it to a Command Control Node (CCN) via an I2C bus...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247587/establishment-of-institutional-diagnostic-reference-level-for-computed-tomography-with-automated-dose-tracking-software
#19
Chong R Liang, Priscilla X H Chen, Jeevesh Kapur, Michael K L Ong, Swee T Quek, Subhash C Kapur
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to establish institutional diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by summarising doses collected across the five computed tomography (CT) system in our institution. METHODS: CT dose data of 15940 patients were collected retrospectively from May 2015 to October 2015 in five institutional scanners. The mean, 75th percentile and 90th percentile of the dose spread were calculated according to anatomic region. The common CT examinations such as head, chest, combined abdomen/pelvis (A/P), and combined chest/abdomen/pelvis (C/A/P) were reviewed...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227634/design-and-validation-of-a-wearable-drl-less-eeg-using-a-novel-fully-reconfigurable-architecture
#20
Ruhi Mahajan, Bashir I Morshed, Gavin M Bidelman, Ruhi Mahajan, Bashir I Morshed, Gavin M Bidelman, Bashir I Morshed, Ruhi Mahajan, Gavin M Bidelman
The conventional EEG system consists of a driven-right-leg (DRL) circuit, which prohibits modularization of the system. We propose a Lego-like connectable fully reconfigurable architecture of wearable EEG that can be easily customized and deployed at naturalistic settings for collecting neurological data. We have designed a novel Analog Front End (AFE) that eliminates the need for DRL while maintaining a comparable signal quality of EEG. We have prototyped this AFE for a single channel EEG, referred to as Smart Sensing Node (SSN), that senses brain signals and sends it to a Command Control Node (CCN) via an I(2)C bus...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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