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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777749/burden-of-liver-disease-in-europe-epidemiology-and-analysis-of-risk-factors-to-identify-prevention-policies
#1
REVIEW
Laura Pimpin, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Francesco Negro, Emily Corbould, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Laura Webber, Nick Sheron
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The burden of liver disease in Europe continues to grow. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of liver diseases and their risk factors in European countries, and identify public health interventions that could impact on these risk factors to reduce the burden of liver disease. METHODS: As part of the HEPAHEALTH project, commissioned by EASL, we extracted information on historical and current prevalence and mortality from national and international literature and databases on liver disease in 35 countries in the WHO European region, as well as historical and recent prevalence data on their main determinants; alcohol consumption, obesity and hepatitis B and C virus infections...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761170/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate-reduced-oxidase-2-modulates-inflammatory-vigor-during-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression-in-mice
#2
Rajib Mukherjee, Maria E Moreno-Fernandez, Daniel A Giles, Monica Cappelletti, Traci E Stankiewicz, Calvin C Chan, Senad Divanovic
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a disease spectrum ranging from benign steatosis to life-threatening cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exacerbated inflammatory responses have been implicated in NAFLD progression. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) oxidase 2 (NOX2; also known as gp91Phox ), the main catalytic subunit of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) oxidase complex, modulates ROS production, immune responsiveness, and pathogenesis of obesity-associated metabolic derangements...
May 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761169/prolonged-cenicriviroc-therapy-reduces-hepatic-fibrosis-despite-steatohepatitis-in-a-diet-induced-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#3
Annie J Kruger, Bryan C Fuchs, Ricard Masia, Jacinta A Holmes, Shadi Salloum, Mozhdeh Sojoodi, Diego S Ferreira, Stephanie M Rutledge, Peter Caravan, Nadia Alatrakchi, Pam Vig, Eric Lefebvre, Raymond T Chung
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive liver disease projected to become the leading cause of cirrhosis and liver transplantation in the next decade. Cenicriviroc (CVC), a dual chemokine receptor 2 and 5 antagonist, prevents macrophage trafficking and is under clinical investigation for the treatment of human NASH fibrosis. We assessed the efficacy and durability of short and prolonged CVC therapy in a diet-induced mouse model of NASH, the choline deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) model...
May 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761168/outcomes-of-surgical-management-of-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis-1-and-bile-salt-export-protein-deficiencies
#4
Laura N Bull, Ludmila Pawlikowska, Sandra Strautnieks, Irena Jankowska, Piotr Czubkowski, Jennifer L Dodge, Karan Emerick, Catherine Wanty, Sami Wali, Samra Blanchard, Florence Lacaille, Jane A Byrne, Albertien M van Eerde, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Roderick Houwen, Steven Lobritto, Vera Hupertz, Patricia McClean, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Etienne Sokal, Philip Rosenthal, Peter F Whitington, Joanna Pawlowska, Richard J Thompson
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) with normal circulating gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels can result from mutations in the ATP8B1 gene (encoding familial intrahepatic cholestasis 1 [FIC1] deficiency) or the ABCB11 gene (bile salt export protein [BSEP] deficiency). We investigated the outcomes of partial external biliary diversion, ileal exclusion, and liver transplantation in these two conditions. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study of 42 patients with FIC1 deficiency (FIC1 patients) and 60 patients with BSEP deficiency (BSEP patients) who had undergone one or more surgical procedures (57 diversions, 6 exclusions, and 57 transplants)...
May 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761165/a-real-world-observational-cohort-of-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-target-primary-biliary-cholangitis-study-design-and-rationale
#5
Cynthia Levy, Christopher L Bowlus, Elizabeth Carey, Julie M Crawford, Karen Deane, Marlyn J Mayo, W Ray Kim, Michael W Fried
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a rare chronic cholestatic liver disease that may progress to biliary cirrhosis if left untreated. The first-line therapy for PBC is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Unfortunately, 1 of 3 patients does not respond to UDCA. These patients are at risk for developing clinical events, including cirrhosis, complications of portal hypertension, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplant, or death. Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved obeticholic acid to be used in certain patients with PBC...
May 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733831/fibrosis-severity-as-a-determinant-of-cause-specific-mortality-in-patients-with-advanced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
Eduardo Vilar-Gomez, Luis Calzadilla-Bertot, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Marlen Castellanos, Rocio Aller-de la Fuente, Mayada Metwally, Mohammed Eslam, Licet Gonzalez-Fabian, María Alvarez-Quiñones Sanz, Antonio Felix Conde-Martin, Bastiaan De Boer, Duncan McLeod, Anthony Wing Hung Chan, Naga Chalasani, Jacob George, Leon A Adams, Manuel Romero-Gomez
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the natural course of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with advanced fibrosis. We describe long-term outcomes and evaluate the effects of clinical and histologic parameters on disease progression in patients with advanced NAFLD. METHODS: We conducted a multi-national study of 458 patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD with bridging fibrosis (F3, n=159) or compensated cirrhosis (222 patients with Child-Turcotte-Pugh [CTP] scores of A5 and 77 patients with scores of A6), evaluated from April 1995 through November 2013 and followed until December 2016, death, or liver transplantation at hepatology centers in Spain, Australia, Hong Kong, and Cuba...
May 4, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731657/prediction-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-cirrhotic-patients-a-new-score-combining-renal-liver-and-inflammatory-markers
#7
Joana Gameiro, José Agapito Fonseca, Joana Monteiro Dias, Maria João Melo, Sofia Jorge, José Velosa, José António Lopes
Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and is associated with poor prognosis. A risk prediction score combining values easily measured at admission could be valuable to stratify patients for prevention, monitoring and early intervention, ultimately improving patient care and outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop a risk score for AKI in a cohort of cirrhotic patients. Patients and methods: We cross-examined the data from a retrospective analysis of 186 patients with cirrhosis admitted to the Gastroenterology and Hepatology Service of Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte from January 2003 to December 2005...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686404/systems-biology-in-hepatology-approaches-and-applications
#8
REVIEW
Adil Mardinoglu, Jan Boren, Ulf Smith, Mathias Uhlen, Jens Nielsen
Detailed insights into the biological functions of the liver and an understanding of its crosstalk with other human tissues and the gut microbiota can be used to develop novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of liver-associated diseases, including fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biological network models, including metabolic, transcriptional regulatory, protein-protein interaction, signalling and co-expression networks, can provide a scaffold for studying the biological pathways operating in the liver in connection with disease development in a systematic manner...
April 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681874/alexithymia-in-gastroenterology-and-hepatology-a-systematic-review
#9
Danilo Carrozzino, Piero Porcelli
Background: Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality construct that represents a deficit in the cognitive processing of emotions and is currently understood to be related to a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. The present review aims to investigate the relationship of alexithymia with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders as functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID, as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD)] and liver diseases as chronic hepatitis C (CHC), cirrhosis, and liver transplantation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619423/a-single-blood-test-adjusted-for-different-liver-fibrosis-targets-improves-fibrosis-staging-and-especially-cirrhosis-diagnosis
#10
Paul Calès, Jérôme Boursier, Frédéric Oberti, Valérie Moal, Isabelle Fouchard Hubert, Sandrine Bertrais, Gilles Hunault, Marie Christine Rousselet
Fibrosis blood tests are usually developed using significant fibrosis, which is a unique diagnostic target; however, these tests are employed for other diagnostic targets, such as cirrhosis. We aimed to improve fibrosis staging accuracy by simultaneously targeting biomarkers for several diagnostic targets. A total of 3,809 patients were included, comprising 1,012 individuals with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) into a derivation population and 2,797 individuals into validation populations of different etiologies (CHC, chronic hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus/CHC, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcohol) using Metavir fibrosis stages as reference...
April 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619421/influence-of-spontaneous-splenorenal-shunts-on-clinical-outcomes-in-decompensated-cirrhosis-and-after-liver-transplantation
#11
Karen Saks, Kyle K Jensen, Joel McLouth, Justine Hum, Joseph Ahn, Atif Zaman, Michael F Chang, Alice Fung, Barry Schlansky
Cirrhosis and portal hypertension can lead to the formation of a spontaneous splenorenal shunt (SSRS) that may divert portal blood flow to the systemic circulation and reduce hepatic perfusion. Our aims were to evaluate SSRSs as an independent prognostic marker for mortality in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and the influence of SSRSs on liver transplantation (LT) outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed adult patients with decompensated cirrhosis undergoing LT evaluation from January 2001 to February 2016 at a large U...
April 2018: Hepatology communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619415/daclatasvir-and-sofosbuvir-treatment-of-decompensated-liver-disease-or-post-liver-transplant-hepatitis-c-virus-recurrence-in-patients-with-advanced-liver-disease-cirrhosis-in-a-real-world-cohort
#12
Paul Kwo, Michael W Fried, K Rajender Reddy, Consuelo Soldevila-Pico, Saro Khemichian, Jama Darling, Phillippe J Zamor, Andrew A Napoli, Beatrice Anduze-Faris, Robert S Brown
We report the findings of an early access program providing treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus infection (any genotype) with daclatasvir and sofosbuvir with/without ribavirin to patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis or prior liver transplant recipients with recurrent hepatitis C virus infection and advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Patients had <12-month life expectancies per the local investigator. Patients received daclatasvir 60 mg and sofosbuvir 400 mg once daily, with/without ribavirin, for 24 weeks...
April 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569736/safety-and-efficacy-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-with-or-without-ribavirin-in-hepatitis-c-genotype-1-patients-including-those-with-decompensated-cirrhosis-who-failed-prior-treatment-with-simeprevir-sofosbuvir
#13
A A Modi, H E Nazario, G R Gonzales, S A Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Combination therapy of simeprevir (SIM)/sofosbuvir (SOF) is an approved treatment for hepatitis C genotype (gen) 1 with overall SVR12 rate of 85%-95%. The single tablet fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir (LDV)/SOF is also approved for gen 1 with sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR12) rates ≥95%. No data are available on the efficacy of retreatment with LDV/SOF in patients who failed initial treatment with SIM/SOF. AIM: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of retreatment with LDV/SOF ± ribavirin (RBV) in gen 1 patients who had previously failed treatment with SIM/SOF...
March 23, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507903/insulin-signaling-as-a-potential-natural-killer-cell-checkpoint-in-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Johnny Amer, Ahmad Salhab, Mazen Noureddin, Sarit Doron, Lina Abu-Tair, Rami Ghantous, Mahmud Mahamid, Rifaat Safadi
Insulin resistance is a key risk factor in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may lead to liver fibrosis. Natural killer (NK) cells are thought to exert an antifibrotic effect through their killing of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Here, we investigated how the interplay between NK cells and HSCs are modified by insulin resistance in NAFLD. Fresh peripheral blood NK cells (clusters of differentiation [CD]56dim , CD16+ ) were collected from 22 healthy adults and 72 patients with NAFLD not currently taking any medications and without signs of metabolic syndrome...
March 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507899/exploring-opportunities-to-prevent-cirrhosis-admissions-in-the-emergency-department-a-multicenter-multidisciplinary-survey
#15
Shazia Mehmood Siddique, Meghan Lane-Fall, Matthew J McConnell, Neha Jakhete, James Crismale, Stefanie Porges, Vandana Khungar, Shivan J Mehta, David Goldberg, Zhiping Li, Thomas Schiano, Linda Regan, Clinton Orloski, Judy A Shea
Patients with cirrhosis have high admission and readmission rates, and it is estimated that a quarter are potentially preventable. Little data are available regarding nonmedical factors impacting triage decisions in this patient population. This study sought to explore such factors as well as to determine provider perspectives on low-acuity clinical presentations to the emergency department, including ascites and hepatic encephalopathy. A survey was distributed in four liver transplant centers to both emergency medicine and hepatology providers, who included attending physicians, house staff, and advanced practitioners; 196 surveys were returned (estimated response rate 50...
March 2018: Hepatology communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457869/assessment-of-the-spectrum-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-multicenter-study
#16
Bradley Reuter, Kara Walter, Julien Bissonnette, Michael D Leise, Jennifer Lai, Puneeta Tandon, Patrick S Kamath, Scott W Biggins, Christopher F Rose, James B Wade, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major cause of morbidity in cirrhosis. However, its severity assessment is often subjective, which needs to be studied systematically. The aim was to determine how accurately trainee and nontrainee practitioners grade and manage HE patients throughout its severity. We performed a survey study using standardized simulated patient videos at 4 US and 3 Canadian centers. Participants were trainees (gastroenterology/hepatology fellows) and nontrainees (faculty, nurse practitioners, physician assistants)...
May 2018: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447614/adherence-and-perceived-barriers-to-oral-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#17
Kerui Xu, Li-Ming Liu, Paraskevi A Farazi, Hongmei Wang, Fedja A Rochling, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway, Jian-Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Globally, of the 248 million people chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), 74 million reside in China. Five oral nucleot(s)ide analogs (NUCs) have been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine rates of adherence to NUC therapy in patients with CHB, to identify the self-perceived barriers to adherence, and to examine the factors associated with adherence. METHODS: Questionnaire-based interviews were administered among Chinese patients with CHB at hepatology clinics of a tertiary hospital in the city of Wuhan, China...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404528/acute-decompensation-boosts-hepatic-collagen-type-iii-deposition-and-deteriorates-experimental-and-human-cirrhosis
#18
Michael Praktiknjo, Jennifer Lehmann, Mette J Nielsen, Robert Schierwagen, Frank E Uschner, Carsten Meyer, Daniel Thomas, Christian P Strassburg, Flemming Bendtsen, Søren Møller, Aleksander Krag, Morten A Karsdal, Diana J Leeming, Jonel Trebicka
Patients with end-stage liver disease develop acute decompensation (AD) episodes, which become more frequent and might develop into acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). However, it remains unknown how AD induces acceleration of liver disease. We hypothesized that remodeling of collagen type III plays a role in the acceleration of liver cirrhosis after AD and analyzed its formation (Pro-C3) and degradation (matrix metalloproteinase-degraded type III collagen [C3M]) markers in animal models and human disease...
February 2018: Hepatology communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404526/incidence-and-cost-analysis-of-hospital-admission-and-30-day-readmission-among-patients-with-cirrhosis
#19
Sakkarin Chirapongsathorn, Chayakrit Krittanawong, Felicity T Enders, Richard Pendegraft, Kristin C Mara, Bijan J Borah, Sue L Visscher, Conor G Loftus, Vijay H Shah, Jayant A Talwalkar, Patrick S Kamath
We examined risks for first hospitalization and the rate, risk factors, costs, and 1-year outcome of 30-day readmission among patients admitted for complications of cirrhosis. Data were retrospectively analyzed for adult patients with cirrhosis residing in Minnesota, Iowa, or Wisconsin and admitted from 2010 through 2013 at both campuses of the Mayo Clinic Hospital in Rochester, MN. Readmission was captured at the two hospitals as well as at community hospitals in the tristate area within the Mayo Clinic Health System...
February 2018: Hepatology communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404516/deficiency-of-cholesterol-7%C3%AE-hydroxylase-in-bile-acid-synthesis-exacerbates-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#20
Ajay C Donepudi, Jessica M Ferrell, Shannon Boehme, Hueng-Sik Choi, John Y L Chiang
Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) is a major risk factor for cirrhosis-associated liver diseases. Studies demonstrate that alcohol increases serum bile acids in humans and rodents. AFLD has been linked to cholestasis, although the physiologic relevance of increased bile acids in AFLD and the underlying mechanism of increasing the bile acid pool by alcohol feeding are still unclear. In this study, we used mouse models either deficient of or overexpressing cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), the rate-limiting and key regulatory enzyme in bile acid synthesis, to study the effect of alcohol drinking in liver metabolism and inflammation...
January 2018: Hepatology Communications
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