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Chiara Trevisan, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Nicolas Praet, Alberto Pondja, Yunus Amade Assane, Pierre Dorny, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Pascal Magnussen, Maria Vang Johansen
BACKGROUND: The zoonotic parasite Taenia solium is endemic in Angónia district, Tete province, Mozambique, though the burden of the disease complex is unknown. METHODS: As part of two cross-sectional studies on human and porcine cysticercosis in the area, unique epidemiological and cost data were collected in Angónia district, Mozambique in 2007. These data provided the basis for the assessment of the societal cost of T. solium in the district, which estimates the impact of the disease on human and pig populations and includes both health and economic approaches in the analysis...
March 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ildiko Tombor, Eleni Vangeli, Robert West, Lion Shahab
BACKGROUND: Understanding how people transition between phases of not making a quit attempt to stopping smoking successfully is important in order to optimize interventions. This study aimed to explore differences in attitudes towards smoking and quitting among smokers and ex-smokers. METHODS: Adult (age 18 and over) successful (n = 8), unsuccessful (n = 8) and never quitters (n = 7) were recruited through stop-smoking services in England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analysed using framework analysis...
2018: Journal of Substance Use
Mary K Phillips-Jones, Stephen E Harding
In this review, we discuss mechanisms of resistance identified in bacterial agents Staphylococcus aureus and the enterococci towards two priority classes of antibiotics-the fluoroquinolones and the glycopeptides. Members of both classes interact with a number of components in the cells of these bacteria, so the cellular targets are also considered. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms include efflux pumps (MepA, NorA, NorB, NorC, MdeA, LmrS or SdrM in S. aureus and EfmA or EfrAB in the enterococci) for removal of fluoroquinolone from the intracellular environment of bacterial cells and/or protection of the gyrase and topoisomerase IV target sites in Enterococcus faecalis by Qnr-like proteins...
March 10, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
P Scott Pine, Steven P Lund, Jerod R Parsons, Lindsay K Vang, Ashish A Mahabal, Luca Cinquini, Sean C Kelly, Heather Kincaid, Daniel J Crichton, Avrum Spira, Gang Liu, Adam C Gower, Harvey I Pass, Chandra Goparaju, Steven M Dubinett, Kostyantyn Krysan, Sanford A Stass, Debra Kukuruga, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen, Amanda Courtright-Lim, Karol L Thompson, Barry A Rosenzweig, Lynn Sorbara, Sudhir Srivastava, Marc L Salit
BACKGROUND: The potential utility of microRNA as biomarkers for early detection of cancer and other diseases is being investigated with genome-scale profiling of differentially expressed microRNA. Processes for measurement assurance are critical components of genome-scale measurements. Here, we evaluated the utility of a set of total RNA samples, designed with between-sample differences in the relative abundance of miRNAs, as process controls. RESULTS: Three pure total human RNA samples (brain, liver, and placenta) and two different mixtures of these components were evaluated as measurement assurance control samples on multiple measurement systems at multiple sites and over multiple rounds...
March 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
Michelle L Stoller, Orvelin Roman, Michael R Deans
The organization of polarized stereociliary bundles is critical for the function of the inner ear sensory receptor hair cells that detect sound and motion, and these cells present a striking example of Planar Cell Polarity (PCP); the coordinated orientation of polarized structures within the plane of an epithelium. PCP is best understood in Drosophila where the essential genes regulating PCP were first discovered, and functions for the core PCP proteins encoded by these genes have been deciphered through phenotypic analysis of core PCP gene mutants...
March 3, 2018: Developmental Biology
Deyin Xing, Gang Zheng, John Kenneth Schoolmeester, Zaibo Li, Aparna Pallavajjala, Lisa Haley, Michael G Conner, Russell Vang, Chien-Fu Hung, Tzyy-Choou Wu, Brigitte M Ronnett
Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC) of the uterine cervix is a rare but extremely aggressive tumor. While high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved at an early stage of oncogenesis in many tumors, additional driving events have been postulated to facilitate the progression of SCNECs. Identification of oncogenic drivers could guide targeted therapy of this neoplasm. Clinicopathologic features of 10 cervical SCNECs are reported. Analyses included immunohistochemical evaluation of p16, p53, synaptophysin, and chromogranin expression; in situ hybridizations and polymerase chain reaction for high-risk HPV and/or HPV 18; and next-generation sequencing based on a 637-gene panel...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Mads Svart, Lars C Gormsen, Jakob Hansen, Dora Zeidler, Michael Gejl, Kim Vang, Joel Aanerud, Niels Moeller
Ketone bodies are neuroprotective in neurological disorders such as epilepsy. We randomly studied nine healthy human subjects twice-with and without continuous infusion of 3-hydroxybutyrate-to define potential underlying mechanisms, assessed regionally (parietal, occipital, temporal, cortical grey, and frontal) by PET scan. During 3-hydroxybutyrate infusions concentrations increased to 5.5±0.4 mmol/l and cerebral glucose utilisation decreased 14%, oxygen consumption remained unchanged, and cerebral blood flow increased 30%...
2018: PloS One
J Won, H Vang, J H Kim, P R Lee, Y Kang, S B Oh
Odontoblasts, with their strategic arrangement along the outermost compartment of the dentin-pulp complex, have been suggested to have sensory function. In addition to their primary role in dentin formation, growing evidence shows that odontoblasts are capable of sensing mechanical stimulation. Previously, we found that most odontoblasts express TRPM7, the nonselective mechanosensitive ion channel reported to be critical in Mg2+ homeostasis and dentin mineralization. In line with this finding, we sought to elucidate the functional expression of TRPM7 in odontoblasts by pharmacological approaches and mechanical stimulation...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Nicolas Floc'h, Matthew J Martin, Jonathan W Riess, Jonathan P Orme, Anna D Staniszewska, Ludovic Menard, Maria Emanuela Cuomo, Daniel J O'Neill, Richard A Ward, M Raymond V Finlay, Darren McKerrecher, Mingshan Cheng, Daniel P Vang, Rebekah A Tsai, James G Keck, David R Gandara, Philip C Mack, Darren Ae Cross
EGFR exon 20 insertions (Ex20Ins) account for 4-10% of EGFR activating mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EGFR Ex20Ins tumors are generally unresponsive to 1st and 2nd generation EGFR inhibitors, and current standard of care for NSCLC patients with EGFR Ex20Ins is conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Therefore, the development of an EGFR TKI that can more effectively target NSCLC with EGFR Ex20Ins mutations represents a major advance for this patient subset. Osimertinib is a third-generation EGFR TKI approved for the treatment of advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR T790M; however, the activity of osimertinib in EGFR Ex20Ins NSCLC has yet to be fully assessed...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Hee Yun Lee, Katherine Lust, Suzanne Vang, Jay Desai
Despite the availability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for males, uptake of the vaccine has been low, particularly among young adult males. This study aimed to investigate the levels of HPV vaccination and predictors of HPV vaccine completion in college men ages 18-26. We analyzed data from the 2015 College Student Health Survey, which was administered at 17 post-secondary institutions in Midwest areas. We included only responses from male participants who were ages 18-26 years old, resulting in a sample size of 2516...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Vangelis Marinakis, Haris Doukas
The energy sector is closely interconnected with the building sector and integrated Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) solutions for effective energy management supporting decision-making at building, district and city level are key fundamental elements for making a city Smart. The available systems are designed and intended exclusively for a predefined number of cases and systems without allowing for expansion and interoperability with other applications that is partially due to the lack of semantics...
February 16, 2018: Sensors
Srdja Drakulic, Jay Rai, Steen Vang Petersen, Monika M Golas, Bjoern Sander
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) bridges glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. In human, PDC deficiency leads to severe neurodevelopmental delay and progressive neurodegeneration. The majority of cases are caused by variants in the gene encoding the PDC subunit E1α. The molecular effects of the variants, however, remain poorly understood. Using yeast as a eukaryotic model system, we have studied the substitutions A189V, M230V, and R322C in yeast E1α (corresponding to the pathogenic variants A169V, M210V, and R302C in human E1α) and evaluated how substitutions of single amino acid residues within different functional E1α regions affect PDC structure and activity...
February 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Makrina Karaglani, Georgia Ragia, Maria Panagopoulou, Ioanna Balgkouranidou, Evangelia Nena, George Kolios, Nikolaos Papanas, Vangelis G Manolopoulos, Ekaterini Chatzaki
Sulfonylureas are insulin secretagogues which act in pancreatic β cells by blocking the KATP channels encoded by KCNJ11 and ABCC8 genes. In the present study, a pharmacoepigenetic approach was applied for the first time, investigating the correlation of KCNJ11 and ABCC8 gene promoter methylation with sulfonylureas-induced mild hypoglycemic events as well as the KCNJ11 E23K genotype. Sodium bisulfite-treated genomic DNA of 171 sulfonylureas treated T2DM patients previously genotyped for KCNJ11 E23K, including 88 that had experienced drug-associated hypoglycemia and 83 that had never experienced hypoglycemia, were analyzed for DNA methylation of KCNJ11 and ABCC8 gene promoters via quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR...
February 2, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Takuya Tsuji, Ryosuke Nakamura, Tatsuya Katsuno, Yo Kishimoto, Atsushi Suehiro, Masaru Yamashita, Ryuji Uozumi, Tatsuo Nakamura, Ichiro Tateya, Koichi Omori
BACKGROUND: Planar cell polarity (PCP) coordinates the patterning and orientation of cells and their structures along tissue planes, and although its acquisition during the formation of airway epithelium has been described, the mechanisms for its maintenance and reconstruction are poorly understood. We aimed to clarify whether ambient environment change by orthotropic autologous transplantation affected PCP at the cellular level. METHODS: We performed orthotropic autologous transplantation by inverting tracheal segments in rats, and then performed morphological evaluation by microscopy...
February 2, 2018: Respiratory Research
Franziska Dickel, Daniel Münch, Gro Vang Amdam, Johanna Mappes, Dalial Freitak
Recent studies of honeybees and bumblebees have examined combinatory effects of different stressors, as insect pollinators are naturally exposed to multiple stressors. At the same time the potential influences of simultaneously occurring agricultural agents on insect pollinator health remain largely unknown. Due to different farming methods, and the drift of applied agents and manure, pollinators are most probably exposed to insecticides but also bacteria from organic fertilizers at the same time. We orally exposed honeybee workers to sub-lethal doses of the insecticide thiacloprid and two strains of the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, which can occur in manure from farming animals...
2018: PloS One
Emil Christensen, Iver Nordentoft, Søren Vang, Karin Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Jørgen Bjerggaard Jensen, Mads Agerbæk, Jakob Skou Pedersen, Lars Dyrskjøt
Analysis of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) may provide important information in cancer research, though the often small fraction of DNA originating from tumor cells makes the analysis technically challenging. Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) has been utilized extensively as sufficient technical performance is easily achieved, but analysis is restricted to few mutations. Next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches have been optimized to provide comparable technical performance, especially with the introduction of unique identifiers (UIDs)...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Frédérique Vallières, Philip Hyland, Jamie Murphy, Maj Hansen, Mark Shevlin, Ask Elklit, Ruth Ceannt, Cherie Armour, Nana Wiedemann, Mette Munk, Cecilie Dinesen, Geraldine O'Hare, Twylla Cunningham, Ditte Askerod, Pernille Spitz, Noeline Blackwell, Angela McCarthy, Leonie O'Dowd, Shirley Scott, Tracey Reid, Andreas Mokake, Rory Halpin, Camila Perera, Christina Gleeson, Rachel Frost, Natalie Flanagan, Kinan Aldamman, Trina Tamrakar, Maria Louison Vang, Larissa Sherwood, Áine Travers, Ida Haahr-Pedersen, Catherine Walshe, Tracey McDonagh, Rikke Holm Bramsen
In this paper we present a description of the Horizon2020, Marie Skłodowska-Curie Action funded, research and training programme CONTEXT: COllaborative Network for Training and EXcellence in psychoTraumatology. The three objectives of the programme are put forward, each of which refers to a key component of the CONTEXT programme. First, we summarize the 12 individual research projects that will take place across three priority populations: (i) refugees and asylum seekers, (ii) first responders, and (iii) perpetrators and survivors of childhood and gender-based violence...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Mohamed Sassi, François Guérin, Léonie Lesec, Christophe Isnard, Marguerite Fines-Guyon, Vincent Cattoir, Jean-Christophe Giard
Objectives: To characterize, phenotypically and genotypically, the first Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate harbouring a vanG operon. Methods: The antibiotic resistance profile of E. faecium 16-346 was determined and its whole genome sequenced using PacBio technology. Attempts to transfer vancomycin resistance by filter mating were performed and the inducibility of expression of the vanG operon was studied by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in the presence or absence of subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Elizabeth P Mills, K Paige D Brown, Jennifer D Smith, Phillip W Vang, Katie Trotta
Objective: To review current literature for the efficacy and safety of treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data sources: A PubMed literature search from January 1990 to June 2017 was conducted using the search terms nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes mellitus, type 2, therapy, treatment, treat, therapeutics, nonalcoholic fatty liver, nonalcoholic hepatosteatosis, NASH, NAFLD, metformin, and statin...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Deyin Xing, Natalie Banet, Rajni Sharma, Russell Vang, Brigitte M Ronnett, Peter B Illei
Serous ovarian neoplasms can overlap morphologically with peritoneal mesothelial proliferations, with common features including well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma (WDPM) and malignant epithelioid mesothelioma (MM). Accurate histologic classification of these neoplasms is important for clinical management. The Pax-8 protein is commonly used for differentiating peritoneal MM from serous carcinoma, but the diagnostic value of Pax-8 for distinguishing WDPM from borderline or low-grade serous tumors is unknown...
December 11, 2017: Human Pathology
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