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Sexuality in neurological disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511258/management-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Ronald F Pfeiffer
Autonomic dysfunction is a frequent and important nonmotor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Autonomic dysfunction in PD spans a broad clinical spectrum. Cardiovascular dysfunction is characterized most prominently by orthostatic hypotension. Gastrointestinal dysfunction can involve virtually all levels of the gastrointestinal tract. Urinary dysfunction can entail either too frequent voiding or difficulty voiding. Sexual dysfunction is frequent and frustrating for both the patient and the partner. Alterations in sweating and body temperature are not widely recognized, but often are present...
April 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482643/female-sexual-dysfunction-in-presymptomatic-mutation-carriers-and-patients-with-huntington-s-disease
#2
Matej Kolenc, Jan Kobal, Simon Podnar
BACKGROUND: Although in Huntington's disease (HD) movement, cognition, and personality are most significantly affected, autonomic dysfunction should not be neglected. In women with HD sexual dysfunction has not been adequately studied yet. OBJECTIVE: To report sexual dysfunction in a systematically studied cohort of female HD patients and compare it with controls of a similar age. METHODS: In female HD patients and presymptomatic HD mutation carriers, we compared the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire, neurologic assessment using the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and the Total Functional Capacity (TFC)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431283/zika-virus-infection-of-adult-and-fetal-stat2-knock-out-hamsters
#3
Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Rong Li, Jinxin Miao, Zhongde Wang, John D Morrey, Justin G Julander
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was investigated in adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out (KO) hamsters. Subcutaneous injection of ZIKV of adults resulted in morbidity, mortality, and infection of the uterus, placenta, brain, spinal cord, and testicles, thus providing an opportunity to evaluate congenital ZIKV infection in a second rodent species besides mice. ZIKV-infected cells with morphologies of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were observed in the testes, which may have implications for sexual transmission and male sterility...
April 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424375/mitochondria-a-central-target-for-sex-differences-in-pathologies
#4
REVIEW
Renée Ventura-Clapier, Maryline Moulin, Jérôme Piquereau, Christophe Lemaire, Mathias Mericskay, Vladimir Veksler, Anne Garnier
It is increasingly acknowledged that a sex and gender specificity affects the occurrence, development, and consequence of a plethora of pathologies. Mitochondria are considered as the powerhouse of the cell because they produce the majority of energy-rich phosphate bonds in the form of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) but they also participate in many other functions like steroid hormone synthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, ionic regulation, and cell death. Adequate cellular energy supply and survival depend on mitochondrial life cycle, a process involving mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, and quality control via mitophagy...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375917/urogenital-symptoms-in-neurologic-patients
#5
Jalesh N Panicker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lower urinary tract and sexual dysfunction are commonly reported sequelae of neurologic disease and have a significant impact on quality of life. This article presents an up-to-date summary of the clinical presentation, investigations, and treatment options for urogenital dysfunction in patients with neurologic disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The pattern of lower urinary tract dysfunction is influenced by the site of the neurologic lesion. The risk for developing upper urinary tract damage is considerably less in patients with slowly progressive nontraumatic neurologic disorders, as compared to those with spinal cord injury or spina bifida...
April 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340908/preparing-the-united-states-for-zika-virus-pre-emptive-vector-control-and-personal-protection
#6
EDITORIAL
James H Diaz
Discovered in 1947 in a monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda, Zika virus was dismissed as a cause of a mild illness that was confined to Africa and Southeast Asia and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. In 2007, Zika virus appeared outside of its endemic borders in an outbreak on the South Pacific Island of Yap. In 2013, Zika virus was associated with a major neurological complication, Guillain-Barré syndrome, in a larger outbreak in the French Polynesian Islands. From the South Pacific, Zika invaded Brazil in 2015 and caused another severe neurological complication, fetal microcephaly...
December 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291299/-neurosyphilis-in-psychiatric-settings-three-case-reports
#7
Erhan Akıncı, Fatih Öncü, Barış Topçular
Syphilis is a generally sexually transmitted and multisystem disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. All of the organs of the body may be involved during the course of the disease. Neurosyphilis is a clinical form of syphilis with the central nervous system (CNS) involvement. While primarily meningeal and vascular structures are involved in early neurosyphilis, a parenchymal affection of the brain and spinal cord emerges at later stages of neurosyphilis. It presents with symptoms of meningitis, meningovasculitis and parenchymal neurosyphilis (presenting as tabes dorsalis and general paresis)...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220392/zika-virus-disease-and-associated-neurologic-complications
#8
REVIEW
Lindsey M Duca, J David Beckham, Kenneth L Tyler, Daniel M Pastula
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review what is currently known about Zika virus (ZIKV) disease and associated neurologic complications. RECENT FINDINGS: ZIKV is a mosquito-borne or sexually transmitted flavivirus rapidly spreading throughout the Americas. While ZIKV infection is usually asymptomatic, it may cause a non-specific illness with fever, rash, myalgia, headache, and/or non-purulent conjunctivitis. Additionally, ZIKV has been associated with a number of neurologic complications including microcephaly and other birth defects, Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and various ophthalmologic abnormalities...
January 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203083/sexual-dimorphism-in-parkinson-s-disease-differences-in-clinical-manifestations-quality-of-life-and-psychosocial-functioning-between-males-and-females
#9
Farzaneh Farhadi, Kia Vosoughi, Gholam Ali Shahidi, Ahmad Delbari, Johan Lökk, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad
INTRODUCTION: Sex-related differences in clinical manifestations and consequences of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been poorly explored. Better understanding of sexual dimorphism in neurologic diseases such as PD has been announced as a research priority. The aim of our study was to determine independent sex differences in clinical manifestations and subtypes, psychosocial functioning, quality of life (QoL) and its domains between male and female individuals with PD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A comprehensive list of demographics, motor symptoms and subtypes, nonmotor features, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), psychosocial functioning and general aspects of daily life was assessed in 157 individuals (108 males and 49 females) with idiopathic PD...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190476/neuroprotective-properties-of-icariin-in-mptp-induced-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-involvement-of-pi3k-akt-and-mek-erk-signaling-pathways
#10
Wen-Fang Chen, Lin Wu, Zhong-Rui Du, Lei Chen, Ai-Li Xu, Xiao-Han Chen, Ji-Jun Teng, Man-Sau Wong
BACKGROUND: Epimedium sagittatum is a traditional Chinese herb normally which is used to treat the osteoporosis, cardiovascular dysfunction, and to improve neurological and sexual function in China, Korea and Japan. Icariin is the major active ingredient in Epimedium sagittatum. In the present research, we examined the neuroprotective effects of icariin on dopaminergic neurons and the possible mechanisms in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Ovariectomized PD mice were treated with vehicle or icariin (3 days before MPTP injections) with or without the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173851/zika-how-safe-is-india
#11
EDITORIAL
C George Priya Doss, R Siva, B Prabhu Christopher, Chiranjib Chakraborty, Hailong Zhu
Zika virus, which originated from a forest in Uganda, has affected countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia. Most people infected with Zika are asymptomatic and present with clinical manifestations ranging from mild fever to severe neurological disorders. Recent outbreaks in Southeast Asian countries, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has warned pregnant woman to avoid nonessential traveling to 11 Asian countries. Reports about the sexual transmission route of Zika have pushed the World Health Organization to declare it a 'public health emergency'...
January 31, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061969/role-of-nitric-oxide-in-stress-induced-anxiety-from-pathophysiology-to-therapeutic-target
#12
A Kumar, P Chanana
Stress is often marked by a state of hyperarousal to aid the initiation of necessary stress response for the successful management of stressful stimuli. It can be manifested as a challenge (stimulus) that requires behavioral, psychological, and physiological adaptations for the maintenance of a state of homeostasis in response to stressful stimuli. In an organism, miscellaneous stressors trigger a wide spectrum of alterations in hormonal and neuronal physiologies, resulting in behavioral (anxiety and depression disorders, diminished food intake and gastrointestinal dysfunctions, decline in sexual behavior, diabetes, and loss of cognitive function) and other physiological responses...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929275/erectile-dysfunction
#13
Karl T Rew, Joel J Heidelbaugh
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It is common, affecting at least 12 million U.S. men. The five-question International Index of Erectile Function allows rapid clinical assessment of ED. The condition can be caused by vascular, neurologic, psychological, and hormonal factors. Common conditions related to ED include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, testosterone deficiency, and prostate cancer treatment...
November 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892990/zika-virus-what-the-otolaryngologist-should-know-a-review
#14
Demetri Arnaoutakis, Tapan Padhya
Importance: Initially discovered in 1947, Zika virus infection received little notoriety as a tropical disease until 2015 when an outbreak of microcephaly cases was reported in Brazil. Zika is a single-stranded RNA arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. The primary source of infection in humans stems from Aedes aegypti mosquito bites but can also occur through sexual, blood, and perinatal transmission. With expectations that 3 to 4 million people across the Americas will be infected over the next year, the World Health Organization has declared this event a Public Health Emergency of International Concern...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891404/is-there-any-impact-of-copper-intrauterine-device-on-female-sexual-functioning
#15
Sezen Bozkurt Koseoglu, Ruya Deveer, Melike Nur Akin, Ali Sami Gurbuz, Burcu Kasap, Huri Guvey
INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine Device (IUD) is the most preferred modern contraceptive method in Turkey. Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) is defined as lack of one or more of the components in the sexual response cycle which includes sexual desire, impaired arousal and inability achieving an orgasm or pain with intercourse. FSD has multi-factorial aetiology. Advanced age and menopause, fatigue and stress, psychiatric and neurologic disease, childbirth, pelvic floor or bladder dysfunction, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, hypertension obesity, medication and substances, hormonal contraceptives, relationship factors are known risk factors for FSD...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872030/male-sexual-function-and-smoking
#16
REVIEW
Mark G Biebel, Arthur L Burnett, Hossein Sadeghi-Nejad
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common disorder that has many potential etiologies, including hormonal imbalances, psychogenic factors, neurologic disorders, vascular insufficiency, and other risk factors. Cigarette smoking has been well established as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke, but the relation between smoking and ED is less frequently considered. AIM: To review the current literature that analyzes the association between cigarette smoking and ED...
October 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870405/sex-differences-in-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-signaling-functions-and-implications
#17
REVIEW
Yi-Chao Wei, Shao-Ran Wang, Xiao-Hong Xu
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates diverse processes such as neuronal survival, differentiation, and plasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that molecular events that direct sexual differentiation of the brain interact with BDNF signaling pathways. This Mini-Review first examines potential hormonal and epigenetic mechanisms through which sex influences BDNF signaling. We then examine how sex-specific regulation of BDNF signaling supports the development and function of sexually dimorphic neural circuits that underlie male-specific genital reflexes in rats and song production in birds...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845777/newer-insights-into-the-role-of-mirna-a-tiny-genetic-tool-in-psychiatric-disorders-focus-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#18
REVIEW
V V Giridharan, R A Thandavarayan, G R Fries, C Walss-Bass, T Barichello, N J Justice, M K Reddy, J Quevedo
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder occurring in about 2-9% of individuals after their exposure to life-threatening events, such as severe accidents, sexual abuse, combat or a natural catastrophe. Because PTSD patients are exposed to trauma, it is likely that epigenetic modifications have an important role in disease development and prognosis. For the past two decades, abnormal expression of the epigenetic regulators microRNAs (miRs) and miR-mediated gene regulation have been given importance in a variety of human diseases, such as cancer, heart disease and viral infection...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814701/sexual-function-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-associations-with-demographic-disease-and-lifestyle-characteristics-an-international-cross-sectional-study
#19
Claudia H Marck, Pia L Jelinek, Tracey J Weiland, Jane S Hocking, Alysha M De Livera, Keryn L Taylor, Sandra L Neate, Naresh G Pereira, George A Jelinek
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is very common in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and contributes a significant burden of disease, particularly for young people. SD has direct neurological contributions from depression and fatigue, which occur commonly in PwMS. Modifiable factors may represent potential targets for treatment and prevention of SD. We aimed to assess the prevalence of SD and explore associations between SD and demographic and modifiable risk factors, as well as depression and fatigue in a large cohort of PwMS...
November 4, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795432/development-and-characterization-of-recombinant-virus-generated-from-a-new-world-zika-virus-infectious-clone
#20
James Weger-Lucarelli, Nisha K Duggal, Kristen Bullard-Feibelman, Milena Veselinovic, Hannah Romo, Chilinh Nguyen, Claudia Rückert, Aaron C Brault, Richard A Bowen, Mark Stenglein, Brian J Geiss, Gregory D Ebel
Zika virus (ZIKV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) is a rapidly expanding global pathogen that has been associated with severe clinical manifestations, including devastating neurological disease in infants. There are currently no molecular clones of a New World ZIKV available that lack significant attenuation, hindering progress toward understanding determinants of transmission and pathogenesis. Here we report the development and characterization of a novel ZIKV reverse genetics system based on a 2015 isolate from Puerto Rico (PRVABC59)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
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