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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676492/the-effect-of-n-6-n-3-fatty-acid-ratios-on-broiler-breeder-performance-hatchability-fatty-acid-profile-and-reproduction
#1
A Khatibjoo, H Kermanshahi, A Golian, M Zaghari
This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary omega6 (n-6) to omega3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratios on performance and reproduction of broiler breeders. In experiment 1, 400 females and 40 males (30 week age) of Ross 308 broiler breeder (20 females and two males in each pen) were randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). As a measure of hatchability, fertility of eggs and general incubation traits, 1,200 eggs (60 eggs from each pen) were collected and incubated for 21 days and embryo liver and brain fatty acid profile in 14 and 21 days were determined...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674269/alterations-of-eicosanoids-and-related-mediators-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#2
Dongfang Wang, Xiaoyu Sun, Jingjing Yan, Biao Ren, Bing Cao, Qingbin Lu, Yaqiong Liu, Jing Zeng, Ninghua Huang, Qing Xie, Haiwei Gu, Jingyu Wang
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder. Currently, its molecular pathogenesis remains largely unknown, and no reliable test for diagnosis and therapy monitoring is available. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derived eicosanoid signaling abnormalities are relevant to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, comprehensive analysis of eicosanoids and related mediators for schizophrenia is very rare. In this study, we applied a targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based method to monitor 158 PUFAs, eicosanoids and related mediators from enzyme-dependent or independent pathways, in the serum samples of 109 healthy controls, and 115 schizophrenia patients at baseline and after an 8-week period of antipsychotic therapy...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671003/effects-of-nitrogen-and-phosphorous-stress-on-the-formation-of-high-value-lc-pufas-in-porphyridium-cruentum
#3
Hao Hu, Hou-Feng Wang, Lin-Lin Ma, Xiao-Fei Shen, Raymond Jianxiong Zeng
This study systematically examined the effect of nitrogen and phosphorous stress on the formation of linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (ARA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in Porphyridium cruentum gy-h56. P. cruentum was cultivated in six different media conferring different conditions of nitrogen (N) sufficiency/deprivation and phosphorous (P) sufficiency/limitation/deprivation. Over a 16-day cultivation process, the dry-weight content, proportion of total fatty acids (TFAs), and the concentration in the medium of linoleic acid (LA) were greatly improved by a maximum of 2...
April 18, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670527/comparative-metabolomics-analysis-of-cervicitis-in-human-patients-and-a-phenol-mucilage-induced-rat-model-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Xiaoyong Zhang, Junmao Li, Bin Xie, Bei Wu, Shuangxia Lei, Yun Yao, Mingzhen He, Hui Ouyang, Yulin Feng, Wen Xu, Shilin Yang
Cervicitis is an exceedingly common gynecological disorder that puts women at high risk of sexually transmitted infections and induces a series of reproductive system diseases. This condition also has a significant impact on quality of life and is commonly misdiagnosed in clinical practice due to its complicated pathogenesis. In the present study, we performed non-targeted plasma metabolomics analysis of cervicitis in both plasma samples obtained from human patients and plasma samples from a phenol mucilage induced rat model of cervicitis, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670183/anticoagulant-mechanism-pharmacological-activity-and-assessment-of-preclinical-safety-of-a-novel-fibrin-ogen-olytic-serine-protease-from-leaves-of-leucas-indica
#5
Debananda Gogoi, Neha Arora, Bhargab Kalita, Rahul Sarma, Taufikul Islam, Sidhhartha S Ghosh, Rajlakshmi Devi, Ashis K Mukherjee
The harnessing of medicinal plants containing a plethora of bioactive molecules may lead to the discovery of novel, potent and safe therapeutic agents to treat thrombosis-associated cardiovascular diseases. A 35 kDa (m/z 34747.5230) serine protease (lunathrombase) showing fibrin(ogen)olytic activity and devoid of N- and O- linked oligosaccharides was purified from an extract of aqueous leaves from L. indica. The LC-MS/MS analysis, de novo sequencing, secondary structure, and amino acid composition determination suggested the enzyme's novel characteristic...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668864/bovine-embryo-elongation-is-altered-due-to-maternal-fatty-acid-supplementation
#6
K Giller, B Drews, J Berard, H Kienberger, M Schmicke, J Frank, B Spanier, H Daniel, G Geisslinger, S E Ulbrich
The pre-implantation period is prone to embryonic losses in bovine. Embryo-maternal communication is crucial to support embryo development. Thereby, factors of the uterine fluid (UF) are of specific importance. The maternal diet can affect the UF composition. Since omega 3 fatty acids (omega 3 FA) are considered to be beneficial for reproduction, we investigated if dietary omega 3 FA affected factors in the UF related to embryo elongation. Angus heifers (n = 37) were supplemented with either 450 g of rumen-protected fish oil (omega 3 FA) or sunflower oil (omega 6 FA) for a period of 8 weeks...
April 12, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667460/clinical-utility-of-remote-platelet-function-measurement-using-p-selectin-assessment-of-aspirin-clopidogrel-and-prasugrel-and-bleeding-disorders
#7
Philip M Bath, Jane May, Stan Heptinstall
Vascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke are associated with increased platelet function whilst the risk of recurrence is reduced by antiplatelet agents such as aspirin, clopidogrel, and prasugrel. However, some patients exhibit high platelet reactivity, especially with clopidogrel. Existing platelet function tests may not be ideal in that they can be expensive, are often time consuming, and measurements must be made near to the patient and within a few hours of blood collection. Platelet activation leads to translocation of P-selectin from alpha-granules to the cell surface...
April 18, 2018: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665872/maternal-intake-of-omega-3-and-omega-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-mid-pregnancy-is-inversely-associated-with-linear-growth
#8
M Al-Hinai, A Baylin, M M Tellez-Rojo, A Cantoral, A Ettinger, M Solano-González, K E Peterson, W Perng
This study investigates relations of maternal N-3 and N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake during pregnancy with offspring body mass index (BMI), height z-score and metabolic risk (fasting glucose, C-peptide, leptin, lipid profile) during peripuberty (8-14 years) among 236 mother-child pairs in Mexico. We used food frequency questionnaire data to quantify trimester-specific intake of N-3 alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); N-6 linoleic acid and arachidonic acid (AA); and N-6:N-3 (AA:EPA+DHA), which accounts for the fact that the two PUFA families have opposing effects on physiology...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665185/laminar-shear-stress-modulates-endothelial-luminal-surface-stiffness-in-a-tissue-specific-manner
#9
Nick Merna, Andrew K Wong, Victor Barahona, Pierre Llanos, Balvir Kunar, Brisa Palikuqi, Michael Ginsberg, Shahin Rafii, Sina Y Rabbany
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cells form vascular beds in all organs and are exposed to a range of mechanical forces that regulate cellular phenotype. We sought to determine the role of endothelial luminal surface stiffness in tissue-specific mechanotransduction of laminar shear stress in microvascular mouse cells and the role of arachidonic acid in mediating this response. METHODS: Microvascular mouse endothelial cells were subjected to laminar shear stress at 4 dynes/cm2 for 12 hours in parallel plate flow chambers that enabled real-time optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements of cell stiffness...
April 17, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665040/discovery-characterization-and-clinical-utility-of-prostaglandin-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-glaucoma
#10
REVIEW
Peter G Klimko, Najam A Sharif
Topical ophthalmic formulations of analogs of the endogenous arachidonic acid cyclooxygenase metabolite, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α ), are the standard of care for treating the blinding disease glaucoma. These are the most potent and efficacious medical therapies for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP), the most important identified risk factor for disease progression. They have few side-effects and offer the convenience of once-a-day dosing. It was initially believed that endogenous PGs raised IOP and caused substantial ocular surface adverse effects...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663407/ground-beef-high-in-total-fat-and-saturated-fatty-acids-decreases-x-receptor-signaling-targets-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-men-and-women
#11
Seong H Choi, Ghazal Gharahmany, Rosemary L Walzem, Thomas H Meade, Stephen B Smith
We hypothesized that consumption of saturated fatty acids in the form of high-fat ground beef for 5 weeks would depress liver X receptor signaling targets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and that changes in gene expression would be associated with the corresponding changes in lipoprotein cholesterol (C) concentrations. Older men (n = 5, age 68.0 ± 4.6 years) and postmenopausal women (n = 7, age 60.9 ± 3.1 years) were assigned randomly to consume ground-beef containing 18% total fat (18F) or 25% total fat (25F), five patties per week for 5 weeks with an intervening 4-week washout period...
April 16, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661181/tlr4-modulates-inflammatory-gene-targets-in-the-retina-during-bacillus-cereus-endophthalmitis
#12
Phillip S Coburn, Frederick C Miller, Austin L LaGrow, Salai Madhumathi Parkunan, C Blake Randall, Rachel L Staats, Michelle C Callegan
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis is a serious intraocular infection that frequently results in significant inflammation and vision loss. Because current therapeutics are often unsuccessful in mitigating damaging inflammation during endophthalmitis, more rational targets are needed. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize specific motifs on invading pathogens and initiate the innate inflammatory response. We reported that TLR4 contributes to the robust inflammation which is a hallmark of Bacillus cereus endophthalmitis...
April 16, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660800/physicochemical-quality-fatty-acid-composition-and-sensory-analysis-of-nellore-steers-meat-fed-with-inclusion-of-condensed-tannin-in-the-diet
#13
Susana M Gesteira, Ronaldo L Oliveira, Thadeu M Silva, Rebeca D X Ribeiro, Cláudio V D M Ribeiro, Elzania S Pereira, Dante P D Lanna, Luis F B Pinto, Tiago C Rocha, Jusaline F Vieira, Leilson R Bezerra
This study was conducted to test the effect of dietary tannin on the fatty acid profile and sensory attributes of meat from Nellore steers. Thirty-two Nellore bull male were distributed in a completely randomized design and fed diets with condensed tannin extract as follows: 0, 10, 30, and 50 g/kg total DM basis. The physicochemical composition of the meat, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile, flavor, tenderness, and overall acceptance were evaluated. There was a linear decrease (P ≤ 0.05) on lipid content, tenderness, cooking weight loss, myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids in meat as tannin increased in the diets...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660629/fatty-acid-profile-of-blood-plasma-and-oviduct-and-uterine-fluid-during-early-and-late-luteal-phase-in-the-horse
#14
B Drews, V Milojevic, K Giller, S E Ulbrich
During early pregnancy, the secretome of both oviduct and uterus serves as exchange medium for signaling factors between embryo and mother and provides the embryo with nutrients. The preimplantation embryo can utilize the fatty acids (FA) therein via direct incorporation into cell membrane lipid bilayers and for energy production via β-oxidation. The FA concentration and composition of the oviduct (OF) and uterine fluid (UF) might be regulated by ovarian hormones to meet the changing needs of the growing embryo...
April 7, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657077/reprint-of-marine-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Trevor A Mori
Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA)...
April 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656108/epoxygenase-inactivation-exacerbates-diet-and-aging-associated-metabolic-dysfunction-resulting-from-impaired-adipogenesis
#16
Antoni Olona, Ximena Terra, Jeong-Hun Ko, Carme Grau-Bové, Montserrat Pinent, Anna Ardevol, Ana Garcia Diaz, Aida Moreno-Moral, Matthew Edin, David Bishop-Bailey, Darryl C Zeldin, Timothy J Aitman, Enrico Petretto, Mayte Blay, Jacques Behmoaras
OBJECTIVE: When molecular drivers of healthy adipogenesis are perturbed, this can cause hepatic steatosis. The role of arachidonic acid (AA) and its downstream enzymatic cascades, such as cyclooxygenase, in adipogenesis is well established. The exact contribution of the P450 epoxygenase pathway, however, remains to be established. Enzymes belonging to this pathway are mainly encoded by the CYP2J locus which shows extensive allelic expansion in mice. Here we aimed to establish the role of endogenous epoxygenase during adipogenesis under homeostatic and metabolic stress conditions...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649756/transcriptional-effects-of-phospholipid-fatty-acid-profile-on-rainbow-trout-liver-cells-exposed-to-methylmercury
#17
Aline Ferain, Chloé Bonnineau, Ineke Neefs, Krishna Das, Yvan Larondelle, Jean-François Rees, Cathy Debier, Benjamin Lemaire
Lipids, and their constitutive fatty acids, are key nutrients for fish health as they provide energy, maintain cell structure, are precursors of signalling molecules and act as nuclear receptor ligands. These specific roles may be of crucial importance in a context of exposure to pollutants. We recently showed that the fatty acid profile of rainbow trout liver cell phospholipids modulates sensitivity to an acute methylmercury challenge. In order to investigate mechanisms of effects, we herein tested whether specific polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may protect cells from methylmercury through decreasing intracellular mercury accumulation and/or enhancing cellular defences (e...
March 22, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642372/%C3%AF-3-and-%C3%AF-6-fatty-acids-modulate-conventional-and-atypical-protein-kinase-c-activities-in-a-brain-fatty-acid-binding-protein-dependent-manner-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#18
Marwa E Elsherbiny, Hua Chen, Marwan Emara, Roseline Godbout
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly infiltrative brain cancer with a dismal prognosis. High levels of brain fatty acid binding protein (B-FABP) are associated with increased migration/infiltration in GBM cells, with a high ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) driving B-FABP-mediated migration. Since several protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are overexpressed in GBM and linked to migration, we explored a possible relationship between B-FABP and levels/activity of different PKCs, as a function of AA and DHA supplementation...
April 6, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628049/identification-of-novel-cyp4f2-genetic-variants-exhibiting-decreased-catalytic-activity-in-the-conversion-of-arachidonic-acid-to-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid-20-hete
#19
Woo-Young Kim, Su-Jun Lee, Jungki Min, Kyung-Suk Oh, Dong-Hyun Kim, Heui-Soo Kim, Jae-Gook Shin
CYP4F2 is an enzyme involved in the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) from arachidonic acid and metabolizes vitamin K into an inactive form. Our objectives were to identify new CYP4F2 genetic variants and to characterize the functional consequences of the conversion of arachidonic acid into 20-HETE. We used direct DNA sequencing to identify a total of 20 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including four coding variants, A27V, R47C, P85A, and V433M, in 50 randomly selected subjects. Of these, A27V and P85A were new...
April 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627763/-lipid-raft-aging-in-the-human-frontal-cortex-during-nonpathological-aging-gender-influences-and-potential-implications-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Mario Díaz, Noemí Fabelo, Isidre Ferrer, Raquel Marín
Lipid rafts are highly dynamic membrane domains featured by distinctive biochemical composition and physicochemical properties compared with the surrounding plasma membrane. These microstructures are associated not only with cellular signaling and communication in normal nerve cells but also with pathological processing of amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer's disease. Using lipid rafts isolated from human frontal cortex in nondemented subjects aging 24 to 85 years, we demonstrate here that lipid structure of lipid rafts undergo significant alterations of specific lipid classes and phospholipid-bound fatty acids as brain cortex correlating with aging...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
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