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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341109/the-prescribable-drugs-with-efficacy-in-experimental-epilepsies-pde3-database-for-drug-repurposing-research-in-epilepsy
#1
Shayeeshan Sivapalarajah, Mathangi Krishnakumar, Harry Bickerstaffe, YikYing Chan, Joseph Clarkson, Alistair Hampden-Martin, Ahmad Mirza, Matthew Tanti, Anthony Marson, Munir Pirmohamed, Nasir Mirza
OBJECTIVE: Current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have several shortcomings. For example, they fail to control seizures in 30% of patients. Hence, there is a need to identify new AEDs. Drug repurposing is the discovery of new indications for approved drugs. This drug "recycling" offers the potential of significant savings in the time and cost of drug development. Many drugs licensed for other indications exhibit antiepileptic efficacy in animal models. Our aim was to create a database of "prescribable" drugs, approved for other conditions, with published evidence of efficacy in animal models of epilepsy, and to collate data that would assist in choosing the most promising candidates for drug repurposing...
January 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339968/analysis-of-questions-about-use-of-drugs-in-breastfeeding-to-norwegian-drug-information-centres
#2
Jan Anker Jahnsen, Sofia Frost Widnes, Jan Schjøtt
Background: Health professionals may advise women to either stop breastfeeding or drug treatment due to restrictive advice in drug monographs. Regional medicines information and pharmacovigilance centres in Norway (RELIS) provide free and industry-independent answers to questions about drugs and breastfeeding documented in a full-text, searchable database (RELIS database). We used the RELIS database to describe which health care practitioners sought information about medication safety in lactation, most common drugs involved, advice provided and which resources were used to provide the advice...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338667/docosahexaenoic-acid-prevents-resistance-to-antiepileptic-drugs-in-two-animal-models-of-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#3
Melika Moezifar, Mohammad Sayyah, Morteza Zendehdel, Hakimeh Gavzan
OBJECTIVES: One-third of epileptic patients are resistant to antiepileptic drugs. Few clinical studies with small sample size indicate that polyunsaturated fatty acids could control drug-resistant epilepsy. We examined the efficacy of acute and chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in two animal models of drug-resistant epilepsies, i.e. 6-Hz psychomotor seizures in mice and lamotrigine (LTG)-resistant kindled rats. METHODS: Mice received a single injection of DHA (300 µM, i...
January 16, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337673/evaluation-of-immunomodulatory-effects-of-lamotrigine-in-balb-c-mice
#4
Eman Y Abu-Rish, Shada Y Elhayek, Yehia S Mohamed, Islam Hamad, Yasser Bustanji
Modulation of the immune system has recently been shown to be involved in the pharmacological effects of old antiepileptic drugs and in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Therefore, the most recent guidelines for immunotoxicological evaluation of drugs were consulted to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of lamotrigine, a newer antiepileptic drug, in BALB/c mice. These included the in vivo effects of lamotrigine on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) antigens, hemagglutination titer assays and hematological changes...
December 20, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336393/cardiac-surgery-in-a-patient-with-implanted-vagal-nerve-stimulator
#5
Aashish Jain, Dheeraj Arora, Yatin Mehta
The prevalence of epilepsy worldwide is around 0.5%-2% of the population. Antiepileptic medications are the first line of treatment in most of the cases but approximately 25%-30% epilepsy patients are refractory to the single or combination therapy. The surgical option for temporal lobe epilepsy is temporal lobectomy, which has its inherent risk of neurological deficits after the surgery. Patients who are either refractory to combination therapy or do not want surgical temporal lobectomy are the candidates for electrical stimulation therapy...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336297/add-on-perampanel-and-aggressive-behaviour-in-severe-drug-resistant-focal-epilepsies
#6
S Juhl, G Rubboli
This study aimed to investigate the incidence of aggressiveness in patients with severe drug-refractory focal epilepsy (DRE) who started perampanel (PER) as add-on treatment, and to identify possible predisposing factors. Data on 49 consecutive patients with severe DRE who initiated PER were retrospectively collected. Twelve of the 49 patients experienced aggressiveness as adverse event related to PER treatment, one third of them on low (2-4 mg/day) PER dosages. PER was discontinued in 10/12 patients because of aggressive behaviors...
October 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336266/design-synthesis-evaluation-and-computational-studies-of-nipecotic-acid-acetonaphthone-hybrids-as-potential-antiepileptic-agents
#7
Ankit Seth, Piyoosh A Sharma, Avanish Tripathi, Priyanka K Choubey, Pavan Srivastava, Prabhash N Tripathi, Sushant Kumar Shrivastava
BACKGROUND: Nipecotic acid is considered to be one of the most potent inhibitors of neuronal and glial γ- aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake in vitro. However nipecotic acid does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following peripheral administration, owing to its hydrophilic nature. OBJECTIVE: A series of substituted acetonaphthones tethered nipecotic acid derivatives were designed and synthesized with an aim to improve the lipophilicity and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation...
January 15, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336020/return-to-driving-after-a-diagnosis-of-epilepsy-a-prospective-registry-study
#8
Ying Xu, Maree L Hackett, Nick Glozier, Armin Nikpour, Ernest Somerville, Andrew Bleasel, Carol Ireland, Craig S Anderson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and predictors of return to driving within 1 year after a diagnosis of epilepsy. METHODS: SEISMIC (the Sydney Epilepsy Incidence Study to Measure Illness Consequences) was a prospective, multicenter, community-wide study of people of all ages with newly diagnosed epilepsy in Sydney, Australia. Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics and driving status were obtained as soon as possible after baseline registration with a diagnosis of epilepsy...
January 16, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335158/arvanil-olvanil-am-1172-and-ly-2183240-various-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-agonists-increase-the-threshold-for-maximal-electroshock-induced-seizures-in-mice
#9
Piotr Tutka, Aleksandra Wlaź, Magdalena Florek-Łuszczki, Patrycjusz Kołodziejczyk, Dorota Bartusik-Aebisher, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence reveals therapeutic potential for cannabinoids to reduce seizure frequency, severity and duration. Animal models are useful tools to determine the potential antiseizure or antiepileptic effects of cannabinoids. The objective of this study was evaluation of the effect of arvanil, olvanil, AM 1172 and LY 2183240, the compounds interacted with endocannabinoid and/or endovanilloid systems, on convulsions in the commonly used model of convulsions in mice. METHODS: Arvanil and olvanil were injected intraperitoneally (ip) 30 min and AM 1172 and LY 2183240 were administered ip 60 min before the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test...
August 24, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329017/amiodarone-a-multi-channel-blocker-enhances-anticonvulsive-effect-of-carbamazepine-in-the-mouse-maximal-electroshock-model
#10
Monika Banach, Monika Popławska, Kinga K Borowicz-Reutt
Cardiac arrhythmia may occur in the course of epilepsy. Simultaneous therapy of the two diseases might be complicated by drug interactions since antiarrhythmic and antiepileptic agents share some molecular targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic drug working as a multi-channel blocker, on the protective activity of four classical antiepileptic drugs in the maximal electroshock test in mice. Amiodarone at doses up to 75 mg/kg did not affect the electroconvulsive threshold in mice...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328005/a-novel-use-of-the-neuroblate-sidefire-probe-for-minimally-invasive-disconnection-of-a-hypothalamic-hamartoma-in-a-child-with-gelastic-seizures
#11
James M Wright, Michael D Staudt, Andrea Alonso, Jonathan P Miller, Andrew E Sloan
The authors describe the case of a 22-month-old boy who presented with gelastic seizures and developmental delay. Magnetic resonance imaging and video-electroencephalography monitoring revealed a primarily intraventricular hypothalamic hamartoma and gelastic seizures occurring 20-30 times daily. The patient was treated with various regimens of antiepileptic medications for 16 months, but the seizures remained medically intractable. At 3 years of age, he underwent stereotactic laser ablation with an aim of disconnection of the lesion...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327143/long-term-control-and-predictors-of-seizures-in-intracranial-meningioma-surgery-a-population-based-study
#12
Hai Xue, Olafur Sveinsson, Jiri Bartek, Petter Förander, Simon Skyrman, Lars Kihlström, Raana Shafiei, Tiit Mathiesen, Torbjörn Tomson
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the long-term seizure control and antiepileptic drug (AED) prescriptions, as well as identifying predictors of seizure(s) before and after surgery in a population-based cohort of operated intracranial meningioma patients. METHODS: A total of 113 consecutive adult (> 18 years old) patients with newly diagnosed meningioma operated at the Karolinska University Hospital between 2006 and 2008 were included and followed up until the end of 2015...
January 11, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324507/determining-when-to-stop-antiepileptic-drug-treatment
#13
Steven C Schachter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the number of patients diagnosed with epilepsy continues to rise and the pharmacological and device-based treatment options for epilepsy increase, determining when to stop antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment continues to be an important issue for patient management and counseling. RECENT FINDINGS: This review focuses on outcomes following AED withdrawal in seizure-free adults with epilepsy. Practical considerations are also discussed because, despite the importance of this topic, relatively little progress has been made in the past year regarding the identification of patients whose risk for recurrent seizures after AED withdrawal is no higher than that of the general population...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324398/epilepsy-in-patients-with-pineal-gland-cyst
#14
Jelena Bosnjak, Silva Soldo Butkovic, Snjezana Miskov, Lejla Coric, Ana Jadrijevic-Tomas, Vlatka Mejaski-Bosnjak
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to describe types of epileptic seizures in patients with pineal gland cyst (PGC) and their outcome during follow up period (6-10 years). We wanted to determine whether patients with epilepsy differ in PGC volume and compression of the PGC on surrounding brain structures compared to patients with PGC, without epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed prospectivelly 92 patients with PGC detected on magnetic resonance (MR) of the brain due to various neurological symptoms during the period 2006-2010...
January 4, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323048/topiramate-as-a-neuroprotective-agent-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Firat Narin, Sahin Hanalioglu, Huseyin Ustun, Kamer Kilinc, Burcak Bilginer
Topiramate (TPM) is a widely used antiepileptic and antimigraine agent which has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in various experimental traumatic brain injury and stroke models. However, its utility in spinal cord injury has not been studied extensively. Thus, we evaluated effects of TPM on secondary cellular injury mechanisms in an experimental rat model of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). After rat models of thoracic contusive SCI were established by free weight-drop method, TPM (40 mg/kg) was given at 12-hour intervals for four times orally...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322880/reversible-splenial-lesion-syndrome-due-to-oxcarbazepine-withdrawal-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Chaoyang Jing, Lichao Sun, Zhuo Wang, Chaojia Chu, Weihong Lin
Background Reversible splenial lesion syndrome is a distinct entity radiologically characterized by a reversible lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum. According to previous reports, this condition may be associated with antiepileptic drug use or withdrawal. We herein report a case of reversible splenial lesion syndrome associated with oxcarbazepine withdrawal. Case Report A 39-year-old man presented with an 8-year history of epileptic seizures. During the previous 3 years, he had taken oxcarbazepine irregularly...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322377/s-ketamine-current-trends-in-emergency-and-intensive-care-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Helmut Trimmel, Raimund Helbok, Thomas Staudinger, Wolfgang Jaksch, Brigitte Messerer, Herbert Schöchl, Rudolf Likar
S(+)-ketamine, the pure dextrorotatory enantiomer of ketamine has been available for clinical use in analgesia and anesthesia for more than 25 years. The main effects are mediated by non-competitive inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor but S(+)-ketamine also interacts with opioid receptors, monoamine receptors, adenosine receptors and other purinergic receptors. Effects on α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) and L‑type calcium chanels have also been described...
January 10, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319897/application-of-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-the-prediction-of-bumetanide-plasma-and-brain-concentrations-in-the-neonate
#18
Maria D Donovan, Khaled Abduljalil, John F Cryan, Geraldine B Boylan, Brendan T Griffin
Bumetanide is a loop diuretic that is proposed to possess a beneficial effect on disorders of the central nervous system, including neonatal seizures. Therefore, prediction of unbound bumetanide concentrations in brain is relevant from a pharmacological prospective. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for the prediction of bumetanide disposition in plasma and brain in adult and pediatric populations. A compound file was built for bumetanide integrating physicochemical data and in vitro data...
January 10, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318927/cost-effectiveness-of-evaluation-of-children-with-epilepsy-in-the-emergency-department-need-for-investment-in-patient-education
#19
Karen S Carvalho, Anthony L Fine, Christopher J Haines, Ignacio Valencia, Divya S Khurana, Agustin Legido
We aimed to study cost-effectiveness of seizure evaluation of children with epilepsy in the emergency department (ED). We reviewed epilepsy patients seen at our ED for 1 year. Age, laboratory and neuroimaging results, treatment, disposition, and usefulness of the visit (need for hospitalization, clinical improvement) were analyzed. We identified 330 patients, aged 23 days-21 years, 190 (57.5%) had blood tests, 45 (13.6%) urinalysis, 2 (0.6%) cerebrospinal fluid testing, and 44 neuroimaging studies (13.3%)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317959/impact-of-oxidative-stress-and-newer-antiepileptic-drugs-on-the-albumin-and-cortisol-value-in-severe-motor-and-intellectual-disabilities-with-epilepsy
#20
Masahito Morimoto, Toshiaki Hashimoto, Taisuke Kitaoka, Shojiro Kyotani
Background: Epilepsy is a common complication in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID). There are no reports as yet of the effects of these medications in vivo other than their epileptic efficacy. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of the newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on the blood biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in SMID with epilepsy by comparing the therapeutic effects between a group of patients receiving lamotrigine (LTG) and levetiracetam (LEV) in addition to the conventional AEDs (newer AED group) and a group receiving conventional AEDs alone (old AED group)...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
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