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Vestibular apparatus

Qin Yang, Peng Sun, Shi Chen, Hongzhe Li, Fangyi Chen
Zebrafish is an emerging animal model for studies on auditory system. This model presents high comparability with humans, good accessibility to the hearing organ, and high throughput capacity. To better utilize this animal model, methodologies need to be used to quantify the hearing function of the zebrafish. Zebrafish displays a series of innate and robust behavior related to its auditory function. Here, we reviewed the advantage of using zebrafish in auditory research and then introduced three behavioral tests, as follows: the startle response, the vestibular-ocular reflex, and rheotaxis...
March 27, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
Sheila Cardeña-Núñez, Luis Óscar Sánchez-Guardado, Rubén Corral-San-Miguel, Lucía Rodríguez-Gallardo, Faustino Marín, Luis Puelles, Pilar Aroca, Matías Hidalgo-Sánchez
The vertebrate inner ear is a complex three-dimensional sensorial structure with auditory and vestibular functions. The molecular patterning of the developing otic epithelium creates various positional identities, consequently leading to the stereotyped specification of each neurosensory and non-sensory element of the membranous labyrinth. The Iroquois (Iro/Irx) genes, clustered in two groups (A: Irx1, Irx2, and Irx4; and B: Irx3, Irx5, and Irx6), encode for transcriptional factors involved directly in numerous patterning processes of embryonic tissues in many phyla...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Bruce D Nicholson
Opioids are the standard of care for treating moderate-to-severe pain; however, their efficacy can be limited by adverse events (AEs), including nausea and vomiting. Opioid-induced nausea and vomiting (OINV) is an inherent adverse effect of opioid treatment, exerting effects centrally and peripherally. Opioid-related AEs can impact treatment adherence and discontinuation, which can result in inadequate pain management. OINV may persist long-term, negatively affecting patient functional outcomes, physical and mental health, patient satisfaction, and overall costs of treatment...
January 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
V Guimas, J Thariat, P Graff-Cailleau, P Boisselier, Y Pointreau, P Pommier, X Montbarbon, C Laude, S Racadot
Modern techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have been proven to significantly decrease the dose delivered to the cochleovestibular apparatus, limiting consecutive toxicity especially for sensorineural hearing loss. However, recent data still report a 42% rate of radio-induced hypoacusia underscoring the need to protect the cochleovestibular apparatus. Due to the small size of the cochlea, a precise dose-volume analysis could not be performed, and recommendations only refer to the mean dose...
October 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
F A Syroezhkin, L G Buinov, V V Dvoryanchikov, A A Blaginin
The article presents the results of studying the effectiveness of the complex vestibular workouts based on non-invasive neuromodulation technology in 37 healthy patients aged 18-20 years who have symptoms of aerial sickness in 5 or less minutes. Non-invasive neuromodulation wire-familiarize with the apparatus for vestibular rehabilitation "Brain-Port" (USA), performing electric tactile stimulation of the tongue with biofeedback. An indicator of statokinetic stability was considered from time to tolerance to the vestibular load up to development of vegetative manifestations of aerial sickness...
April 2016: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Katarina E M Klimpel, Min Young Lee, W Michael King, Yehoash Raphael, Jochen Schacht, Richard L Neitzel
OBJECTIVES: The vestibular system allows the perception of position and motion and its dysfunction presents as motion impairment, vertigo and balance abnormalities, leading to debilitating psychological discomfort and difficulty performing daily tasks. Although declines and deficits in vestibular function have been noted in rats exposed to lead (Pb) and in humans exposed to Pb and cadmium (Cd), no studies have directly examined the pathological and pathophysiological effects upon the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear...
March 2017: Environmental Toxicology
D V Lychakov
The review contains data on functional shifts in fishes, amphibians and birds caused by changes in the otolith system operation after stay under weightlessness conditions. These data are of theoretical and practical significance and are important to resolve some fundamental problems of vestibulogy. The analysis of the results of space experiments has shown that weightlessness conditions do not exert a substantial impact on formation and functional state of the otolith system in embryonic fishes, amphibians and birds developed during space flight...
January 2016: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
Tamara M Stawicki, Liana Hernandez, Robert Esterberg, Tor Linbo, Kelly N Owens, Arish N Shah, Nihal Thapa, Brock Roberts, Cecilia B Moens, Edwin W Rubel, David W Raible
Hair cells possess a single primary cilium, called the kinocilium, early in development. While the kinocilium is lost in auditory hair cells of most species it is maintained in vestibular hair cells. It has generally been believed that the primary role of the kinocilium and cilia-associated genes in hair cells is in the establishment of the polarity of actin-based stereocilia, the hair cell mechanotransduction apparatus. Through genetic screening and testing of candidate genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) we have found that mutations in multiple cilia genes implicated in intraflagellar transport (dync2h1, wdr35, ift88, and traf3ip), and the ciliary transition zone (cc2d2a, mks1, and cep290) lead to resistance to aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death...
July 7, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Jean-Philippe Guyot, A Perez Fornos, N Guinand, R van de Berg, R Stokroos, H Kingma
The handicap resulting from a bilateral vestibular deficit is often underestimated. In most cases the deficit settles gradually. Patients do not understand what is happening to them and have many difficulties to describe their symptoms. They have to consult several doctors with different medical specialties before diagnosis. Once the diagnosis is made there is no biological way to "repair" the deficient vestibular apparatus and vestibular exercises are mildly effective. Attempts have been made to help patients using substitution devices replacing the defective vestibular information by tactile or acoustic cues...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
Parvane Mahdi, Amin Amali, Masoumeh Ruzbahani, Akram Pourbakht, Asadollah Mahdavi
The hallmark of vitiligo is the disappearance of melanocytes from the skin. As a result, of melanocytes presence in the auditory and vestibular apparatus, the involvement of these systems in vitiligo which targets the melanocytes of the whole body is possible; suggesting that vitiligo is a systemic disease rather than a purely cutaneous problem. A total of 21 patients with vitiligo were enrolled in this study. A group of 20 healthy subjects served as a control group. Pure tone audiometry (PTA), auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) were carried out in all participants...
February 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
Daniel Olaya-Sánchez, Luis Óscar Sánchez-Guardado, Sho Ohta, Susan C Chapman, Gary C Schoenwolf, Luis Puelles, Matías Hidalgo-Sánchez
The inner ear is a morphologically complex sensory structure with auditory and vestibular functions. The developing otic epithelium gives rise to neurosensory and non-sensory elements of the adult membranous labyrinth. Extrinsic and intrinsic signals manage the patterning and cell specification of the developing otic epithelium by establishing lineage-restricted compartments defined in turn by differential expression of regulatory genes. FGF3 and FGF16 are excellent candidates to govern these developmental events...
March 19, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Ji-Jin Yao, Guan-Qun Zhou, Ya-Nan Jin, Wang-Jian Zhang, Li Lin, Xiao-Li Yu, Jian-Yong Shao, Jun Ma, Ying Sun
BACKGROUND: To identify predictors for development of mastoiditis after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: Data for 146 NPC patients treated with IMRT was retrospectively reviewed under institutional ethics committee approval. Clinical factors associated with mastoiditis were analyzed. Dose-volume histogram analysis was performed for the Eustachian tube, tympanic cavity, mastoid air cells, cochlea, internal auditory canal and vestibular apparatus to relate doses to radiographic changes in the mastoid...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Ryosuke Tateishi, Nobuko Akiyama, Maki Miyauchi, Riko Yoshinaga, Hiroki Sasanuma, Takashi Kudo, Miki Shimbo, Masahiro Shinohara, Koji Obata, Jun-Ichiro Inoue, Masaki Shirakawa, Dai Shiba, Hiroshi Asahara, Nobuaki Yoshida, Satoru Takahashi, Hironobu Morita, Taishin Akiyama
Gravity change affects many immunological systems. We investigated the effects of hypergravity (2G) on murine thymic cells. Exposure of mice to 2G for three days reduced the frequency of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes (DP) and mature medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), accompanied by an increment of keratin-5 and keratin-8 double-positive (K5+K8+) TECs that reportedly contain TEC progenitors. Whereas the reduction of DP was recovered by a 14-day exposure to 2G, the reduction of mature mTECs and the increment of K5+K8+ TEC persisted...
2015: PloS One
Ji-Jin Yao, Guan-Qun Zhou, Li Lin, Wang-Jian Zhang, Ying-Lin Peng, Lei Chen, Ling-Long Tang, Yan-Ping Mao, Jun Ma, Ying Sun
This study is to identify significant dosimetric parameters for ear disorders in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity modulated therapy only. Ninety-seven patients with NPC were retrospectively reviewed. Organs at risk (OARs) in the auditory apparatus were contoured. Dose-volume histogram parameters were generated for the Eustachian tube (ET), tympanic cavity (TC), mastoid air cells, vestibular apparatus, cochlea and internal auditory canal (IAC). Ear disorders were rated 0 (none), 1 (mild) or 2 (severe) by a clinician blinded to radiation doses; Grade 2 ear disorders was the study end-point...
2015: Scientific Reports
Issam Saliba, Chady Dagher, Elie El-Zir, Fady G Yammine
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of chronic middle ear effusion (CMEE) on balance and equilibrium. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study controlling two groups of children. The active arm consisted of children having a unilateral or bilateral CMEE that persisted for at least 3 months. The control group consisted of children presenting with normal middle ear. Children and parents in both groups were questioned about any symptom of vertigo, dizziness, disequilibrium or child's tendency to fall...
2015: Current Pediatric Reviews
Benjamin J Clark, Nancy S Hong, Dennis J Bettenson, Jamie Woolford, Lewis Horwood, Robert J McDonald
An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that an internally generated sense of spatial orientation contributes to navigation by rats in the Morris water task and to determine whether this strategy is dependent on vestibular cues. Rats were trained in a standard hidden platform procedure in which they received 8 daily swim trials. In a probe test, rats were carried in an opaque box to a pool located in a novel adjacent environment. During transport, 1 cohort of rats received a disorientation procedure, composed of gentle rotation in the box, while a second cohort served as transport controls...
July 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Noel Rao, Alexander Aruin
Instability and balance impairment is common in patients with diabetic sensory neuropathy placing them at a higher risk of falling when performing more challenging daily tasks. The report describes the results of a dynamic balance tests of a subject with neuropathy due to the long-standing diabetes. The Computerized Dynamic Posturography was performed with and without ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs). The apparatus provided six test conditions designed to systematically manipulate vestibular, somatosensory, or visual information...
1999: Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics: JPO
Andrew Gorlin, Joseph M Hoxworth, William Pavlicek, Christopher A Thunberg, David Seamans
Vertigo induced by exposure to the magnetic field of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner is a well-known phenomenon within the radiology community but is not widely appreciated by other clinical specialists. Here, we describe a case of an anesthetist experiencing acute vertigo while providing sedation to a patient undergoing a 3 Tesla MRI scan. After discussing previous reports, and the evidence surrounding MRI-induced vertigo, we review potential etiologies that include the effects of both static and time-varying magnetic fields on the vestibular apparatus...
2015: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
Laurens Witter, Chris I De Zeeuw
The cerebellum plays an important role in the coordination and refinement of movements and cognitive processes. Recently, it has been shown that the main output neuron of the cerebellar cortex, i.e., the Purkinje cell, can show a different firing behavior dependent on its intrinsic electrophysiological properties. Yet, to what extent a different nature of mossy fiber inputs can influence the firing behavior of cerebellar cortical neurons remains to be elucidated. Here, we compared the firing rate and regularity of mossy fibers and neurons in two different regions of cerebellar cortex...
October 2015: Cerebellum
O V Kubriak, E V Isakova, S V Kotov, M V Romanova, S S Grokhovskiĭ
OBJECTIVES: To develop a technique of physical rehabilitation of stroke based on the gradual increase of motor/cognitive loading using biofeedback to supporting reaction based on stabilometry with a focus on the changes in peripheral afferentation with the help of an axial loading suit and simple non-apparatus vestibular and respiratory exercises. The efficacy of standard scheme of restorative treatment and a new technique of optimized complex rehabilitative treatment of acute ischemic stroke in the vertebral-basilar system was compared...
2014: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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