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Poul Jennum, Anne Sabers, Jakob Christensen, Rikke Ibsen, Jakob Kjellberg
PURPOSE: Epilepsy surgery has been a standard treatment for refractory epilepsies that cannot be controlled by standard medical treatment. We aimed to evaluate the health and social consequences of resective surgery relative to controls from a study of national data. METHODS: Using the Danish National Patient Registry we identified all subjects with an epilepsy diagnosis between 1996 and 2009 and compared them with a group of patients with an epilepsy diagnosis who had had neither epilepsy surgery nor a vagus stimulation diagnosis by the index date, and who were matched by gender, index year for epilepsy diagnosis, and index year for epilepsy surgery...
October 6, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Paresh Zanzmera, Ramshekhar N Menon, Kalyani Karkare, Himanshu Soni, Sujit Jagtap, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to study the electroclinical characteristics and seizure outcome of children with epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA). METHOD: In this descriptive cohort study, we reviewed clinical records of patients who met the criteria for EMA. Each patient's demographic data, birth/developmental history, seizure semiology/pattern, antiepileptic drugs (AED), clinical examination, video-electroencephalography (VEEG), and neuroimaging data were reviewed...
October 19, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Daniel L Kenney-Jung, Annamaria Vezzani, Robert J Kahoud, Reghann G LaFrance-Corey, Mai-Lan Ho, Theresa Wampler Muskardin, Elaine C Wirrell, Charles L Howe, Eric T Payne
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a devastating epileptic encephalopathy with limited treatment options and an unclear etiology. Anakinra is a recombinant version of the human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist used to treat autoinflammatory disorders. This is the first report of anakinra for treatment of a child with super-refractory status epilepticus secondary to FIRES. Anakinra was well-tolerated and effective. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis revealed elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines before treatment that normalized on anakinra, suggesting a potential pathogenic role for neuroinflammation in FIRES...
October 22, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Simone A A Romariz, Daisyléa S Paiva, Layla T Galindo, Gabriela F Barnabé, Vivian A Guedes, Cesario V Borlongan, Beatriz M Longo
AIMS: Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) progenitors give rise to inhibitory interneurons and may serve as an alternative cell source for large-scale cell transplantation for epilepsy after in vitro expansion. We investigated whether modifications in the culture medium of MGE neurospheres affect neuronal differentiation and expression of MGE-specific genes. In vivo, we compared anticonvulsant effects and cell differentiation pattern among neurospheres grown in different culture media and compared them with freshly harvested MGE cells...
October 21, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Rodrigo Antonio Rocha da Cruz Adry, Lucas Crociati Meguins, Sebastião Carlos da Silva Júnior, Carlos Umberto Pereira, Gerardo Maria de Araújo Filho, Lúcia Helena Neves Marques
BACKGROUND: Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common disease found in an epilepsy surgery series. Early age of onset, a history of febrile convulsions, epileptiform discharges on EEG, duration of epilepsy, number of generalized seizures and severity of psychiatric disorders are possible prognostic factors in patients with MTS. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the clinical, semiotic, psychological, electrophysiological and neuroradiological researches and relate their findings to the prognosis of patients with MTS who underwent anteromedial temporal lobectomy (ATL)...
October 21, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Stephanie Fehr, Kingsley Wong, Richard Chin, Simon Williams, Nick de Klerk, David Forbes, Rahul Krishnaraj, John Christodoulou, Jenny Downs, Helen Leonard
OBJECTIVE: To investigate seizure outcomes and their relationships to genotype and functional abilities in individuals with the cyclin-dependent kinase-like-5 (CDKL5) disorder. METHODS: Using the International CDKL5 Disorder Database, we identified 172 cases with a pathogenic CDKL5 mutation. We categorized individual mutations into 4 groups based on predicted structural and functional consequences. Negative binomial regression was used to model the linear association between current seizure rate and mutation group, current level of assistance required to walk 10 steps, and the highest level of expressive communication used to convey refusal or request...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
Lance H Rodan, Christelle Moufawad El Achkar, Gerard T Berry, Annapurna Poduri, Sanjay P Prabhu, Edward Yang, Irina Anselm
TUBB2A is a gene that has recently been reported in association with structural brain abnormalities. Only 3 cases have been reported to date with disparate brain morphologic abnormalities, although all patients have presented with developmental delay and infantile-onset epilepsy. We report a fourth patient with a de novo variant in TUBB2A that is predicted to be pathogenic, presenting with developmental delay, spastic diplegia, exaggerated startle, and anterior temporal pachygyria in the absence of epilepsy...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Benjamin Albright, Roni Dhaher, Helen Wang, Roa Harb, Tih-Shih W Lee, Hitten Zaveri, Tore Eid
Loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) in hippocampal astrocytes has been implicated in the causation of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).However, the mechanism by which the deficiency in GS leads to epilepsy is incompletely understood. Here we ask how hippocampal GS inhibition affects seizure phenotype and neuronal activation during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis). Epileptogenesis was induced by infusing the irreversible GS blocker methionine sulfoximine (MSO) unilaterally into the hippocampal formation of rats...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Michael A Rogawski
Since the 1970s, racetams have been in use as cognitive enhancers. Levetiracetam was discovered to have antiseizure activity in animal models and was then found to bind to SV2A in synaptic and endocrine vesicles. Brivaracetam, an analog of levetiracetam, was identified in a medicinal chemistry campaign with the objective of discovering analogs with higher affinity at racetam-binding sites and greater antiseizure potency.
October 20, 2016: Cell
Marion Tegethoff, Esther Stalujanis, Angelo Belardi, Gunther Meinlschmidt
BACKGROUND: The objective was to estimate temporal associations between mental disorders and physical diseases in adolescents with mental-physical comorbidities. METHODS: This article bases upon weighted data (N = 6483) from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (participant age: 13-18 years), a nationally representative United States cohort. Onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition lifetime mental disorders was assessed with the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, complemented by parent report...
2016: PloS One
Nicole A Hawkins, Nicole J Zachwieja, Alison R Miller, Lyndsey L Anderson, Jennifer A Kearney
A substantial number of mutations have been identified in voltage-gated sodium channel genes that result in various forms of human epilepsy. SCN1A mutations result in a spectrum of severity ranging from mild febrile seizures to Dravet syndrome, an infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy. Dravet syndrome patients experience multiple seizures types that are often refractory to treatment, developmental delays, and elevated risk for SUDEP. The same sodium channel mutation can produce epilepsy phenotypes of varying clinical severity...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Antonio Augusto Moura da Silva, Jucelia Sousa Santos Ganz, Patricia da Silva Sousa, Maria Juliana Rodvalho Doriqui, Marizelia Rodrigues Costa Ribeiro, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Maria de Jesus Torres Pacheco, Flavia Regina Vieira da Costa, Francelena de Sousa Silva, Vanda Maria Ferreira Simões, Marcos Antonio Barbosa Pacheco, Fernando Lamy-Filho, Zeni Carvalho Lamy, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E Alves
We report the early growth and neurologic findings of 48 infants in Brazil diagnosed with probable congenital Zika virus syndrome and followed to age 1-8 months. Most of these infants had microcephaly (86.7%) and craniofacial disproportion (95.8%). The clinical pattern included poor head growth with increasingly negative z-scores, pyramidal/extrapyramidal symptoms, and epilepsy.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Muhammad I Naseer, Adeel G Chaudhary, Mahmood Rasool, Gauthaman Kalamegam, Fai T Ashgan, Mourad Assidi, Farid Ahmed, Shakeel A Ansari, Syed Kashif Zaidi, Mohammed M Jan, Mohammad H Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is genetically complex but common brain disorder of the world affecting millions of people with almost of all age groups. Novel Copy number variations (CNVs) are considered as important reason for the numerous neurodevelopmental disorders along with intellectual disability and epilepsy. DNA array based studies contribute to explain a more severe clinical presentation of the disease but interoperation of many detected CNVs are still challenging. RESULTS: In order to study novel CNVs with epilepsy related genes in Saudi family with six affected and two normal individuals with several forms of epileptic seizures, intellectual disability (ID), and minor dysmorphism, we performed the high density whole genome Agilent sure print G3 Hmn CGH 2x 400 K array-CGH chips analysis...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
Joan Yw Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Beate Diehl, Antonietta Coppola, Aliya Al-Hajri, Chandrashekar Hoskote, Salim Al Mughairy, Mohamed Tachrount, Michael Groves, Zuzanna Michalak, Kevin Mills, Andrew W McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Maria Thom
OBJECTIVE: This study reports on a novel brain pathology in young patients with Frontal Lobe Epilepsy that is distinct from Focal Cortical Dysplasia. METHODS: Surgical specimens from twenty young adults with frontal lobe epilepsy (mean age, 30 years) were investigated with histological/immunohistochemical markers for cortical laminar architecture, mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activation and inhibition, cellular autophagy, and synaptic vesicle-mediated trafficking as well as proteomics analysis...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Shery Jacob, Anroop B Nair
Given the distinctive characteristics of both epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can make a significant contribution to the field of epilepsy. The measurement and interpretation of serum drug concentrations can be of benefit in the treatment of uncontrollable seizures and in cases of clinical toxicity; it can aid in the individualization of therapy and in adjusting for variable or nonlinear pharmacokinetics; and can be useful in special populations such as pregnancy. This review examines the potential for TDM of newer AEDs such as eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, retigabine, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, and zonisamide...
October 20, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Shasha Yuan, Weidong Zhou, Junhui Li, Qi Wu
Epilepsy is a serious chronic neurological disorder, which affects more than 50 million people worldwide, and automatic seizure detection on EEG recordings is extremely required in the diagnosis and monitoring of epilepsy. This paper presents a novel seizure detection method using sparse representation-based Earth Mover's Distance (SR-EMD). In the proposed algorithm, wavelet decomposition is executed on the original EEG recordings with five scales, and the scales 3, 4 and 5 are selected to structure the distributions of EEG signals...
October 20, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Julia Granerod, Nicholas W S Davies, Parashar P Ramanuj, Ava Easton, David W G Brown, Sara L Thomas
The true extent of sequelae in encephalitis survivors relative to rates within the general population is not known. This study aimed to quantify increased risks of epilepsy, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, cognitive problems, dementia, headache, and alcohol abuse among encephalitis cases. 2460 exposed individuals diagnosed with incident encephalitis in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and 47,914 unexposed individuals without a history of encephalitis were included...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Britta Wandschneider, Matthias J Koepp
Functional MRI studies have helped to elucidate underlying mechanisms in complex neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Disease processes often involve complex large-scale network interactions, extending beyond the presumed main disease focus. Given both the complexity of the clinical phenotype and the underlying dysfunctional brain circuits, so called pharmaco-fMRI (ph-MRI) studies probe pharmacological effects on functional neuro-anatomy, and can help to determine early treatment response, mechanisms of drug efficacy and side effects, and potentially advance CNS drug development...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Song Hee Lee, Bo Young Choi, Jin Hee Kim, A Ra Kho, Min Sohn, Hong Ki Song, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Choline alfoscerate (α-GPC) is a common choline compound and acetylcholine precursor in the brain, which has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. α-GPC has been shown to enhance memory and cognitive function in stroke and Alzheimer's patients but currently remains untested in patients suffering from epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate whether α-GPC treatment after seizure can ameliorate seizure-induced cognitive impairment and neuronal injury. The potential therapeutic effects of α-GPC on seizure-induced cognitive impairment were tested in an animal model of pilocarpine-induced seizure...
October 17, 2016: Brain Research
Kang Min Park, Byung In Lee, Kyong Jin Shin, Sam Yeol Ha, JinSe Park, Si Eun Kim, Hyung Chan Kim, Tae Hyung Kim, Chi Woong Mun, Sung Eun Kim
Although juvenile myoclonic epilepsy has been considered as a disorder of thalamo-cortical circuit, it is not determined the causality relationship between thalamus and cortex. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a disorder of thalamus or cortex. Twenty-nine patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and 20 normal controls were enrolled in this study. In addition, we included 10 patients with childhood absence epilepsy as a disease control group. Using whole-brain T1-weighted MRIs, we analyzed the volumes of the structures, including hippocampus, thalamus, and total cortex, with FreeSurfer 5...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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