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Amit Shivajirao Waghmare, Shivaji Sandu Pandit, Dayanand M Suryawanshi
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: 4H-pyran is one of the most well-known groups of synthetic heterocyclic compounds and it has attracted considerable attention of chemists in recent years because of their extensive range of biological and pharmaceutical activities. These compounds are used as antibacterial, anticancer agents, anti-coagulants, spasmolytics and anti-anaphylactic. 4H-pyran derivatives are utilized in cosmetics, pigments, biodegradable agrochemicals as well as photoactive materials. In addition, 4H-pyrans are also helpful as cognitive enhancers for the treatment of neuro degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, as well as for the treatment of schizophrenia and myoclonus...
March 14, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Toye Gabriel Olajide, Kayode Shuaib Aremu, Olaide T Esan, Adepeju Oluwatona Dosunmu, Mustapha Muhammad Raji
Background: Self-medication is a common habit in our country; Nigeria, especially among patients with otorhinolaryngological disorders. Medication when taken wrongly may bring dire consequences to the individual, such as masking developing diseases and may cause many other undesirable effects. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and to analyze topical ear drop self-medication practices among respondents attending the Ear, Nose, and Throat Clinic of Federal Teaching Hospital Ido Ekiti, Nigeria...
April 2018: Annals of African Medicine
Prasong J Mekdara, Margot A B Schwalbe, Laura L Coughlin, Eric D Tytell
Fish use multiple sensory systems, including vision and their lateral line system, to maintain position and speed within a school. Although previous studies have shown that ablating the lateral line alters schooling behavior, no one has examined how the behavior recovers as the sensory system regenerates. We studied how schooling behavior changes in giant danios Devario aequipinnatus when their lateral line system is chemically ablated and after the sensory hair cells regenerate. We found that fish could school normally immediately after chemical ablation, but that they had trouble schooling one to two weeks after the chemical treatment, when the hair cells had fully regenerated...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jin-Wei Zhou, Tong-Tong Chen, Xiao-Juan Tan, Ji-Yang Sheng, Ai-Qun Jia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a serious disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and is difficult to cure due to biofilm persistence and emerging multidrug resistance. Considering the essential role of quorum sensing (QS) in P. aeruginosa infections, the enhanced effects between quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI) resveratrol and several antibiotics against P. aeruginosa PAO1 were investigated. Crystal violet staining assay revealed that the biofilms of P. aeruginosa PAO1 grown in the presence of resveratrol were more susceptible to aminoglycoside antibiotics...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Faidad Khan, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Nadeem Ahmed, Muhammad Islam Khan, Hamid Bashir, Saad Tahir, Ahmad Usman Zafar
INTRODUCTION: Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of pneumococcal diseases in the world, but unfortunately studies in this demanding research area are limited in the region. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is the next generation pneumococcal vaccine candidate as the protein locates on the Streptococcus pneumoniae surface. Its gene, pspA, might be encoded by all pneumococci, and the protein has proven immunogenicity. The molecular characterization of PspA, pneumococcal serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility are important for regional diversity studies...
March 9, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Simon Menanteau-Ledouble, Mark L Lawrence, Mansour El-Matbouli
BACKGROUND: Like many members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Yersinia ruckeri has the ability to invade non professional phagocytic cells. Intracellular location is advantageous for the bacterium because it shields it from the immune system and can help it cross epithelial membranes and gain entry into the host. In the present manuscript, we report on our investigation regarding the mechanisms of Y. ruckeri's invasion of host cells. RESULTS: A gentamycin assay was applied to two isolates, belonging to both the biotype 1 (ATCC 29473) and biotype 2 (A7959-11) and using several cell culture types: Atlantic Salmon Kidney, Salmon Head Kidney and, Chinook salmon embryos cells at both low and high passage numbers...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Kefeng Wu, Changbei Ma, Zhiyi Deng, Ning Fang, Zhenwei Tang, Xingxing Zhu, Kemin Wang
In this paper, we describe a novel, label-free and nicking enzyme-assisted fluorescence signal amplification strategy that demonstrates to be cost efficient, sensitive, and unique for assaying the RNase H activity and inhibition based on G-quadruplex formation using a thioflavin T (ThT) dye. This novel assay method is able to detect RNase H with a detection limit of 0.03 U /mL and further exhibits a good linearity R2 = 0.9923 at a concentration range of 0.03-1 U/mL under optimized conditions. Moreover, the inhibition effect of gentamycin on the RNase H activity is also studied...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Alicja Baranowska, Paweł Baranowski, Tadeusz Płusa
Infection of the surgical operation site is found in approximately 3% of patients and 20% of patients undergoing urgent surgery. The occurrence of this type of complications is affected both by coexisting diseases and the presence of infection in the environment in which the patient is staying. It should also be taken into account that the bacteria found in the implanted material and surrounding tissues have the ability to adhere to the implant, creating a biofilm structure there. The presented patient is an illustration of such a problem, because after L5 laminectomy and extensive L2-L3 and L3-L4 one-sided fenestration and L2-L3-L4-L5 facetectomy, interbody bone arthrodesis and transpedicular stabilization, he reported for fever and pain in right lumbar area...
February 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Ejaz Ahmed, Abdur Rehman, Muhammad Asghar Ali
Objective: To evaluate the adequacy of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and role of CRP in determining the duration of antibiotic treatment in neonatal sepsis. Methods: In this validation study, we included 135 neonates with suspected diagnosis of sepsis within duration of nine months from September 2016 to May2017 in Children Hospital Multan. Blood samples were drawn from every neonate for culture sensitivity and measurement of serum C-reactive proteins...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Daisuke Todokoro, Kiyofumi Mochizuki, Takashi Nishida, Hiroshi Eguchi, Tatsuro Miyamoto, Takaaki Hattori, Takashi Suzuki, Tomoyuki Inoue, Ryohei Nejima, Saichi Hoshi, Hideo Akiyama
Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis, also called metastatic endophthalmitis, is a rare bacterial endophthalmitis derived from distant infectious foci via the bloodstream. This infection can potentially cause not only severe visual disturbance, but also loss of the eyeball or death, as most patients are immunocompromised. This retrospective Japanese multicenter study analyzed 32 eyes in 25 definitive cases. Twelve patients (48.0%) had diabetes mellitus. Typical ocular findings were vitreous haze (87.5%), cells in the anterior chambers (62...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Zhenhui Cao, Hongbin Pan, Shijun Li, Chongying Shi, Sifan Wang, Fuyi Wang, Pengfei Ye, Junjing Jia, Changrong Ge, Qiuye Lin, Zhiyong Zhao
This study aimed to investigate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from De'ang pickled tea, a traditional food consumed by the De'ang nationality of Yunnan, China. Twenty-six LAB strains isolated from De'ang pickled tea were subjected to identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Twenty-four belonged to Lactobacillus plantarum, one belonged to Enterococcus casseliflavus, and one belonged to Lactobacillus acidophilus. Eighteen out of 26 LAB strains which showed a higher capability to tolerate simulated gastrointestinal juices were chosen to further evaluate their probiotic properties...
February 14, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Hamdy A A Aly, Memy H Hassan
Gentamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic commonly used against Gram-negative bacteria. This study was designed to investigate the testicular toxicity of gentamicin in adult rats. Gentamicin was given to rats at 0, 60, 80 or 100 mg/kg/day for 10 consecutive days. The absolute weight of testes reduced significantly in relation to the dose, while gentamicin at a dose of 60 mg/kg did not show any significant change in the relative testes weight. Sperm count and motility and daily sperm production decreased in a dose-related manner...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Gireesh Sankaran, Balaji Zacharia, Antony Roy, Sulaikha Puthan Purayil
PURPOSE: The study was carried out to evaluate the clinical and bacteriological profile of SA in young infants (age ≤ 3 months) in a tertiary referral centre and to assess the risk factors and to document the changing trends in the epidemiology. METHODS: This was a prospective descriptive study on all young infants with SA. Clinical and perinatal history, examination, radiological and laboratory findings (blood count, ESR, CRP, blood and joint cultures) were studied...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Ashok Kuwal, Vinod Joshi, Naveen Dutt, Surjit Singh, Kailash Chand Agarwal, Gopal Purohit
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial infections are the major cause of acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD). The relationship between lung functions and respiratory failure (arterial blood gas parameters) with the etiology of AE-COPD has not been clearly understood. We conducted this study to determine the bacterial profile in AE-COPD and to identify the associated risk factors and drug sensitivity pattern. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two patients hospitalized for AE-COPD were prospectively evaluated...
January 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
Cihan Abaylı, Yusuf Kul, Muhsin Koten, Ahmet Rıfat Karasalihoğlu, Abdullah Taş, Recep Yağız, Erdoğan Bulut
Objective: This study aimed to investigate possible ototoxicity associated with topical rifamycin application via electrophysiological tests and ultrastructural examinations. Methods: Electrophysiological assessment was performed with tympanometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR), and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements. This study was conducted on 40 ears of 20 guinea pigs that were detected to have normal hearing thresholds. The animals were randomly assigned to three groups: Group 1 (n=12) received 0...
September 2017: Turkish Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Gemechu Ameya, Tsegaye Tsalla, Fasil Getu, Eyob Getu
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal diseases continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. Salmonella and Shigella specious are the major enteric pathogen causing diarrhea among children worldwide. Examination of stool sample is the most sensitive method to diagnose diarrheal disease in children. This study aimed to determining the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and associated factor of Salmonella and Shigella infection among under five children...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Nouf M Al-Enazi, Amani S Awaad, Saleh I Alqasoumi, Metab F Alwethairi
The biological activities; antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer, of the red algae Galaxaura rugosa and Liagora hawaiiana were determined. The total ethanol, lipoidal matters, chloroform, n-butanol, aqueous extracts and powder of both algae showed and bacterial and antifungal activities. However, the chloroform extract of Galaxaura rugosa showed antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (24 mm, 0.15 mg/ml) higher than gentamycin (23 mm, 0.49 mg/ml). Moreover, the total ethanol, lipoidal matter and chloroform extracts showed antifungal activity (21, 22 and 25 mm, 1...
January 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Josipa Vlainić, Ivan Kosalec, Kristina Pavić, Dimitra Hadjipavlou-Litina, Eleni Pontiki, Branka Zorc
Primaquine (PQ) ureidoamides 5a-f were screened for antimicrobial, biofilm eradication and antioxidative activities. Susceptibility of the tested microbial species towards tested compounds showed species- and compound-dependent activity. N-(diphenylmethyl)-2-[({4-[(6-methoxyquinolin-8-yl)amino]pentyl}carbamoyl)amino]-4-methylpentanamide (5a) and 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(diphenylmethyl)-2-[({4-[(6-methoxyquinolin-8-yl)amino]pentyl}carbamoyl)amino]acetamide (5d) showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus strains (MIC = 6...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Hitarth B Bhatt, Sangeeta D Gohel, Satya P Singh
This report describes cultivation-dependent diversity, phylogeny and enzymatic potential of the haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from the unvegetated desert soil of yet unexplored, saline desert of Little Rann of Kutch (LRK), India. The LRK is a unique ecosystem displaying a combination of Dry Rann and Wet Rann. A total of 25 bacteria were isolated and characterized on the basis of colony morphology, biochemical profile, sugar utilization, secretion of the extracellular enzymes and antibiotic sensitivity...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
A F Junka, R Rakoczy, P Szymczyk, M Bartoszewicz, P P Sedghizadeh, K Fijałkowski
Infective complications are a major factor contributing to wound chronicity and can be associated with significant morbidity or mortality. Wound bacteria are protected in biofilm communities and are highly resistant to immune system components and to antimicrobials used in wound therapy. There is an urgent medical need to more effectively eradicate wound biofilm pathogens. In the present work, we tested the impact of such commonly used antibiotics and antiseptics as gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, octenidine, chlorhexidine, polihexanidine, and ethacridine lactate delivered to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the presence of rotating magnetic fields (RMFs) of 10-50 Hz frequency and produced by a customized RMF generator...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
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