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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651171/the-relevance-of-inter-and-intrastrain-differences-in-mice-and-rats-and-their-implications-for-models-of-seizures-and-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Wolfgang Löscher, Russell J Ferland, Thomas N Ferraro
It is becoming increasingly clear that the genetic background of mice and rats, even in inbred strains, can have a profound influence on measures of seizure susceptibility and epilepsy. These differences can be capitalized upon through genetic mapping studies to reveal genes important for seizures and epilepsy. However, strain background and particularly mixed genetic backgrounds of transgenic animals need careful consideration in both the selection of strains and in the interpretation of results and conclusions...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651170/an-analysis-of-quality-of-life-qol-in-patients-with-epilepsy-and-comorbid-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-pnes-after-vagus-nerve-stimulation-vns
#2
Andrew C Vivas, Christian J Reitano, Hena Waseem, Selim R Benbadis, Fernando L Vale
PURPOSE: Patients with epilepsy (PWE) may suffer from comorbid psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). The efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in the treatment of epilepsy and depression is established, however the impact on PNES is unknown. Since many patients with PNES have comorbid depression, we explored the impact on quality of life (QOL) that VNS has on PWE and PNES. METHODS: The video electroencephalogram (vEEG) of all patients who underwent VNS at our institution was reviewed...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651125/online-patient-information-on-vagus-nerve-stimulation-how-reliable-is-it-for-facilitating-shared-decision-making
#3
Ronak Ved, Naomi Cobbold, Kueni Igbagiri, Mark Willis, Paul Leach, Malik Zaben
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the quality of information available on the internet for carers of children with epilepsy considering treatment with Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS). METHODS: Selected key phrases were entered into two popular search engines (Google™, Yahoo™). These phrases were: "Vagus nerve stimulator", alone and in combination with "childhood epilepsy", "paediatric epilepsy" and "epilepsy in childhood"; "VNS", and "VNS epilepsy". The first 50 hits per search were then screened...
June 15, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651124/a-review-of-people-who-did-not-attend-an-epilepsy-clinic-and-their-clinical-outcomes
#4
I Minshall, A Neligan
PURPOSE: To review the clinical outcomes of people who failed to attend or failed subsequent follow up in a Primary Care based specialist epilepsy service. METHOD: The case notes of 200 people who had failed to initially attend the service or subsequent follow up from 2005 to 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: Clinical outcomes were determined for 152 people, with the remaining 48 having left the area. For those not attending at all, 64% had no further recorded events, a further 22% came under alternative specialist care and were managed appropriately, 6% were already in remission at the time of referral or at follow up and stayed seizure free...
June 17, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650628/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-new-fluorine-18-labeled-verapamil-analogs-to-investigate-the-function-of-p-glycoprotein-in-the-blood-brain-barrier
#5
Renske Maria Raaphorst, Gert Luurtsema, Robert C Schuit, Esther J M Kooijman, Philip H Elsinga, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Albert D Windhorst
P-glycoprotein is an efflux transporter located in the blood-brain barrier. (R)-[(11)C]verapamil is widely used as a PET tracer to investigate its function in patients with epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Currently it is not possible to use this successful tracer in clinics without a cyclotron, because of the short half-life of carbon-11. We developed two new fluorine-18 labeled (R)-verapamil analogs, with the benefit of a longer half-life. The synthesis of (R)-N-[(18)F]fluoroethylverapamil ([(18)F]1) and (R)-O-[(18)F]fluoroethylnorverapamil ([(18)F]2), has been described...
June 26, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650581/deficiency-of-wars2-encoding-mitochondrial-tryptophanyl-trna-synthetase-causes-severe-infantile-onset-leukoencephalopathy
#6
Benjamin E Theisen, Anastasia Rumyantseva, Julie S Cohen, Wendy A Alcaraz, Deepali N Shinde, Sha Tang, Siddarth Srivastava, Jonathan Pevsner, Aleksandra Trifunovic, Ali Fatemi
Pathogenic variants in the mitochondrial aminoacyl tRNA synthetases lead to deficiencies in mitochondrial protein synthesis and are associated with a broad range of clinical presentations usually with early onset and inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Of the 19 mitochondrial aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, WARS2, encoding mitochondrial tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase, was as of late the only one that had not been associated with disease in humans. A case of a family with pathogenic variants in WARS2 that caused mainly intellectual disability, speech impairment, aggressiveness, and athetosis was recently reported...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649663/addictive-neurons
#7
Sodikdjon A Kodirov
Since the reward center is considered to be the area tegmentalis ventralis of the hypothalamus, logically its neurons could mainly be responsible for addiction. However, the literature asserts that almost any neurons of CNS can respond to one or another addictive compound. Obviously not only addictive nicotine, but also alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, heroin and morphine may influence dopaminergic cells alone in VTA. Moreover, paradoxically some of these drugs ameliorate symptoms, counterbalance syndromes, cure diseases and improve health, not only those related to the CNS and in adults, but also almost all other organs and in children, e...
2017: Therapeutic Targets for Neurological Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649495/non-hyperammonaemic-valproate-encephalopathy-after-20%C3%A2-years-of-treatment
#8
Elizabeth Caruana Galizia, Jeremy D Isaacs, Hannah R Cock
Sodium valproate is a commonly used antiseizure drug with broad indications for different seizuretypes and epilepsy syndromes. Well-recognised side effects include weight gain, tremor, dizziness, and unsteadiness. Non-hyperammonaemic parkinsonism, with or without cognitive impairment, is a rare adverse effect of sodium valproate. We present the case of a sixty year-old lady with a generalized seizure disorder, treated with phenytoin, valproate, lamotrigine and clonazepam. Following withdrawal of phenytoin she developed an akinetic-rigid syndrome, with ataxia and marked cognitive impairment...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649286/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-epileptic-encephalopathy-common-causes-many-questions
#9
REVIEW
Siddharth Srivastava, Mustafa Sahin
Epileptic encephalopathies represent a particularly severe form of epilepsy, associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, including impaired social-communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors that are the hallmarks of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the genetic landscape of epileptic encephalopathies is growing and demonstrates overlap with genes separately implicated in ASD. However, many questions remain about this connection, including whether epileptiform activity itself contributes to the development of ASD symptomatology...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649227/fish-oil-supplementation-reduces-heart-levels-of-interleukin-6-in-rats-with-chronic-inflammation-due-to-epilepsy
#10
Mariana Bocca Nejm, André Abou Haidar, Aparecida Emiko Hirata, Lila Missae Oyama, Antonio-Carlos Guimarães de Almeida, Roberta Monterazzo Cysneiros, Esper Abrão Cavalheiro, Carla Alessandra Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major cause of premature death related to epilepsy. The causes of SUDEP remain unknown, but cardiac arrhythmias and asphyxia have been suggested as a major mechanism of this event. Inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both epilepsy and ventricular arrhythmia, with interleukin-6 (IL-6) being recognized as a crucial orchestrator of inflammatory states. Our group previously reported that levels of IL-6 were increased in the hearts of epileptic rats...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649016/epileptic-seizure-detection-based-on-imbalanced-classification-and-wavelet-packet-transform
#11
Qi Yuan, Weidong Zhou, Liren Zhang, Fan Zhang, Fangzhou Xu, Yan Leng, Dongmei Wei, Meina Chen
PURPOSE: Automatic seizure detection is significant for the diagnosis of epilepsy and the reduction of massive workload for reviewing continuous EEG recordings. METHODS: Compared with the long non-seizure periods, the durations of the seizure events are much shorter in the continuous EEG recordings. So the seizure detection task can be regarded as an imbalanced classification problem. In this paper, a novel method based on the weighted extreme learning machine (ELM) is proposed for seizure detection with imbalanced EEG data distribution...
June 8, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648971/persistence-with-antiepileptic-drugs-in-epilepsy-patients-treated-in-neurological-practices-in-germany
#12
Louis Jacob, Hajo M Hamer, Karel Kostev
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze the persistence with antiepileptic drugs (AED) and associated factors in patients followed in neurological practices in Germany. METHODS: This study included patients aged 18years or over who received two initial diagnoses of epilepsy and a first prescription of AED between 2007 and 2015 in a neurological practice (index date). The main outcome measure was the rate of AED persistence within five years of the index date...
June 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648970/treating-functional-non-epileptic-attacks-should-we-consider-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Sarah R Cope, Norman Poole, Niruj Agrawal
Patients who experience functional non-epileptic attacks (FNEA) are frequently seen in Neurology clinics. Diagnosis alone can result in cessation of attacks for some patients, but many patients require further treatment. There is evidence that certain psychological therapies, like cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic interpersonal therapy (PIT) can be beneficial. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a type of CBT that has been found to be effective at treating other somatic disorders, like epilepsy and chronic pain...
June 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648954/fosphenytoin-induced-purple-glove-syndrome-a-case-report
#14
Joseph W Newman, Joseph R Blunck, Ronald K Fields, John E Croom
BACKGROUND: Purple glove syndrome (PGS) is a poorly understood severe adverse drug reaction that is typically associated with intravenous phenytoin administration. Although fosphenytoin is thought to circumvent this risk of PGS, we reveal a rare case of PGS in a patient treated with fosphenytoin therapy. CASE SUMMARY: A 71-year-old male with history of epilepsy was admitted for seizures and traumatic brain injury and intravenous fosphenytoin and levetiracetam were initiated...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648721/stability-metrics-for-optic-radiation-tractography-towards-damage-prediction-after-resective-surgery
#15
Stephan Meesters, Pauly Ossenblok, Louis Wagner, Olaf Schijns, Paul Boon, Luc Florack, Anna Vilanova, Remco Duits
BACKGROUND: An accurate delineation of the optic radiation (OR) using diffusion MR tractography may reduce the risk of a visual field deficit after temporal lobe resection. However, tractography is prone to generate spurious streamlines, which deviate strongly from neighboring streamlines and hinder a reliable distance measurement between the temporal pole and the Meyer's loop (ML-TP distance). NEW METHOD: Stability metrics are introduced for the automated removal of spurious streamlines near the Meyer's loop...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648572/cortical-excitability-and-neuropsychological-functioning-in-healthy-adults
#16
Lauren B Bolden, Joseph C Griffis, Sandipan Pati, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Evidence from clinical populations, such as epilepsy and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, suggests a relationship between hyperexcitability and cognitive impairment, but this relationship has not been demonstrated in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate the relationship between cortical excitability and cognitive functioning in healthy adults. Single- and paired-pulse TMS was applied to 20 healthy adults to measure cortical excitability and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI). A neuropsychological battery was administered to assess aspects of attention, executive function, and mood...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648501/depolarized-gabaergic-signaling-in-subicular-microcircuits-mediates-generalized-seizure-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Yi Wang, Cenglin Xu, Zhenghao Xu, Caihong Ji, Jiao Liang, Ying Wang, Bin Chen, Xiaohua Wu, Feng Gao, Shuang Wang, Yi Guo, Xiaoming Li, Jianhong Luo, Shumin Duan, Zhong Chen
Secondary generalized seizure (sGS) is a major source of disability in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with unclear cellular/circuit mechanisms. Here we found that clinical TLE patients with sGS showed reduced volume specifically in the subiculum compared with those without sGS. Further, using optogenetics and extracellular electrophysiological recording in mouse models, we found that photoactivation of subicular GABAergic neurons retarded sGS acquisition by inhibiting the firing of pyramidal neurons. Once sGS had been stably acquired, photoactivation of GABAergic neurons aggravated sGS expression via depolarized GABAergic signaling...
June 14, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648375/classifications-of-seizures-and-epilepsies-where-are-we-a-brief-historical-review-and-update
#18
REVIEW
Richard Shek-Kwan Chang, Chun Yin William Leung, Chi Chung Alvin Ho, Ada Yung
In March 2017, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) announced their new classifications of seizures and epilepsies. Development of these classification systems led by the ILAE is a long and complicated process. Outsiders may find it difficult to understand the arguments behind. We summarize the major developmental milestones of the ILAE classification schemata. An update of the latest classification is also included. It is hope that this review can serve as an outline in learning the taxonomy in epileptology...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647723/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-high-impact-users-among-patients-with-cerebrovascular-conditions
#19
Ahsan Rao, Alice Jones, Alex Bottle, Ara Darzi, Paul Aylin
OBJECTIVE: To apply group-based trajectory modelling (GBTM) to the hospital administrative data to evaluate, model and visualise trends and changes in the frequency of long-term hospital care use of the subgroups of patients with cerebrovascular conditions. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of patients with cerebrovascular conditions. SETTINGS: Secondary care of all patients with cerebrovascular conditions admitted to English National Hospital Service hospitals...
June 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647657/distribution-and-network-of-basal-temporal-language-areas-a-study-of-the-combination-of-electric-cortical-stimulation-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#20
Rei Enatsu, Aya Kanno, Satoshi Ookawa, Satoko Ochi, Sumio Ishiai, Takashi Nagamine, Nobuhiro Mikuni
OBJECTIVE: The basal temporal language area (BTLA) is considered to have several functions in language processing; however, its brain network is still unknown. This study investigated the distribution and networks of the BTLA using a combination of electric cortical stimulation and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHOD: Ten patients with intractable focal epilepsy who underwent presurgical evaluation with subdural electrodes were enrolled in this study (language dominant side: six patients, language non-dominant side: four patients)...
June 21, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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