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David L Thiele, Sarah-Ellyana Aliuddin, Mike Irvine, George P McGill
A computed tomography radiation dose survey was performed within our enterprise using three age-based paediatric phantoms representing a 1, 5 and 10 years old. Twenty-seven scanners were surveyed with volume computed tomography dose index and dose length product data collected for head, chest and abdomen-pelvis protocols at each age. Reconstruction method e.g. filtered back projection (FBP) or iterative (IR) was also recorded. About two-thirds of the 1 year old FBP chest scans exceeded the national Baby diagnostic reference level (DRL)...
October 11, 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Kim Robin Spekreijse, Guus Maarten Vermeulen, Thybout M Moojen, Harm P Slijper, Steven E R Hovius, Ruud W Selles, Reinier Feitz
BACKGROUND: Hypermobility of the first carpometacarpal joint is mostly surgically treated with a volar approached stabilization by Eaton, but recent studies indicate the importance of the dorsoradial and intermetacarpal ligaments (DRL and IML) for carpometacarpal joint stability. The aim of this study was to compare a dorsal and volar technique for primary carpometacarpal hypermobility regarding pain and functional outcome. METHODS: Patients with non-degenerative, painful carpometacarpal hypermobility were included and were randomly assigned to either the volar technique using the FCR, or a dorsal technique using the ECRL...
2016: European Journal of Plastic Surgery
Moayyad E Suleiman, Mark F McEntee, Lucy Cartwright, Jennifer Diffey, Patrick C Brennan
INTRODUCTION: This work aims to explore radiation doses delivered in screening mammography in Australia, with a focus on whether compressed breast thickness should be used as a guide when determining patient derived diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). METHODS: Anonymized mammograms (52,405) were retrieved from a central database, and DICOM headers were extracted using third party software. Women with breast implants, breast thicknesses outside 20-110 mm and images with incomplete exposure or quality assurance (QA) data were excluded...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
D Khoshdel-Navi, A Shabestani-Monfared, M R Deevband, R Abdi, M Nabahati
BACKGROUND: The most efficient application of ionizing radiation is serving medical purposes and using this radiation has caused people to learn that artificial sources of radiation exposure among these resources can be of highest exposure rate. OBIECTIVE: The present study is aimed at initially establishing a baseline for local-reference dose level in Mazandaran, Iran in 12 projections of the most conventional x-ray examination. METHODS: In this study, 13 public hospitals in Mazandaran province were selected for review and required data collected for ten adult patients with mean weight of 70±10kg in each projection...
June 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Dilara Berkay, David Freestone, Fuat Balcı
Endogenous timing uncertainty results in variability in time-based judgments. In many timing tasks, animals need to incorporate their level of endogenous timing uncertainty into their decisions in order to maximize the reward rate. Although animals have been shown to adopt such optimal behavioral strategies in time-based decisions, whether they can optimize their behavior under exogenous noise is an open question. In this study, we tested mice and rats in a task that required them to space their responses for a minimum duration (DRL task) in different task conditions...
November 2016: Animal Cognition
Jeanine Kamphuis, Swetlana Baichel, Marike Lancel, Sietse F de Boer, Jaap M Koolhaas, Peter Meerlo
Sleep deprivation has profound effects on cognitive performance, and some of these effects may be mediated by impaired prefrontal cortex function. In search of an animal model to investigate this relationship we studied the influence of restricted sleep on operant conditioning in rats, particularly the performance in a differential reinforcement of low rate responding (DRL) task, which is highly dependent upon an intact prefrontal cortex. Animals were trained to withhold a lever press until an imposed delay of 30 s after the last press had passed in order to achieve a food reward...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
Yon Kwon Ihn, Bum-Soo Kim, Jun Soo Byun, Sang Hyun Suh, Yoo Dong Won, Deok Hee Lee, Byung Moon Kim, Young Soo Kim, Pyong Jeon, Chang-Woo Ryu, Sang-Il Suh, Dae Seob Choi, See Sung Choi, Jin Wook Choi, Hyuk Won Chang, Jae-Wook Lee, Sang Heum Kim, Young Jun Lee, Shang Hun Shin, Soo Mee Lim, Woong Yoon, Hae Woong Jeong, Moon Hee Han
PURPOSE: To assess patient radiation doses during cerebral angiography and embolization of intracranial aneurysms across multi-centers and propose a diagnostic reference level (DRL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a sample of 490 diagnostic and 371 therapeutic procedures for intracranial aneurysms, which were performed at 23 hospitals in Korea in 2015. Parameters including dose-area product (DAP), cumulative air kerma (CAK), fluoroscopic time and total angiographic image frames were obtained and analyzed...
September 2016: Neurointervention
Alice Y Kim, Damien C Rodger, Anoush Shahidzadeh, Zhongdi Chu, Nicole Koulisis, Bruce Burkemper, Xuejuan Jiang, Kathryn L Pepple, Ruikang K Wang, Carmen A Puliafito, Narsing A Rao, Amir H Kashani
PURPOSE: To quantify retinal capillary density and morphology in uveitis using SD-OCTA. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study METHODS: Healthy and uveitic subjects were recruited from two tertiary care eye centers. Prototype SD-OCTA devices (Cirrus, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA) were used to generate 3x3 mm(2) OCTA images centered on the fovea. Subjects were placed into 3 groups based on the type of optical microangiography (OMAG) algorithm used for image processing (intensity- and/or phase) and type of retinal segmentation (automatic or manual)...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Seyed Mohammad Bagher Hosseini Nasab, Ali Shabestani-Monfared, Mohammad Reza Deevband, Reza Paydar, Mehrdad Nabahati
In recent years, with the introduction of 64-slice CT and dual-source CT technology, coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has emerged as a useful diagnostic imaging modality as a non-invasive assessment of coronary heart disease. CT produces a larger radiation dose than other imaging tests and cardiac CT involves higher radiation dose with the advances in the spatial and temporal resolution. The aims of this study are patient dose assessment and establishment of national diagnostic reference level for CCTA in Iran...
August 29, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Steven Meyer, Willem A Groenewald, Richard D Pitcher
BACKGROUND: In 1996 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) introduced diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as a quality assurance tool for radiation dose optimization. While many countries have published DRLs, available data are largely from high-income countries. There is arguably a greater need for DRLs in low- and middle-income-countries (LMICs), where imaging equipment may be older and trained imaging technicians are scarce. To date, there has been no critical analysis of the published work on DRLs in LMICs...
August 12, 2016: Acta Radiologica
Mayss Al-Sheikh, Handan Akil, Maximilian Pfau, SriniVas R Sadda
PURPOSE: We compared the area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and macular capillary network density at different retinal layers using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in normal individuals and patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: Images (a 3 × 3 mm cube centered on the fovea) were acquired in 40 eyes of 22 normal individuals and 28 eyes of 18 patients with varying levels of DR using a swept-source OCT-A device (central wavelength 1050 nm; A-scan-rate of 100,000 scans per second)...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sean O' Connor, Orla Mc Ardle, Laura Mullaney
OBJECTIVE: To establish whether CT dose variation occurs in breast cancer localization procedures between radiation therapy (RT) centres in Ireland and to propose diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for this procedure. METHODS: All RT centres in Ireland were invited to participate in a dose audit survey, providing data on the CT dose index volume (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), current-time product (mAs), tube potential, scan length, slice thickness, scanning margins, use of automated exposure control (AEC) and scanner technology for 10 patients with breast cancer who were average sized...
October 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Mayss Al-Sheikh, Tudor Cosmin Tepelus, Tigran Nazikyan, SriniVas R Sadda
AIMS: To determine the repeatability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A)-derived automated vessel density measurements in the superficial retinal layer (SRL) and deep retinal layer (DRL) in healthy individuals. METHODS: 41 eyes of 21 healthy individuals were included in this study. OCT-A was performed using the NIDEK RS-3000 Advance with prototype OCT-A software. Each subject underwent two scanning sessions with 5-10 min in between. En face images of the retinal vasculature were generated using the default segmentation for SRL and DRL...
July 22, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Giovanni Bibbo, Scott Brown, Rebecca Linke
INTRODUCTION: Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL) of procedures involving ionizing radiation are important tools to optimizing radiation doses delivered to patients and in identifying cases where the levels of doses are unusually high. This is particularly important for paediatric patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations as these examinations are associated with relatively high-dose. METHODS: Paediatric CT studies, performed at our institution from January 2010 to March 2014, have been retrospectively analysed to determine the 75th and 95th percentiles of both the volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol ) and dose-length product (DLP) for the most commonly performed studies to: establish local diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography examinations performed at our institution, benchmark our DRL with national and international published paediatric values, and determine the compliance of CT radiographer with established protocols...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Maud Ranchet, Viola Cavallo, Nguyen-Thong Dang, Fabrice Vienne
Most motorcycle crashes involve another vehicle that violated the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. Two kinds of perceptual failures of other road users are often the cause of such accidents: motorcycle-detection failures and motion-perception errors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different headlight configurations on motorcycle detectability when the motorcycle is in visual competition with cars. Three innovative headlight configurations were tested: (1) standard yellow (central yellow headlight), (2) vertical white (one white light on the motorcyclist's helmet and two white lights on the fork in addition to the central white headlight), and (3) vertical yellow (same configuration as (2) with yellow lights instead of white)...
September 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Giovanni Bibbo, Debbie Balman, Rebecca Linke
INTRODUCTION: Diagnostic reference levels (DRL) of procedures involving ionising radiation are important tools for optimising radiation doses delivered to patients and to identify cases where the levels of dose are unusually high. This is particularly important for paediatric patients undergoing fluoroscopic examinations as these examinations can be associated with a high radiation dose. In this study, a large amount of paediatric fluoroscopic data has been analysed to: establish local DRL, identify the most significant factors determining radiation dose to patients, and modify fluoroscopic techniques to optimise the examination protocols...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Timo De Bondt, Tom Mulkens, Federica Zanca, Lotte Pyfferoen, Jan W Casselman, Paul M Parizel
OBJECTIVES: To benchmark regional standard practice for paediatric cranial CT-procedures in terms of radiation dose and acquisition parameters. METHODS: Paediatric cranial CT-data were retrospectively collected during a 1-year period, in 3 different hospitals of the same country. A dose tracking system was used to automatically gather information. Dose (CTDI and DLP), scan length, amount of retakes and demographic data were stratified by age and clinical indication; appropriate use of child-specific protocols was assessed...
June 3, 2016: European Radiology
Michel Engeln, Solène Ansquer, Emilie Dugast, Erwan Bezard, David Belin, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are debilitating side effects of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) in Parkinson's disease (PD) that severely affect the quality of life of patients. While DRT, the pattern and extent of neurodegeneration, and prodromic factors of vulnerability (e.g. impulsivity) have all been hypothesized to play a role in the development of ICDs, their respective, and potentially interacting, contributions remain to be established. High impulsive (HI), Intermediate (Int) or low impulsive (LI) rats were identified based on their performance in both a differential reinforcement of low rate of responding (DRL) and a fixed consecutive number (FCN) schedules, that operationalize two independent facets of impulsivity, waiting and action inhibition (motor impulsivity)...
October 2016: Neuropharmacology
Seyed Rasoul Davoodi, Seyed Mohamad Hossayni
In comparison to other transportation modes, riding motorcycle is prone to accidents. Motorcyclists are more exposed to physical injury than the car drivers. Many multi-vehicle motorcycles crashes occur, there is right-of- way violation takes place in which another vehicle turns in fronts of a motorcycle, or a sudden cross of path of an on-coming motorcycle. One main factor which leads to high rate of motorcycle crashes is lack of conspicuity of motorcycles by other road users especially during day time traffic...
July 2015: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
Alba Roca-Biosca, Lourdes Rubio-Rico, María Inmaculada de Molina-Fernández, Gemma Tuset-Garijo, Encarnación Colodrero-Díaz, Francisco Pedro García-Fernández
AIM: To determine the incidence of various types of dependence-related lesions (DRL) on a population of critically ill patients. METHOD: Descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study in an Intensive Care Unit from January 2014 to January 2015. Adult patients who did not present DRL at the moment of admission were included. Those with brain death and/or stay at the unit for more than two days were excluded. Patients were studied till they developed DRL, were exitus, discharged or stayed for more than 14 days...
September 2016: Enfermería Clínica
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