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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636510/the-balance-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-for-reducing-residual-risks-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#1
Yuji Nishizaki, Kazunori Shimada, Hiroyuki Daida
Residual risk, which cannot be prevented by statins alone, must be controlled for inhibiting the onset of coronary events. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play an important role in controlling residual risk. The Japan eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) Lipid Intervention Study demonstrated the inhibitory effect of high-purity EPA preparations on the residual risk of cardiovascular events. Omega-3 PUFAs inhibit coronary artery disease (CAD) through various actions, including triglyceride-lowering action...
March 21, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634822/the-ratio-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-to-arachidonic-acid-may-be-a-residual-risk-marker-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease-patients-receiving-treatment-with-statin-following-epa-therapy
#2
Shigemasa Tani, Ken Nagao, Kenji Kawauchi, Tsukasa Yagi, Wataru Atsumi, Rei Matsuo, Atsushi Hirayama
BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship between the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) level, a major residual risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), in statin-treated CAD patients following EPA therapy. METHODS: We conducted a 6-month, prospective, randomized clinical trial to investigate the effect of the additional administration of EPA on the EPA/AA ratio and the serum non-HDL-C level in stable CAD patients receiving statin treatment...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634388/mito-xenophagic-killing-of-bacteria-is-coordinated-by-a-metabolic-switch-in-dendritic-cells
#3
Nadine Radomski, Danny Kägebein, Elisabeth Liebler-Tenorio, Axel Karger, Elke Rufer, Birke Andrea Tews, Stefanie Nagel, Rebekka Einenkel, Anne Müller, Annica Rebbig, Michael R Knittler
Chlamydiae are bacterial pathogens that grow in vacuolar inclusions. Dendritic cells (DCs) disintegrate these compartments, thereby eliminating the microbes, through auto/xenophagy, which also promotes chlamydial antigen presentation via MHC I. Here, we show that TNF-α controls this pathway by driving cytosolic phospholipase (cPLA)2-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) production. AA then impairs mitochondrial function, which disturbs the development and integrity of these energy-dependent parasitic inclusions, while a simultaneous metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis promotes DC survival...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631078/evaluation-of-the-association-between-sleep-apnea-and-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-profiles-in-patients-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#4
Keisuke Nakabayashi, Kentaro Jujo, Katsumi Saito, Toshiaki Oka, Nobuhisa Hagiwara
The long-term outcome is poor in patients with sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is also known as an independent predictor for adverse clinical events. However, the profile of PUFA in sleep apnea patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still unclear. This study aimed to clarify the association between sleep apnea and PUFA profiles in patients with CAD. Two hundred seventy-four consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were screened for sleep apnea using nocturnal oximetry...
June 19, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626140/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-improves-mood-in-elderly-japanese-men
#5
Hisanori Tokuda, Toshiaki Sueyasu, Hiroshi Kawashima, Hiroshi Shibata, Yoshihiko Koga
Although several studies have reported the effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation on the mood in healthy adults, the effects of LCPUFA on elderly individuals remain unclear. Thus, we hypothesized that LCPUFA supplementation improves mood in the elderly. To address this hypothesis, 115 elderly Japanese men aged 55-64 years were assigned and randomly allocated to the LCPUFA or placebo group. Participants received 4 weeks of supplementation with LCPUFAcontaining oil (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 300 mg/day, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 100 mg/day, arachidonic acid (ARA) 120 mg/day) or a placebo oil...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624952/endocrine-functions-of-the-renal-interstitium
#6
REVIEW
Armin Kurtz
This review aims to summarize the knowledge about the sensor and endocrine response functions of resident interstitial cells of the kidney. By the production of renin, erythropoietin and arachidonate metabolites (medullipin) subsets of renal interstitial fibroblasts and pericytes in different kidney zones play a central role in salt, blood pressure and oxygen homeostasis of the body. Common to these endocrine functions is that their regulation mainly occurs by (de)recruitment of active cells.
June 17, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623974/increased-placental-phospholipase-a2-gene-expression-and-free-f2-isoprostane-levels-in-response-to-oxidative-stress-in-preeclampsia
#7
M Brien, J Larose, K Greffard, P Julien, J F Bilodeau
Vasoactive eicosanoids such as thromboxane (TX) A2 and F2-isoprostanes (F2-isoPs) were shown to be increased in the preeclamptic placenta. Only one of the 64 possible isomers of F2-isoPs derived from the oxidation of arachidonic acid was investigated in the placenta so far. F2-isoPs are released from membrane phospholipids by phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and were shown to act on the TXA2 receptor (TBXA2R). However, the PLA2 deregulated in preeclampsia (PE) remains to be determined. In this study, we analyzed the concentrations of six isomers of F2-isoPs; 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-15(R)-PGF2α, 15(R)-PGF2α, iPF2α-IV, iPF2α-VI, 5-iPF2α-VI and the concentrations of the stable metabolites of TXA2, TXB2, by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in placentas of PE (n = 17) and normotensive (n = 15) pregnancies according to the biopsy site: peri-insertion or periphery...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623397/different-effects-of-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-gla-supplementation-on-plasma-and-red-blood-cell-phospholipid-fatty-acid-composition-and-calcium-oxalate-kidney-stone-risk-factors-in-healthy-subjects-from-two-race-groups-with-different-risk-profiles-pose-questions-about
#8
Allen L Rodgers, Dalielah Jappie-Mahomed, Paul J van Jaarsveld
Fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) can influence calciuria, oxaluria and renal stone formation. In this regard, the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) and its precursor linoleic acid (LA) appears to be important. Administration of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) has been shown to increase the concentration of dihomo-gamma linoleic acid (DGLA) relative to AA indicating that it may attenuate biosynthesis of the latter. Such effects have not been investigated in race groups having difference stone occurrence rates...
June 16, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622139/immune-regulation-and-functions-of-eicosanoid-lipid-mediators
#9
Julia Esser-von Bieren
Bioactive lipids regulate most physiological processes, from digestion to blood flow and from hemostasis to labor. Lipid mediators are also involved in multiple pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity or asthma. The pathological roles of lipid mediators are based on their intricate involvement in the immune system, which comprises source and target cells of these mediators. Based on their biosynthetic origin, bioactive lipids can be grouped into different classes (e.g. sphingolipids, formed from sphingosine or eicosanoids, formed from arachidonic acid)...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620819/cellular-growth-and-tube-formation-of-htr8-svneo-trophoblast-effects-of-exogenously-added-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-and-its-inhibitor
#10
Sanjay Basak, Arnab Sarkar, Santosh Mathapati, Asim K Duttaroy
Adequate placental angiogenesis is critical for the establishment of the placental circulation and thus for normal feto-placental growth and development. Fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP4) plays a pro-angiogenic role in endothelial cells; however, very little information is available in placental first trimester trophoblast cells. Here we report that exogenously added FABP4 (exo-FABP4) stimulated tube formation (as a measure of in vitro angiogenesis) in HTR8/SVneo trophoblastic cells. HTR-8/SVneo cells were incubated in the presence of exogenously added FABP4 at different concentrations and time points...
June 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616567/cyp2c19-variants-and-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acids-in-patients-with-microvascular-angina
#11
Tomonori Akasaka, Daisuke Sueta, Yuichiro Arima, Noriaki Tabata, Seiji Takashio, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Kenichi Tsujita, Sunao Kojima, Koichi Kaikita, Ayami Kajiwara, Kazunori Morita, Kentaro Oniki, Junji Saruwatari, Kazuko Nakagawa, Seiji Hokimoto
BACKGROUND: Categorization as a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 poor metabolizer (PM) is reported to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are metabolites of arachidonic acid by CYP2C19 epoxygenases and anti-inflammatory properties, especially in microvascular tissues. We examined the impact of CYP2C19 polymorphisms and EETs on the patients with microvascular angina (MVA) caused by coronary microvascular dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined CYP2C19 genotypes in patients with MVA (n = 81)...
June 2017: IJC Heart & Vasculature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614821/thromboxane-formation-assay-to-identify-high-on-treatment-platelet-reactivity-to-aspirin
#12
Annemarie Mohring, Kerstin Piayda, Lisa Dannenberg, Saif Zako, Theresa Schneider, Kirsten Bartkowski, Bodo Levkau, Tobias Zeus, Malte Kelm, Thomas Hohlfeld, Amin Polzin
Platelet inhibition by aspirin is indispensable in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, impaired aspirin antiplatelet effects (high on-treatment platelet reactivity [HTPR]) are frequent. This is associated with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular events. The current gold standard to evaluate platelet hyper-reactivity despite aspirin intake is the light-transmittance aggregometry (LTA). However, pharmacologically, the most specific test is the measurement of arachidonic acid (AA)-induced thromboxane (TX) B2 formation...
June 15, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614260/abnormal-octadeca-carbon-fatty-acids-distribution-in-erythrocyte-membrane-phospholipids-of-patients-with-gastrointestinal-tumor
#13
Shaohui Lin, Tianyu Li, Xifang Liu, Shihu Wei, Zequn Liu, Shimin Hu, Yali Liu, Hongzhuan Tan
Fatty acid (FA) composition is closely associated with tumorigenesis and neoplasm metastasis. This study was designed to investigate the differences of phospholipid FA (PLFA) composition in erythrocyte and platelet cell membranes in both gastrointestinal (GI) tumor patients and healthy controls.In this prospective study, 50 GI tumor patients and 33 healthy volunteers were recruited between the years 2013 and 2015. Blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers and patients, and FA composition was assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), and data were analyzed by multifactor regression analysis...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613869/effect-of-different-elicitors-and-pre-harvest-day-application-on-the-content-of-phytochemicals-and-antioxidant-activity-of-butterhead-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-var-capitata-produced-under-hydroponic-conditions
#14
Jesus Omar Moreno-Escamilla, Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla, Laura A de la Rosa, José Alberto Núñez-Gastélum, Gustavo A González-Aguilar, Joaquin Rodrigo-Garcia
The effect of four elicitors on phytochemical content in two varieties of lettuce was evaluated. The best pre-harvest day for application of each elicitor was chosen. Solutions of arachidonic acid (AA), salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MJ), and Harpin protein (HP) were applied by foliar aspersion on lettuce leaves while cultivated under hydroponic conditions. Application of elicitors was done at 15, 7, 5, 3 or 1 day before harvest. Green lettuce showed the highest increase in phytochemical content when elicitors (AA, SA, and HP) were applied on day 7 before harvest...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611577/the-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-lipoxygenase-and-cyclo-oxygenase-inhibitors-in-inflammation-induced-human-fetal-glia-cells-and-the-a%C3%AE-degradation-capacity-of-human-fetal-astrocytes-in-an-ex-vivo-assay
#15
Rea Pihlaja, Merja Haaparanta-Solin, Juha O Rinne
Chronic inflammation is a common phenomenon present in the background of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The arachidonic acid pathway overproduces proinflammatory eicosanoids during these states and glial cells in the brain gradually lose their vital functions of protecting and supporting neurons. In this study, the role of different key enzymes of the eicosanoid pathway mediating inflammatory responses was examined in vitro and ex vivo using human fetal glial cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606584/impact-of-a-modified-anti-thrombotic-guideline-on-stroke-in-children-supported-with-a-pediatric-ventricular-assist-device
#16
David N Rosenthal, Chacy A Lancaster, Doff B McElhinney, Sharon Chen, MaryLyn Stein, Aileen Lin, Lan Doan, Jenna M Murray, Mary Alice Gowan, Katsuhide Maeda, Olaf Reinhartz, Christopher S Almond
BACKGROUND: Stroke is the most feared complication associated with the Berlin Heart EXCOR pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD), the most commonly used VAD in children, and affects 1 in 3 children. We sought to determine whether a modified anti-thrombotic guideline, involving more intense platelet inhibition and less reliance on platelet function testing, is associated with a lower incidence of stroke. METHODS: All children supported with the EXCOR at Stanford from 2009 to 2014 were divided into 2 cohorts based on the primary anti-thrombotic guideline used to prevent pump thrombosis: (1) the Edmonton Anti-thrombotic Guideline (EG) cohort, which included children implanted before September 2012 when dual anti-platelet therapy was used with doses titrated to Thromboelastrography/PlateletMapping (TEG/PM); and (2) the Stanford Modified Anti-thrombotic Guideline (SG) cohort, which included children implanted on or after September 2012 when triple anti-platelet therapy was used routinely and where doses were uptitrated to high, weight-based dosing targets, with low-dose steroids administered as needed for inflammation...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606571/effect-of-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-arthritic-pain-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Mozghan Abdulrazaq, Jacqueline K Innes, Philip C Calder
OBJECTIVES: Pain is a significant problem in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is associated with prostaglandins derived from the ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid. The ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have been shown to reduce inflammation, with some studies showing clinical improvements in RA. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of ω-3 PUFAs on arthritic pain. METHOD: A systematic literature review of ω-3 PUFAs and pain associated with RA was performed up to December 2015...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605735/relationship-between-changes-in-fatty-acid-composition-of-the-erythrocyte-membranes-and-fatty-acid-intake-during-pregnancy-in-pregnant-japanese-women
#18
Yohei Kitamura, Chieko Kogomori, Hirokazu Hamano, Iwao Maekawa, Takashi Shimizu, Seigo Shiga
OBJECTIVE: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important nutrient required by pregnant women and fetuses. Several studies suggest that fatty acid composition changes during pregnancy. However, the association of longitudinal changes in erythrocyte fatty acid composition and dietary fatty acid intake during pregnancy is not well understood. We assessed the relationship between fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membranes and fatty acid intake at each trimester in pregnant Japanese women...
June 9, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605665/the-effects-of-fatty-acid-composition-on-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-function-in-mouse-models-of-diet-induced-obesity
#19
Son Nguyen, Dan Shao, Loreta C Tomasi, Alyssa Braun, Ana Barbosa Marcondes de Mattos, Yong Seon Choi, Outi Villet, Nathan Roe, Carliana R Halterman, Rong Tian, Stephen C Kolwicz
High-fat diets (HFDs) are used frequently to study the development of cardiac dysfunction in animal models of obesity and diabetes. However, impairment in systolic function, often reported as declining ejection fraction, may not consistently occur in a given time frame which could be contributable to a variety of factors within the experimental design. One major factor may be the amounts of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) that are present in the diet. To determine whether the FA content and composition were critical determinants in the development of cardiac dysfunction in response to high-fat feeding, we fed adult, male mice Western diet (45% fat, 60% saturated), Surwit diet (60% fat, 90% saturated), milk-fat-based diet (60% fat, 60% saturated) or high-fat Western diet (HFWD, 60% fat, 32% saturated) for 12 weeks...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602647/state-marker-properties-of-niacin-skin-sensitivity-in-ultra-high-risk-groups-for-psychosis-an-optical-reflection-spectroscopy-study
#20
Kerstin Langbein, Ulrike Schmidt, Stephan Schack, Natalie J Biesel, Maria Rudzok, G Paul Amminger, Maximus Berger, Heinrich Sauer, Stefan Smesny
Impaired niacin sensitivity (NS) is one of the most replicated findings in untreated schizophrenia, and reflects a disturbance of prostaglandin-mediated pathways in association with deregulated arachidonic acid metabolism, pro-inflammatory activation, and vasomotor function. In ultra-high risk individuals (UHR) increased NS was reported recently, pointing towards dynamic alterations of the underlying pathomechanisms in the period preceding psychosis. However, these characteristics are still unresolved in the diverse UHR groups...
June 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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