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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921139/reduced-inattention-and-hyperactivity-and-improved-cognition-after-marine-oil-extract-pcso-524%C3%A2-supplementation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-clinical-and-subclinical-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo
#1
James D Kean, Jerome Sarris, Andrew Scholey, Richard Silberstein, Luke A Downey, Con Stough
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the effects of a marine oil extract (PCSO-524®) on inattention, hyperactivity, mood and cognition in children and adolescents. PCSO-524® is a standardised lipid extract of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel and is an inflammatory modulator that inhibits the 5'-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways and decreases concentrations of the pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (AA). METHODS: PCSO-524® or a matched placebo was administered for 14 weeks to 144 participants (123 males/21 females; mean age 8...
December 5, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919362/the-effect-of-omega-3-carboxylic-acids-on-apolipoprotein-ciii-containing-lipoproteins-in-severe-hypertriglyceridemia
#2
Allyson M Morton, Jeremy D Furtado, Jane Lee, William Amerine, Michael H Davidson, Frank M Sacks
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein subspecies containing apoCIII adversely affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; for example, low density lipoprotein (LDL) with apoCIII is a stronger CVD predictor than LDL without apoCIII. The Epanova for Lowering Very High Triglycerides (EVOLVE) trial showed that Epanova (omega-3 carboxylic acids [OM3-CA]) significantly lowered TG and apoCIII but raised LDL-C. However, it is unknown what subspecies of LDL were affected by treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine how lipoprotein subspecies are affected by omega-3 fatty acid treatment, we studied the effect of OM3-CA on apoCIII concentrations in high density lipoprotein (HDL), LDL, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and on the concentrations of subspecies of HDL, LDL, and VLDL that contain or do not contain apoCIII...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917381/arachidonoyl-specific-diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AE%C2%B5-and-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#3
REVIEW
Tomoyuki Nakano, Hirooki Matsui, Toshiaki Tanaka, Yasukazu Hozumi, Ken Iseki, Kaneyuki Kawamae, Kaoru Goto
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises an interconnected membrane network, which is made up of lipid bilayer and associated proteins. This organelle plays a central role in the protein synthesis and sorting. In addition, it represents the synthetic machinery of phospholipids, the major constituents of the biological membrane. In this process, phosphatidic acid (PA) serves as a precursor of all phospholipids, suggesting that PA synthetic activity is closely associated with the ER function. One enzyme responsible for PA synthesis is diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) that phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to PA...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917321/effects-of-arachidonic-acid-supplementation-in-maturation-diet-on-female-reproductive-performance-and-larval-quality-of-giant-river-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#4
Chanpim Kangpanich, Jarunan Pratoomyot, Nisa Siranonthana, Wansuk Senanan
The giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is one of the most farmed freshwater crustaceans in the world. Its global production has been stalling in the past decade due to the inconsistent quality of broodstock and hatchery-produced seeds. A better understanding of the role of nutrition in maturation diets will help overcome some of the production challenges. Arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6, ARA) is a fatty acid precursor of signaling molecules important for crustacean reproduction, prostaglandins E and F of the series II (PGE2 and PGF2α), and is often lacking in maturation diets of shrimp and prawns...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916942/evidence-of-bioactive-compounds-from-vernonia-polyanthes-leaves-with-topical-anti-inflammatory-potential
#5
Kamilla C M Rodrigues, Lucas A Chibli, Bruna C S Santos, Vanessa S Temponi, Nícolas C C Pinto, Elita Scio, Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira, Maria S Alves, Orlando V Sousa
Vernonia polyanthes Less. (Asteraceae), popularly known as "assa-peixe", is a plant species used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of cutaneous damage, cicatrization, inflammation, and rheumatism. Based on these ethnopharmacological findings, the current study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the hexane (HEVP) and ethyl acetate (EAEVP) extracts from V. polyanthes leaves in experimental models of skin inflammation. Chemical characterization was carried out by HPLC-UV/DAD analysis...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916511/liqustri-lucidi-fructus-inhibits-hepatic-injury-and-functions-as-an-antioxidant-by-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#6
Hye Lim Seo, Su Youn Baek, Eun Hye Lee, Ju-Hee Lee, Seul-Gi Lee, Kwang-Youn Kim, Mi Hee Jang, Min-Hui Park, Joung-Hee Kim, Keun-Jun Kim, Hyeong Sik Lee, Soon-Cheol Ahn, Jong Rok Lee, Sook Jahr Park, Sang Chan Kim, Young Woo Kim
Medicinal herbs are used to treat or prevent various diseases, and function to regulate protective mechanisms as nutraceuticals. Fructus Ligustri lucidi is the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum and has been used for its tonic effects on the liver. This study was designed to examine the effects of Fructus Ligustri lucidi water extract (FLL) against severe oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in vivo and in vitro and to elucidate its cellular mechanisms of action. Treatment of HepG2 cells with arachidonic acid (AA) + iron successfully induced oxidative stress and apoptosis, as indicated by depletion of glutathione, formation of ROS, increases in mitochondrial membrane permeability (MMP), and altered expression of apoptosis-related proteins, such as procaspase-3 and Bcl-xL...
December 1, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916115/highly-sensitive-and-specific-derivatization-strategy-to-profile-and-quantitate-eicosanoids-by-uplc-ms-ms
#7
Ting Hu, Cai Tie, Zhe Wang, Jin-Lan Zhang
Eicosanoids are signaling molecules mainly oxidized from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). They have attracted increasing attention from the scientists attributing to their essential physiological functions. However, their quantification have long been challenged by the low abundance, high structure similarity, poor stability and limited ionization efficiency. In this paper, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) strategy was developed for the comprehensive profiling of more than 60 eicosanoids based on an efficient derivatization reagent 2,4-bis(diethylamino)-6-hydrazino-1,3,5-triazine (T3) and general multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) parameters...
January 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914518/delta-6-desaturase-activity-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-preterm-infants
#8
Nobuhiko Nagano, Tomoo Okada, Kazunori Kayama, Shigeharu Hosono, Yohei Kitamura, Shigeru Takahashi
Term neonates have high delta-6 desaturase (D6D) activity, which is important for regulating polyunsaturated fatty acid's (PUFA) nutritional status. The aim was to investigate D6D activity in preterm infants and its postnatal changes. Forty-three appropriate-for-gestational-age infants were included. PUFA in red blood cells was analyzed at birth and at one, six, and 12 months of age. D6D activity was estimated by 20:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio. At birth, preterm infants had D6D activity as high as that of term infants; D6D activity declined to about one-third at one month, then further decreased to about one-sixth at six months and remained stable until 12 months...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914513/fatty-acid-profile-in-cord-blood-of-neonates-born-to-optimally-controlled-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Pauline Léveillé, Jean-Luc Ardilouze, Jean-Charles Pasquier, Charles Deacon, Kevin Whittingstall, Mélanie Plourde
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the fatty acid profile of cord blood phospholipids (PL), cholesteryl esters (CE), triglycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: The offspring of 30 pregnant women (15 non-diabetic controls, 15 with diet- or insulin-controlled GDM) were recruited before delivery. Cord blood was collected. After lipid extraction, PL, CE, TG and NEFA were separated by thin layer chromatography and analysed by gas chromatography...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914509/effects-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-on-pufa-levels-in-red-blood-cells-and-plasma
#10
Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Annika I Ostermann, Lisa Stork, Laura Kutzner, Heike Kohrs, Theresa Greupner, Andreas Hahn, Nils Helge Schebb
INTRODUCTION: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are metabolized in a complex network of elongation, desaturation and beta oxidation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The short (1 and 3 wk), and long term (6 and 12 wk) effect of 1076mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, free of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) on (absolute) PUFA concentrations in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) of 12 healthy men (mean age 25.1±1.5 years) was investigated. RESULTS: RBC DHA concentrations significantly (p<0...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914508/determinants-of-plasma-phospholipid-arachidonic-and-docosahexaenoic-acids-among-adolescent-girls-in-central-mozambique-possible-roles-of-iron-and-zinc
#11
Marja Mutanen, Riitta Freese, Bengt Vessby, Liisa Korkalo, Kerry Selvester, Sangita Kulathinal
We explored if linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) will be efficiently converted to arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the adolescent girls (aged 15-18 years, n=145) in Mozambique consuming habitually low fat diet and if low iron and/or zinc status predicts the conversion. Total fat, LA and ALA intakes were 15-19%, 1.2-3.5% and 0.2-0.3% of energy, respectively in three areas. Iron and zinc intake varied between 9.6-12.3mg/day and 3.6-5.0mg/day. Significant negative association of plasma AA was found with plasma LA and ALA and significant positive association with serum ferritin...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913744/effects-of-atorvastatin-on-adp-arachidonic-acid-collagen-and-epinephrine-induced-platelet-aggregation
#12
Lei Zhao, Demin Liu, Bin Liu, Haijuan Hu, Wei Cui
OBJECTIVE: Atorvastatin reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events. However, the effects of atorvastatin on platelet aggregation are unknown. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 126 healthy volunteers. Prepared isolated platelet suspensions were adjusted with saline to three different concentrations of 100 × 10(9), 300 × 10(9), and 600 × 10(9) platelets/L. Platelet samples were incubated with atorvastatin (10(-7 )mol/L, 10(-6 )mol/L or 10(-5 )mol/L), and stimulated with ADP (10 µmol/L), arachidonic acid (0...
December 2, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913621/identification-of-hepatic-lysophosphatidylcholine-acyltransferase-3-as-a-novel-target-gene-regulated-by-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE
#13
Amar Bahadur Singh, Jingwen Liu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) regulates many genes involved in lipid metabolism. Hepatic lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) has critical functions in triglycerides transport and ER stress response due to its unique ability to catalyze the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids. Previous studies identified liver X receptor as the transcription factor controlling LPCAT3 expression in mouse liver tissue. Here we show that the hepatic LPCAT3 gene is transcriptionally regulated by PPARδ...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913583/epigenetic-control-of-microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1-by-hdac-mediated-recruitment-of-p300
#14
Christian Fork, Andrea E Vasconez, Patrick Janetzko, Carlo Angioni, Yannick Schreiber, Nerea Ferreiros, Gerd Geisslinger, Matthias S Leisegang, Dieter Steinhilber, Ralf P Brandes
: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most widely used medicine to treat pain, fever, inflammation and to inhibit platelet function. Understanding the expression regulation of enzymes of the prostanoid pathway is of great medical relevance. Histone acetylation crucially controls gene expression. We set out to identify the impact of histone deacetylases (HDACs) on the generation of prostanoids and examine the consequences on vascular function. Inhibition of HDACs (HDACi) with the pan HDAC inhibitor SAHA attenuated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) generation in the murine vasculature and in human vascular smooth muscle cells...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908762/bioactive-chemical-constituents-from-the-root-bark-of-morus-australis
#15
Yu-Ren Liao, Ping-Chung Kuo, Wei-Jern Tsai, Guan-Jhong Huang, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Tian-Shung Wu
Two new pyranoflavonoids, morustralins A (1) and B (2), a new natural benzene derivative, one benzenoid (Z)-1-hydroxy-4-(2-nitroethenyl)benzene (3), and thirty known compounds were isolated and characterized from the root bark of Morus australis. The structures of the new compounds were established from spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses. Ten isolates (1-10) were examined for inhibitory effects on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, arachidonic acid (AA)-, and platelet-aggregating factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation...
November 17, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908668/associations-between-urinary-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-and-air-pollutants-observed-in-a-randomized-crossover-exposure-to-steel-mill-emissions
#16
Guillaume Pelletier, Marc Rigden, Lisa Marie Kauri, Robin Shutt, Mamun Mahmud, Sabit Cakmak, Premkumari Kumarathasan, Errol M Thomson, Renaud Vincent, Gayle Broad, Ling Liu, Robert Dales
The effects of industrial air pollution on human health have not been as thoroughly investigated as those of urban air pollution which originates mostly from automotive transport. To better assess the health impacts of point sources of industrial air pollution, a randomized crossover exposure study was conducted. Sixty one young and healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to spend five consecutive eight-hour days near a steel mill or at a location five kilometres away. After a nine or sixteen-day washout period, volunteers spent another five consecutive days at the second site...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907814/platelet-function-one-and-three-months-after-coronary-bypass-surgery-in-relation-to-once-or-twice-daily-dosing-of-acetylsalicylic-acid
#17
Torbjörn Ivert, Magnus Dalén, Charlotte Ander, Ragnhild Stålesen, Per Näsman, Marie Lordkipanidzé, Paul Hjemdahl
INTRODUCTION: Current guidelines recommend acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to reduce thrombotic vein graft occlusion. The optimal dosage of ASA is not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients undergoing elective CABG were randomized to receive either ASA 75mg or 160mg once daily (OD) or 75mg twice daily (BID) after the operation. Platelet function testing was performed before, and one and three months after the operation...
November 21, 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900261/targeting-the-endocannabinoid-cb1-receptor-system-for-treating-obesity-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#18
Ibrahim Knani, Brian J Earley, Shiran Udi, Alina Nemirovski, Rivka Hadar, Asaad Gammal, Resat Cinar, Harry J Hirsch, Yehuda Pollak, Itai Gross, Talia Eldar-Geva, Daniela P Reyes-Capo, Joan C Han, Andrea M Haqq, Varda Gross-Tsur, Rachel Wevrick, Joseph Tam
OBJECTIVE: Extreme obesity is a core phenotypic feature of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Among numerous metabolic regulators, the endocannabinoid (eCB) system is critically involved in controlling feeding, body weight, and energy metabolism, and a globally acting cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) blockade reverses obesity both in animals and humans. The first-in-class CB1R antagonist rimonabant proved effective in inducing weight loss in adults with PWS. However, it is no longer available for clinical use because of its centrally mediated, neuropsychiatric, adverse effects...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898730/plasma-lipid-profiling-of-patients-with-chronic-ocular-complications-caused-by-stevens-johnson-syndrome-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis
#19
Kosuke Saito, Mayumi Ueta, Keiko Maekawa, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita, Yoshiro Saito
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and its severe variant, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are drug-induced acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reactions of the skin and mucous membranes, including the ocular surface. Even after recovery from skin symptoms, some SJS/TEN patients continue to suffer with severe ocular complications (SOCs). Therefore, this study aims to understand the pathophysiology of chronic SOCs. Because plasma lipid profiling has emerged as a useful tool to understand pathophysiological alterations in the body, we performed plasma lipid profiling of 17 patients who suffered from SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896937/effect-of-tailored-dietary-guidance-for-pregnant-women-on-nutritional-status-a-double-cohort-study
#20
Megumi Haruna, Mie Shiraishi, Masayo Matsuzaki, Yuko Yatsuki, SeonAe Yeo
This double cohort study aimed to evaluate the effect of tailored dietary guidance for pregnant women on dietary intake, nutritional status, and infant birth weight. Healthy pregnant women were recruited at an antenatal clinic during two phases over 2 years. The historical controls were analyzed a year prior to the intervention group. In both groups, data were collected at 19-26 gestational weeks (baseline) and at 34-37 gestational weeks (outcome measurement). The intervention included the following: (a) assessments of maternal dietary nutritional intake using the brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, (b) individual feedback based on the assessments of maternal nutritional status, (c) tailored guidance for a healthy diet, (d) original cooking recipes, and (e) goal sharing...
November 29, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
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