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Sexuality in neurological disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892990/zika-virus-what-the-otolaryngologist-should-know-a-review
#1
Demetri Arnaoutakis, Tapan Padhya
Importance: Initially discovered in 1947, Zika virus infection received little notoriety as a tropical disease until 2015 when an outbreak of microcephaly cases was reported in Brazil. Zika is a single-stranded RNA arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. The primary source of infection in humans stems from Aedes aegypti mosquito bites but can also occur through sexual, blood, and perinatal transmission. With expectations that 3 to 4 million people across the Americas will be infected over the next year, the World Health Organization has declared this event a Public Health Emergency of International Concern...
November 17, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891404/is-there-any-impact-of-copper-intrauterine-device-on-female-sexual-functioning
#2
Sezen Bozkurt Koseoglu, Ruya Deveer, Melike Nur Akin, Ali Sami Gurbuz, Burcu Kasap, Huri Guvey
INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine Device (IUD) is the most preferred modern contraceptive method in Turkey. Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) is defined as lack of one or more of the components in the sexual response cycle which includes sexual desire, impaired arousal and inability achieving an orgasm or pain with intercourse. FSD has multi-factorial aetiology. Advanced age and menopause, fatigue and stress, psychiatric and neurologic disease, childbirth, pelvic floor or bladder dysfunction, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, hypertension obesity, medication and substances, hormonal contraceptives, relationship factors are known risk factors for FSD...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872030/male-sexual-function-and-smoking
#3
REVIEW
Mark G Biebel, Arthur L Burnett, Hossein Sadeghi-Nejad
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common disorder that has many potential etiologies, including hormonal imbalances, psychogenic factors, neurologic disorders, vascular insufficiency, and other risk factors. Cigarette smoking has been well established as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke, but the relation between smoking and ED is less frequently considered. AIM: To review the current literature that analyzes the association between cigarette smoking and ED...
October 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870405/sex-differences-in-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-signaling-functions-and-implications
#4
REVIEW
Yi-Chao Wei, Shao-Ran Wang, Xiao-Hong Xu
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates diverse processes such as neuronal survival, differentiation, and plasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that molecular events that direct sexual differentiation of the brain interact with BDNF signaling pathways. This Mini-Review first examines potential hormonal and epigenetic mechanisms through which sex influences BDNF signaling. We then examine how sex-specific regulation of BDNF signaling supports the development and function of sexually dimorphic neural circuits that underlie male-specific genital reflexes in rats and song production in birds...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845777/newer-insights-into-the-role-of-mirna-a-tiny-genetic-tool-in-psychiatric-disorders-focus-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#5
REVIEW
V V Giridharan, R A Thandavarayan, G R Fries, C Walss-Bass, T Barichello, N J Justice, M K Reddy, J Quevedo
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder occurring in about 2-9% of individuals after their exposure to life-threatening events, such as severe accidents, sexual abuse, combat or a natural catastrophe. Because PTSD patients are exposed to trauma, it is likely that epigenetic modifications have an important role in disease development and prognosis. For the past two decades, abnormal expression of the epigenetic regulators microRNAs (miRs) and miR-mediated gene regulation have been given importance in a variety of human diseases, such as cancer, heart disease and viral infection...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814701/sexual-function-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-associations-with-demographic-disease-and-lifestyle-characteristics-an-international-cross-sectional-study
#6
Claudia H Marck, Pia L Jelinek, Tracey J Weiland, Jane S Hocking, Alysha M De Livera, Keryn L Taylor, Sandra L Neate, Naresh G Pereira, George A Jelinek
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is very common in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and contributes a significant burden of disease, particularly for young people. SD has direct neurological contributions from depression and fatigue, which occur commonly in PwMS. Modifiable factors may represent potential targets for treatment and prevention of SD. We aimed to assess the prevalence of SD and explore associations between SD and demographic and modifiable risk factors, as well as depression and fatigue in a large cohort of PwMS...
November 4, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795432/development-and-characterization-of-recombinant-virus-generated-from-a-new-world-zika-virus-infectious-clone
#7
James Weger-Lucarelli, Nisha K Duggal, Kristen Bullard-Feibelman, Milena Veselinovic, Hannah Romo, Chilinh Nguyen, Claudia Rückert, Aaron C Brault, Richard A Bowen, Mark Stenglein, Brian J Geiss, Gregory D Ebel
: Zika virus (ZIKV; Family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) is a rapidly expanding global pathogen that has been associated with severe clinical manifestations, including devastating neurological disease in infants. There are currently no molecular clones of a New World ZIKV available, hindering progress toward understanding determinants of transmission and pathogenesis. Here we report the development and characterization of a novel ZIKV reverse genetics system based on a 2015 isolate from Puerto Rico (PRVABC59)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746037/-sexuality-of-patients-with-neurological-disability-perception-of-healthcare-professionals-of-a-neurologic-rehabilitation-hospital-unit
#8
F Babany, S Hamdoun, P Denys, G Amarenco
: Sexual disorders are common after neurological diseases. The reconstruction of sexuality is a major issue after neurologic disability. Why is this topic not covered in rehabilitation medicine except specialized service? The aim of this pilot study was to assess the perception of the healthcare professionals (HCPs) and to understand why this topic was not addressed. We conducted a pilot, observational, monocentric study from February to March 2016 in HCPs from a neurologic rehabilitation hospital unit...
December 2016: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741303/reduced-field-of-view-diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-the-lumbosacral-enlargement-a-pilot-in-vivo-study-of-the-healthy-spinal-cord-at-3t
#9
Marios C Yiannakas, Francesco Grussu, Polymnia Louka, Ferran Prados, Rebecca S Samson, Marco Battiston, Daniel R Altmann, Sebastien Ourselin, David H Miller, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has recently started to be adopted into clinical investigations of spinal cord (SC) diseases. However, DTI applications to the lower SC are limited due to a number of technical challenges, related mainly to the even smaller size of the SC structure at this level, its position relative to the receiver coil elements and the effects of motion during data acquisition. Developing methods to overcome these problems would offer new means to gain further insights into microstructural changes of neurological conditions involving the lower SC, and in turn could help explain symptoms such as bladder and sexual dysfunction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679571/regional-and-gender-study-of-neuronal-density-in-brain-during-aging-and-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Eva Martínez-Pinilla, Cristina Ordóñez, Eva Del Valle, Ana Navarro, Jorge Tolivia
BACKGROUND: Learning processes or language development are only some of the cognitive functions that differ qualitatively between men and women. Gender differences in the brain structure seem to be behind these variations. Indeed, this sexual dimorphism at neuroanatomical level is accompanied unequivocally by differences in the way that aging and neurodegenerative diseases affect men and women brains. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is the analysis of neuronal density in four areas of the hippocampus, and entorhinal and frontal cortices to analyze the possible gender influence during normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612155/prenatal-effects-of-zika-virus-and-management-of-the-pregnant-woman
#11
Solange N Eloundou, Jeanne S Sheffield
The identification of Zika virus as a significant teratogen has raised international concern, causing the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This has allowed a global mobilization of experts in tropical infectious diseases, obstetrics, pediatrics, virology, public health policy, reproductive health, bioethics, and germ cell research to name just a few. This worldwide crisis has also raised awareness of health care disparities and concerns regarding the ability of families and societies to shoulder the long-term financial burden that the follow-up of affected children will require...
September 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596229/similar-impact-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-migraine-on-sexual-function-in-women-is-the-multiple-sclerosis-impact-scale-questionnaire-useful
#12
Sabine Salhofer-Polanyi, Christian Wöber, Ricarda Prohazka, Assunta Dal-Bianco, Barbara Bajer-Kornek, Karin Zebenholzer
BACKGROUND: Sexuality is an integral part of overall health but the impact of neurological diseases on sexual function still receives too little attention. AIM: The aim of this case control study was to compare frequencies and characteristics of sexual dysfunction in women with stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and migraine. METHODS: Sexually active women aged 18-50 years were recruited at the MS and headache outpatient clinics of a university hospital and asked to complete questionnaires on sexual function using the multiple sclerosis intimacy and sexuality questionnaire (MSISQ-19) adapted for patients with migraine, depression using the Beck depression inventory (BDI-II) and quality of life using the short form-36 questionnaire (SF-36)...
September 5, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572275/zika-virus-a-review-of-management-considerations-and-controversies-at-six-months
#13
Laura Singer, Kelly G Vest, Charles W Beadling
Zika virus continues to pose a significant global health threat. While the outbreak pattern may seemingly mirror those of other arboviruses, unique transmission characteristics and clinical outcomes warrant a different approach to traditional public health practices. Sexual transmission and virus-associated fetal and nonfetal neurologic disorders specifically challenge conventional methods of disease protection and prevention with regard to vector control, disease surveillance, and health risk communication...
August 30, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553173/differential-cell-line-susceptibility-to-the-emerging-zika-virus-implications-for-disease-pathogenesis-non-vector-borne-human-transmission-and-animal-reservoirs
#14
Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Cyril Chik-Yan Yip, Jessica Oi-Ling Tsang, Kah-Meng Tee, Jian-Piao Cai, Kenn Ka-Heng Chik, Zheng Zhu, Chris Chung-Sing Chan, Garnet Kwan-Yue Choi, Siddharth Sridhar, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Gang Lu, Kin Chiu, Amy Cheuk-Yin Lo, Sai-Wah Tsao, Kin-Hang Kok, Dong-Yan Jin, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2)...
August 24, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549304/zika-virus-from-pathogenesis-to-disease-control
#15
Luisa Barzon, Marta Trevisan, Alessandro Sinigaglia, Enrico Lavezzo, Giorgio Palù
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in Uganda in 1947. The virus has emerged in the recent years and spread in the Pacific Area and the Americas, where it has caused large human outbreaks. Factors involved in virus emergence are still unknown, but probably included the introduction in naïve environments characterized by the presence of high densities of competent Aedes spp. mosquitoes and susceptible human hosts in urban areas. Unique features of Zika virus infection are sexual and transplacental transmission and associated neurological morbidities, i...
August 21, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496713/zika-virus-infection-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis
#16
Guilherme Amaral Calvet, Flavia Barreto Dos Santos, Patricia Carvalho Sequeira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus previously believed to cause only a mild and self-limiting illness. Recently, it has emerged as a new public health threat that caused a large outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013-2014 and since 2015 an explosive outbreak in Brazil, with an increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) and neurological complications, mainly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Since then, it has spread through the Americas. On 1 February 2016, the WHO declared the ZIKV epidemic in Brazil a Public Health Emergency of International Concern...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350613/gamete-associated-flavobacteria-of-the-oviparous-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha-in-lakes-michigan-and-huron-north-america
#17
Thomas P Loch, Mohamed Faisal
Flavobacterial diseases, caused by multiple members of the Family Flavobacteriaceae, elicit serious losses in wild and farmed fish around the world. Flavobacteria are known to be transmitted horizontally; however, vertical transmission has been suspected but proven only for one fish-pathogenic flavobacterial species (e.g., Flavobacterium psychrophilum). Herein, we report on the isolation and molecular identification of multiple Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium taxa from the ovarian fluid and eggs of feral Great Lakes Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)...
July 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323600/-another-vector-borne-challenge-to-combat-zika-virus-outbreaks
#18
Maria Shoaib, Ahmad Faraz, Syed Ahsanuddin Ahmed
Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. It is known to transmit to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito which is also known to carry dengue, chikungunya & yellow fever virus. Transmission is anthroponotic (human-to-vector-to-human) during outbreaks, Perinatally in utero, sexually and via infected blood transfusion. It is mild and self-limiting infection lasting for several days to a week. However, it is suspected as a cause of Guillain Barre Syndrome...
January 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317847/reprint-of-from-the-90-s-to-now-a-brief-historical-perspective-on-more-than-two-decades-of-estrogen-neuroprotection
#19
REVIEW
E B Engler-Chiurazzi, M Singh, J W Simpkins
UNLABELLED: Historical perspective abstract:From the 90׳s to now: a historical perspective on more than two decades of estrogen neuroprotection: In the early 90׳s, estrogens were known to exert organizational and activational effects on reproductive tissues and sexual behavior. As well, the role of sex and gonadal hormones in altering the risk for developing Alzheimer׳s Disease (AD) was only beginning to be elucidated. Preliminary investigations suggested that estrogen-containing therapies typically given for the management of disruptive menopausal symptoms could reduce AD risk, attenuate disease-associated cognitive deficits, and modulate brain substrates known to be dysregulated by the condition, such as the cholingeric system...
August 15, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314003/sex-and-gender-differences-in-central-nervous-system-related-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Emanuela Zagni, Lucia Simoni, Delia Colombo
There are important sex differences in the brain that seem to arise from biology as well as psychosocial influences. Sex differences in several aspects of human behavior and cognition have been reported. Gonadal sex steroids or genes found on sex chromosomes influence sex differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neuronal structure, and connectivity. There has been some resistance to accept that sex differences in the human brain exist and have biological relevance; however, a few years ago, it has been recommended by the USA National Institute of Mental Health to incorporate sex as a variable in experimental and clinical neurological and psychiatric studies...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
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