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Vestibular apparatus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099695/algorithm-for-treatment-of-patients-with-mesial-occlusion-using-proprietary-orthodontic-device
#1
P Flis, V Filonenko, N Doroshenko
Early elimination of dentoalveolar apparatus orthodontic disorders is the dominant concept in the treatment technique. AIM: to present a sagittal anomalies treatment algorithm, of Class III particularly, in the transitional bite period by the proposed design of individual orthodontic devices with a movable ramp. The treatment algorithm consisted of several blocks: the motivation, the etiological factors establishment, the plan and treatment tactics creation basing on careful diagnosis, the stages of the active period of treatment and the patient management in the retention period...
October 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018320/virtual-balancing-for-studying-and-training-postural-control
#2
Daniela Buettner, Daniela Dalin, Isabella K Wiesmeier, Christoph Maurer
Postural control during free stance has been frequently interpreted in terms of balancing an inverted pendulum. This even holds, if subjects do not balance their own, but an external body weight. We introduce here a virtual balancing apparatus, which produces torque in the ankle joint as a function of ankle angle resembling the gravity and inertial effects of free standing. As a first aim of this study, we systematically modified gravity, damping, and inertia to examine its effect on postural control beyond the physical constraints given in the real world...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980779/-equilibrium-management
#3
Jean-Philippe Guyot
Balance requires the modulation and integration of multiple sensory information, among which the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear plays an essential role. The management of all informations is assumed by a system whose adaptive capacities are much faster than we thought until recently, as demonstrated by the experiments carried out in human during the development of a vestibular implant designed to restore the lost function. While these adaptive capacities have the advantage of allowing all kinds of activities, they also have the disadvantage of producing various sensations, sometimes very strange...
October 4, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798718/vestibular-modulation-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity-to-muscle-and-skin-in-humans
#4
REVIEW
Elie Hammam, Vaughan G Macefield
We review the existence of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans. While several methods to activate the human vestibular apparatus have been used, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a means of selectively modulating vestibular afferent activity via electrodes over the mastoid processes, causing robust vestibular illusions of side-to-side movement. Sinusoidal GVS (sGVS) causes partial entrainment of sympathetic outflow to muscle and skin. Modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) from vestibular inputs competes with baroreceptor inputs, with stronger temporal coupling to the vestibular stimulus being observed at frequencies remote from the cardiac frequency; "super entrainment" was observed in some individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676739/pid-controller-design-for-fes-applied-to-ankle-muscles-in-neuroprosthesis-for-standing-balance
#5
Hossein Rouhani, Michael Same, Kei Masani, Ya Qi Li, Milos R Popovic
Closed-loop controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the lower limb muscles can be used as a neuroprosthesis for standing balance in neurologically impaired individuals. The objective of this study was to propose a methodology for designing a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for FES applied to the ankle muscles toward maintaining standing balance for several minutes and in the presence of perturbations. First, a model of the physiological control strategy for standing balance was developed...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653338/a-method-for-detailed-movement-pattern-analysis-of-tadpole-startle-response
#6
Kasra Zarei, Karen L Elliott, Sanam Zarei, Bernd Fritzsch, James H J Buchholz
Prolonged space flight, specifically microgravity, presents a problem for space exploration. Animal models with altered connections of the vestibular ear, and thus altered gravity sensation, would allow the examination of the effects of microgravity and how various countermeasures can establish normal function. We describe an experimental apparatus to monitor the effects of ear manipulations to generate asymmetric gravity input on the tadpole escape response. To perform the movement pattern analysis, an imaging apparatus was developed that uses a high-speed camera to obtain time-resolved, high-resolution images of tadpole movements...
July 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570419/ultra-high-field-9-4-t-mri-analysis-of-contrast-agent-transport-across-the-blood-perilymph-barrier-and-intrastrial-fluid-blood-barrier-in-the-mouse-inner-ear
#7
S Allen Counter, Sahar Nikkhou-Aski, Peter Damberg, Cecilia Engmér Berglin, Göran Laurell
HYPOTHESIS: Effective paramagnetic contrast agent for the penetration of the perilymphatic spaces of the scala tympani, scala vestibuli, and scala media of the mouse inner ear can be determined using intravenous injection of various gadolinium (Gd) complexes and ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 9.4 Tesla. BACKGROUND: A number of contrast agents have been explored in experimental high-field MRI to determine the most effective Gd complex for ideal signal-to-noise ratio and maximal visualization of the in vivo mammalian inner ear in analyzing the temporal and spatial parameters involved in drug penetration of the blood-perilymph barrier and intrastrial fluid-blood barrier in the mouse model using MRI...
August 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349300/behavioral-methods-for-the-functional-assessment-of-hair-cells-in-zebrafish
#8
REVIEW
Qin Yang, Peng Sun, Shi Chen, Hongzhe Li, Fangyi Chen
Zebrafish is an emerging animal model for studies on auditory system. This model presents high comparability with humans, good accessibility to the hearing organ, and high throughput capacity. To better utilize this animal model, methodologies need to be used to quantify the hearing function of the zebrafish. Zebrafish displays a series of innate and robust behavior related to its auditory function. Here, we reviewed the advantage of using zebrafish in auditory research and then introduced three behavioral tests, as follows: the startle response, the vestibular-ocular reflex, and rheotaxis...
June 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783221/expression-patterns-of-irx-genes-in-the-developing-chick-inner-ear
#9
Sheila Cardeña-Núñez, Luis Óscar Sánchez-Guardado, Rubén Corral-San-Miguel, Lucía Rodríguez-Gallardo, Faustino Marín, Luis Puelles, Pilar Aroca, Matías Hidalgo-Sánchez
The vertebrate inner ear is a complex three-dimensional sensorial structure with auditory and vestibular functions. The molecular patterning of the developing otic epithelium creates various positional identities, consequently leading to the stereotyped specification of each neurosensory and non-sensory element of the membranous labyrinth. The Iroquois (Iro/Irx) genes, clustered in two groups (A: Irx1, Irx2, and Irx4; and B: Irx3, Irx5, and Irx6), encode for transcriptional factors involved directly in numerous patterning processes of embryonic tissues in many phyla...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690715/economic-and-clinical-burden-of-opioid-induced-nausea-and-vomiting
#10
REVIEW
Bruce D Nicholson
Opioids are the standard of care for treating moderate-to-severe pain; however, their efficacy can be limited by adverse events (AEs), including nausea and vomiting. Opioid-induced nausea and vomiting (OINV) is an inherent adverse effect of opioid treatment, exerting effects centrally and peripherally. Opioid-related AEs can impact treatment adherence and discontinuation, which can result in inadequate pain management. OINV may persist long-term, negatively affecting patient functional outcomes, physical and mental health, patient satisfaction, and overall costs of treatment...
January 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614519/-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-for-head-and-neck-cancer-dose-constraint-for-normal-tissue-cochlea-vestibular-apparatus-and-brainstem
#11
REVIEW
V Guimas, J Thariat, P Graff-Cailleau, P Boisselier, Y Pointreau, P Pommier, X Montbarbon, C Laude, S Racadot
Modern techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have been proven to significantly decrease the dose delivered to the cochleovestibular apparatus, limiting consecutive toxicity especially for sensorineural hearing loss. However, recent data still report a 42% rate of radio-induced hypoacusia underscoring the need to protect the cochleovestibular apparatus. Due to the small size of the cochlea, a precise dose-volume analysis could not be performed, and recommendations only refer to the mean dose...
October 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416720/-modern-means-of-statokinetic-improvement-and-vestibular-rehabilitation
#12
F A Syroezhkin, L G Buinov, V V Dvoryanchikov, A A Blaginin
The article presents the results of studying the effectiveness of the complex vestibular workouts based on non-invasive neuromodulation technology in 37 healthy patients aged 18-20 years who have symptoms of aerial sickness in 5 or less minutes. Non-invasive neuromodulation wire-familiarize with the apparatus for vestibular rehabilitation "Brain-Port" (USA), performing electric tactile stimulation of the tongue with biofeedback. An indicator of statokinetic stability was considered from time to tolerance to the vestibular load up to development of vegetative manifestations of aerial sickness...
April 2016: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257108/vestibular-dysfunction-in-the-adult-cba-caj-mouse-after-lead-and-cadmium-treatment
#13
Katarina E M Klimpel, Min Young Lee, W Michael King, Yehoash Raphael, Jochen Schacht, Richard L Neitzel
OBJECTIVES: The vestibular system allows the perception of position and motion and its dysfunction presents as motion impairment, vertigo and balance abnormalities, leading to debilitating psychological discomfort and difficulty performing daily tasks. Although declines and deficits in vestibular function have been noted in rats exposed to lead (Pb) and in humans exposed to Pb and cadmium (Cd), no studies have directly examined the pathological and pathophysiological effects upon the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear...
March 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220235/-behavioral-and-functional-vestibular-disturbances-after-space-flight-2-fishes-amphibians-and-birds
#14
REVIEW
D V Lychakov
The review contains data on functional shifts in fishes, amphibians and birds caused by changes in the otolith system operation after stay under weightlessness conditions. These data are of theoretical and practical significance and are important to resolve some fundamental problems of vestibulogy. The analysis of the results of space experiments has shown that weightlessness conditions do not exert a substantial impact on formation and functional state of the otolith system in embryonic fishes, amphibians and birds developed during space flight...
January 2016: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207957/cilia-associated-genes-play-differing-roles-in-aminoglycoside-induced-hair-cell-death-in-zebrafish
#15
Tamara M Stawicki, Liana Hernandez, Robert Esterberg, Tor Linbo, Kelly N Owens, Arish N Shah, Nihal Thapa, Brock Roberts, Cecilia B Moens, Edwin W Rubel, David W Raible
Hair cells possess a single primary cilium, called the kinocilium, early in development. While the kinocilium is lost in auditory hair cells of most species it is maintained in vestibular hair cells. It has generally been believed that the primary role of the kinocilium and cilia-associated genes in hair cells is in the establishment of the polarity of actin-based stereocilia, the hair cell mechanotransduction apparatus. Through genetic screening and testing of candidate genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) we have found that mutations in multiple cilia genes implicated in intraflagellar transport (dync2h1, wdr35, ift88, and traf3ip), and the ciliary transition zone (cc2d2a, mks1, and cep290) lead to resistance to aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death...
July 7, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083882/vestibular-assistance-systems-promises-and-challenges
#16
REVIEW
Jean-Philippe Guyot, A Perez Fornos, N Guinand, R van de Berg, R Stokroos, H Kingma
The handicap resulting from a bilateral vestibular deficit is often underestimated. In most cases the deficit settles gradually. Patients do not understand what is happening to them and have many difficulties to describe their symptoms. They have to consult several doctors with different medical specialties before diagnosis. Once the diagnosis is made there is no biological way to "repair" the deficient vestibular apparatus and vestibular exercises are mildly effective. Attempts have been made to help patients using substitution devices replacing the defective vestibular information by tactile or acoustic cues...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997595/the-effect-of-otic-melanocyte-destruction-on-auditory-and-vestibular-function-a-study-on-vitiligo-patients
#17
Parvane Mahdi, Amin Amali, Masoumeh Ruzbahani, Akram Pourbakht, Asadollah Mahdavi
The hallmark of vitiligo is the disappearance of melanocytes from the skin. As a result, of melanocytes presence in the auditory and vestibular apparatus, the involvement of these systems in vitiligo which targets the melanocytes of the whole body is possible; suggesting that vitiligo is a systemic disease rather than a purely cutaneous problem. A total of 21 patients with vitiligo were enrolled in this study. A group of 20 healthy subjects served as a control group. Pure tone audiometry (PTA), auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) were carried out in all participants...
February 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26995070/fgf3-and-fgf16-expression-patterns-define-spatial-and-temporal-domains-in-the-developing-chick-inner-ear
#18
Daniel Olaya-Sánchez, Luis Óscar Sánchez-Guardado, Sho Ohta, Susan C Chapman, Gary C Schoenwolf, Luis Puelles, Matías Hidalgo-Sánchez
The inner ear is a morphologically complex sensory structure with auditory and vestibular functions. The developing otic epithelium gives rise to neurosensory and non-sensory elements of the adult membranous labyrinth. Extrinsic and intrinsic signals manage the patterning and cell specification of the developing otic epithelium by establishing lineage-restricted compartments defined in turn by differential expression of regulatory genes. FGF3 and FGF16 are excellent candidates to govern these developmental events...
January 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26918040/predictors-of-mastoiditis-after-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-a-dose-volume-analysis
#19
Ji-Jin Yao, Guan-Qun Zhou, Ya-Nan Jin, Wang-Jian Zhang, Li Lin, Xiao-Li Yu, Jian-Yong Shao, Jun Ma, Ying Sun
BACKGROUND: To identify predictors for development of mastoiditis after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: Data for 146 NPC patients treated with IMRT was retrospectively reviewed under institutional ethics committee approval. Clinical factors associated with mastoiditis were analyzed. Dose-volume histogram analysis was performed for the Eustachian tube, tympanic cavity, mastoid air cells, cochlea, internal auditory canal and vestibular apparatus to relate doses to radiographic changes in the mastoid...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26513242/hypergravity-provokes-a-temporary-reduction-in-cd4-cd8-thymocyte-number-and-a-persistent-decrease-in-medullary-thymic-epithelial-cell-frequency-in-mice
#20
Ryosuke Tateishi, Nobuko Akiyama, Maki Miyauchi, Riko Yoshinaga, Hiroki Sasanuma, Takashi Kudo, Miki Shimbo, Masahiro Shinohara, Koji Obata, Jun-Ichiro Inoue, Masaki Shirakawa, Dai Shiba, Hiroshi Asahara, Nobuaki Yoshida, Satoru Takahashi, Hironobu Morita, Taishin Akiyama
Gravity change affects many immunological systems. We investigated the effects of hypergravity (2G) on murine thymic cells. Exposure of mice to 2G for three days reduced the frequency of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes (DP) and mature medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), accompanied by an increment of keratin-5 and keratin-8 double-positive (K5+K8+) TECs that reportedly contain TEC progenitors. Whereas the reduction of DP was recovered by a 14-day exposure to 2G, the reduction of mature mTECs and the increment of K5+K8+ TEC persisted...
2015: PloS One
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