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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340432/reorganization-of-anterior-and-posterior-hippocampal-networks-associated-with-memory-performance-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Hong Li, Caihong Ji, Lujia Zhu, Peiyu Huang, Biao Jiang, Xiaojun Xu, Jianzhong Sun, Zhong Chen, Meiping Ding, Minming Zhang, Shuang Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of functional demarcation of hippocampal network and its relationship with memory performance in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. METHODS: Resting state fMRI data were acquired from fifteen left mTLE patients, fourteen right mTLE patients and twenty healthy subjects. We explore the hippocampal-cortical alterations and corresponding inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (FC) across anterior and posterior hippocampal networks...
March 4, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340406/a-local-adjustment-strategy-for-the-initialization-of-dynamic-causal-modelling-to-infer-effective-connectivity-in-brain-epileptic-structures
#2
Wentao Xiang, Ahmad Karfoul, Huazhong Shu, Régine Le Bouquin Jeannès
This paper addresses the question of effective connectivity in the human cerebral cortex in the context of epilepsy. Among model based approaches to infer brain connectivity, spectral Dynamic Causal Modelling is a conventional technique for which we propose an alternative to estimate cross spectral density. The proposed strategy we investigated tackles the sub-estimation of the free energy using the well-known variational Expectation-Maximization algorithm highly sensitive to the initialization of the parameters vector by a permanent local adjustment of the initialization process...
March 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340402/eslicarbazepine-acetate-as-a-therapeutic-option-in-a-patient-with-carbamazepine-induced-rash-and-hla-a-31-01
#3
Lara Kay, Laurent M Willems, Johann Philipp Zöllner, Philipp S Reif, Karl Martin Klein, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk
Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is an anticonvulsant drug approved for the treatment of focal epilepsies, and related to oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine (CBZ), which are also derivatives of the dibenzazepine family. ESL is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity reactions to CBZ.We report a patient with frontal lobe epilepsy responding to treatment with ESL without any serious adverse effects after developing a severe skin rash following treatment with CBZ. HLA testing revealed an HLA-A*31:01 haplotype, that increases the risk of CBZ-induced cutaneous reactions...
March 18, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340280/gap-junctions-in-epilepsy-for-better-or-worse
#4
EDITORIAL
Bernard Dan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339384/evaluation-of-the-most-frequently-prescribed-extemporaneously-compounded-veterinary-medications-at-a-large-independent-community-pharmacy
#5
Adel H Karara, Ryan Hines, Zehra Demir, Bethran Nnorom, Robert Horsey, Geoffrey Twigg
Extemporaneous drug formulation is essential to provide optimal pharmaceutical care to veterinary patients. The need for this is exacerbated by the fact that commercially produced veterinary-specific products, without a human indication, require specialty veterinary manufacturing facilities and a new animal drug application process to gain marketing approval. This study examined the prescription patterns of extemporaneously compounded veterinary preparations in the compounding department at a large independent community pharmacy...
November 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335018/dissecting-gamma-frequency-activity-during-human-memory-processing
#6
Michal T Kucewicz, Brent M Berry, Vaclav Kremen, Benjamin H Brinkmann, Michael R Sperling, Barbara C Jobst, Robert E Gross, Bradley Lega, Sameer A Sheth, Joel M Stein, Sandthitsu R Das, Richard Gorniak, S Matthew Stead, Daniel S Rizzuto, Michael J Kahana, Gregory A Worrell
Gamma frequency activity (30-150 Hz) is induced in cognitive tasks and is thought to reflect underlying neural processes. Gamma frequency activity can be recorded directly from the human brain using intracranial electrodes implanted in patients undergoing treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy. Previous studies have independently explored narrowband oscillations in the local field potential and broadband power increases. It is not clear, however, which processes contribute to human brain gamma frequency activity, or their dynamics and roles during memory processing...
March 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335000/better-than-sham-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-neurofeedback-study-in-primary-insomnia
#7
Manuel Schabus, Hermann Griessenberger, Maria-Teresa Gnjezda, Dominik P J Heib, Malgorzata Wislowska, Kerstin Hoedlmoser
Neurofeedback training builds upon the simple concept of instrumental conditioning, i.e. behaviour that is rewarded is more likely to reoccur, an effect Thorndike referred to as the 'law of effect'. In the case of neurofeedback, information about specific electroencephalographic activity is fed back to the participant who is rewarded whenever the desired electroencephalography pattern is generated. If some kind of hyperarousal needs to be addressed, the neurofeedback community considers sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback as the gold standard...
February 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334998/spatiotemporal-mapping-of-epileptic-spikes-using-simultaneous-eeg-functional-mri
#8
Jennifer M Walz, Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Mira Semmelroch, Graeme D Jackson
Epileptic spikes occur on the sub-second timescale and are known to involve not only epileptic foci but also large-scale distributed brain networks. There is likely to be a sequence of neural activity in multiple brain regions that occurs within the duration of a single spike, but standard electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses, which use only the timing of the spikes to model the functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cannot determine the sequence of these activations. Our aim in this study is to temporally resolve these spatial activations to observe the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spike-related neural activity at a sub-second timescale...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334981/computer-models-to-inform-epilepsy-surgery-strategies-prediction-of-postoperative-outcome
#9
Marc Goodfellow, Christian Rummel, Eugenio Abela, Mark P Richardson, Kaspar Schindler, John R Terry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334965/photosensitive-epilepsy-is-associated-with-reduced-inhibition-of-alpha-rhythm-generating-networks
#10
Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Andrea Ruggieri, Pietro Avanzini, Giuliana Gessaroli, Gaetano Cantalupo, Antonietta Coppola, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Stefano Meletti
Photosensitivity is a condition in which lights induce epileptiform activities. This abnormal electroencephalographic response has been associated with hyperexcitability of the visuo-motor system. Here, we evaluate if intrinsic dysfunction of this network is present in brain activity at rest, independently of any stimulus and of any paroxysmal electroencephalographic activity. To address this issue, we investigated the haemodynamic correlates of the spontaneous alpha rhythm, which is considered the hallmark of the brain resting state, in photosensitive patients and in people without photosensitivity...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334963/three-and-four-dimensional-mapping-of-speech-and-language-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#11
Yasuo Nakai, Jeong-Won Jeong, Erik C Brown, Robert Rothermel, Katsuaki Kojima, Toshimune Kambara, Aashit Shah, Sandeep Mittal, Sandeep Sood, Eishi Asano
We have provided 3-D and 4D mapping of speech and language function based upon the results of direct cortical stimulation and event-related modulation of electrocorticography signals. Patients estimated to have right-hemispheric language dominance were excluded. Thus, 100 patients who underwent two-stage epilepsy surgery with chronic electrocorticography recording were studied. An older group consisted of 84 patients at least 10 years of age (7367 artefact-free non-epileptic electrodes), whereas a younger group included 16 children younger than age 10 (1438 electrodes)...
March 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334947/protocadherin-19-pcdh19-interacts-with-paraspeckle-protein-nono-to-co-regulate-gene-expression-with-estrogen-receptor-alpha-er%C3%AE
#12
Duyen H Pham, Chuan Tan, Claire C Homan, Kristy Kolc, Mark Corbett, Dale McAninch, Archa Fox, Paul Thomas, Raman Kumar, Jozef Gecz
De novo and inherited mutations of X-chromosome cell adhesion molecule protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) cause frequent, highly variable epilepsy, autism, cognitive decline and behavioural problems syndrome. Intriguingly, hemizygous null males are not affected while heterozygous females are, contradicting established X-chromosome inheritance. The disease mechanism is not known. Cellular mosaicism is the likely driver. We have identified p54nrb/NONO, a multifunctional nuclear paraspeckle protein with known roles in nuclear hormone receptor gene regulation, as a PCDH19 protein interacting partner...
March 17, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334922/scn2a-deletion-improves-survival-and-brain-heart-dynamics-in-the-kcna1-null-mouse-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep
#13
Vikas Mishra, Bharat K Karumuri, Nicole M Gautier, Rui Liu, Timothy N Hutson, Stephanie L Vanhoof-Villalba, Ioannis Vlachos, Leonidas Iasemidis, Edward Glasscock
People with epilepsy have greatly increased probability of premature mortality due to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Identifying which patients are most at risk of SUDEP is hindered by a complex genetic etiology, incomplete understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, and lack of prognostic biomarkers. Here we evaluated heterozygous Scn2a gene deletion (Scn2a+/-) as a protective genetic modifier in the Kcna1 knockout mouse (Kcna1-/-) model of SUDEP, while searching for biomarkers of SUDEP risk embedded in electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) recordings...
March 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334902/reply-computer-models-to-inform-epilepsy-surgery-strategies-prediction-of-postoperative-outcome
#14
Nishant Sinha, Justin Dauwels, Marcus Kaiser, Sydney S Cash, M Brandon Westover, Yujiang Wang, Peter N Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334879/altered-sleep-homeostasis-correlates-with-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy
#15
Melanie Boly, Benjamin Jones, Graham Findlay, Erin Plumley, Armand Mensen, Bruce Hermann, Guilio Tononi, Rama Maganti
In animal studies, both seizures and interictal spikes induce synaptic potentiation. Recent evidence suggests that electroencephalogram slow wave activity during sleep reflects synaptic potentiation during wake, and that its homeostatic decrease during the night is associated with synaptic renormalization and its beneficial effects. Here we asked whether epileptic activity induces plastic changes that can be revealed by high-density electroencephalography recordings during sleep in 15 patients with focal epilepsy and 15 control subjects...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334860/genetic-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-the-epileptic-human-hippocampus
#16
Nasir Mirza, Richard Appleton, Sasha Burn, Daniel du Plessis, Roderick Duncan, Jibril Osman Farah, Bjarke Feenstra, Anders Hviid, Vivek Josan, Rajiv Mohanraj, Arif Shukralla, Graeme J Sills, Anthony G Marson, Munir Pirmohamed
Epilepsy is a serious and common neurological disorder. Expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis is a vital aid for the identification and interpretation of disease-risk loci. Many eQTLs operate in a tissue- and condition-specific manner. We have performed the first genome-wide cis-eQTL analysis of human hippocampal tissue to include not only normal (n = 22) but also epileptic (n = 22) samples. We demonstrate that disease-associated variants from an epilepsy GWAS meta-analysis and a febrile seizures (FS) GWAS are significantly more enriched with epilepsy-eQTLs than with normal hippocampal eQTLs from two larger independent published studies...
March 3, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334543/-functional-impact-of-herg-from-physiological-role-to-target-of-anticancer-therapy
#17
Júlia Šatková, Markéta Bébarová
The human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG; officially designated as KCNH2) encodes the structure of protein forming α-subunit of voltage-gated ion channel which conducts the rapid component of delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr). This current plays an important role namely in the cardiac repolarization. Mutations in hERG result in inherited arrhythmogenic syndromes characterized by a lenghtening or shortening of QT interval on the electrocardiogram and by an increased occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmias...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334226/loss-of-cannabinoid-cb-1-receptors-induces-cortical-migration-malformations-and-increases-seizure-susceptibility
#18
Javier Díaz-Alonso, Adán de Salas-Quiroga, Juan Paraíso-Luna, Daniel García-Rincón, Patricia P Garcez, Maddy Parsons, Clara Andradas, Cristina Sánchez, François Guillemot, Manuel Guzmán, Ismael Galve-Roperh
Neuronal migration is a fundamental process of brain development, and its disruption underlies devastating neurodevelopmental disorders. The transcriptional programs governing this process are relatively well characterized. However, how environmental cues instruct neuronal migration remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the cannabinoid CB 1 receptor is strictly required for appropriate pyramidal neuron migration in the developing cortex. Acute silencing of the CB 1 receptor alters neuronal morphology and impairs radial migration...
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334078/relationships-between-morphologic-and-functional-patterns-in-the-polymicrogyric-cortex
#19
Matteo Lenge, Carmen Barba, Domenico Montanaro, Gayane Aghakhanyan, Francesca Frijia, Renzo Guerrini
Polymicrogyria is a malformation of cortical folding and layering underlying different cognitive and neurological manifestations. The polymicrogyric cortex has heterogeneous morphofunctional patterns, qualitatively described at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by variable severity gradients and functional activations. We investigated the link between abnormal cortical folding and cortical function in order to improve surgical planning for patients with polymicrogyria and intractable epilepsy. We performed structural and functional MRI on 14 patients with perisylvian polymicrogyria and adopted surface-based methods to detect alterations of cortical thickness (CT) and local gyrification index (LGI) compared with normal cortex (30 age-matched subjects)...
February 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333919/exome-sequencing-based-molecular-autopsy-of-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissue-after-sudden-death
#20
Richard D Bagnall, Jodie Ingles, Laura Yeates, Samuel F Berkovic, Christopher Semsarian
PURPOSE: Sudden death in the young is a devastating complication of inherited heart disorders. Finding the precise cause of death is important, but it is often unresolved after postmortem investigation. The addition of postmortem genetic testing, i.e., the molecular autopsy, can identify additional causes of death. We evaluated DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded postmortem tissue for exome sequencing-based molecular autopsy after sudden death in the young. METHODS: We collected clinical and postmortem information from patients with sudden death...
March 23, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
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