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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052232/different-functional-genes-of-upper-airway-microbiome-associated-with-natural-course-of-childhood-asthma
#1
Bong-Soo Kim, Eun Lee, Min-Jung Lee, Mi-Jin Kang, Jisun Yoon, Hyun-Ju Cho, Jaehyun Park, Sungho Won, So Yeon Lee, Soo-Jong Hong
BACKGROUND: Microbial colonization of the airway plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma; however, the effect of the upper airway microbiome on childhood asthma is not fully understood. We analyzed the metagenome of airway microbiome to understand the associated role of upper airway microbiome with the natural course of childhood asthma. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children with asthma, those in asthma remission, and control groups. High-throughput sequencing was used to examine the structure and functional dynamics of the airway microbiome with respect to asthma phenotypes...
October 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050877/diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-2-of-mortierella-alpina-with-specificity-on-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-a-potential-tool-for-reconstituting-lipids-with-nutritional-value
#2
Sukanya Jeennor, Mayura Veerana, Jutamas Anantayanon, Sarocha Panchanawaporn, Chanikul Chutrakul, Kobkul Laoteng
Based on available genome sequences and bioinformatics tools, we searched for an uncharacterized open reading frame of Mortierella alpina (MaDGAT2) using diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequence (fungal DGAT type 2B) as a query. Functional characterization of the identified native and codon-optimized M. alpina genes were then performed by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain defective in synthesis of neutral lipid (NL). Lipid analysis of the yeast tranformant carrying MaDGAT2 showed that the NL biosynthesis and lipid particle formation were restored by the gene complementation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050464/anti-platelet-effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-in-addition-to-the-concomitant-aspirin-clopidogrel-or-ticagrelor-treatment
#3
Hyung Joon Joo, Ji-Young Park, Soon Jun Hong, Kyoung-Ah Kim, Seung Hoon Lee, Jae-Young Cho, Jae Hyoung Park, Cheol Woong Yu, Do-Sun Lim
Background/Aims: Although epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is found in high contents in the dried leaves of green tea, has been reported to have an anti-platelet effect, synergistic effects of EGCG in addition to current anti-platelet medications remains to be elucidated. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 40 participants who took aspirin (ASA, n = 10), clopidogrel (CPD, n = 10), ticagrelor (TCG, n = 10) and no anti-platelet medication (Control, n = 10)...
October 19, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049383/lutein-accumulates-in-subcellular-membranes-of-brain-regions-in-adult-rhesus-macaques-relationship-to-dha-oxidation-products
#4
Emily S Mohn, John W Erdman, Matthew J Kuchan, Martha Neuringer, Elizabeth J Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Lutein, a carotenoid with anti-oxidant functions, preferentially accumulates in primate brain and is positively related to cognition in humans. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is also beneficial for cognition, but is susceptible to oxidation. The present study characterized the membrane distribution of lutein in brain regions important for different domains of cognitive function and determined whether membrane lutein was associated with brain PUFA oxidation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048783/-investigation-on-silymarin-impact-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-model-based-on-arachidonic-acid-metabolism-pathway
#5
Danti Mai, Chan Yang, Yun Xue, Yan Wang, Chao Yan
The objective of this research is to investigate the suppressive effect of silymarin on vitro cell culture model of inflammatory macrophage RAW264.7 induced by Kdo2-Lipid A, and explore its mechanism based on cell metabonomics. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was used in the cell metabonomic assay to quantitative analysis of metabolites related to eicosanoids pathway. Then chemometric approaches such as principal component analysis were used to process the metabolic data...
June 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042026/identification-signaling-and-functions-of-ltb4-receptors
#6
REVIEW
Kazuko Saeki, Takehiko Yokomizo
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a lipid mediator produced from arachidonic acid, is a chemoattractant for inflammatory leukocytes. We identified two receptors for LTB4, the high-affinity receptor BLT1 and the low-affinity receptor BLT2. BLT1 is expressed in various subsets of leukocytes, and analyses of BLT1-deficient mice revealed that the LTB4/BLT1 axis enhances leukocyte recruitment to infected sites, and is involved in the elimination of pathogens. Hyperactivation of the LTB4/BLT1 axis induces acute and chronic inflammation, resulting in various inflammatory diseases...
October 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042025/biosynthesis-of-leukotriene-b4
#7
REVIEW
Min Wan, Xiao Tang, Alena Stsiapanava, Jesper Z Haeggström
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a lipid mediator derived from arachidonic acid (AA) by the sequential action of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) and LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H). It was initially recognized for its involvement in the recruitment of neutrophils and is one of the most potent chemotactic agents known to date. A large body of data has indicated that LTB4 plays a significant role in many chronic inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease, cancer and more recently, metabolic disorder...
October 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042024/the-role-of-the-ltb4-blt1-axis-in-chemotactic-gradient-sensing-and-directed-leukocyte-migration
#8
REVIEW
Bhagawat C Subramanian, Ritankar Majumdar, Carole A Parent
Directed leukocyte migration is a hallmark of inflammatory immune responses. Leukotrienes are derived from arachidonic acid and represent a class of potent lipid mediators of leukocyte migration. In this review, we summarize the essential steps leading to the production of LTB4 in leukocytes. We discuss the recent findings on the exosomal packaging and transport of LTB4 in the context of chemotactic gradients formation and regulation of leukocyte recruitment. We also discuss the dynamic roles of the LTB4 receptors, BLT1 and BLT2, in mediating chemotactic signaling in leukocytes and contrast them to other structurally related leukotrienes that bind to distinct GPCRs...
October 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039316/in-vivo-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-platelet-aggregation-activities-of-longissiminone-a-isolated-from-usnea-longissima
#9
- Azizuddin, Saima Imran, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary
Secondary metabolite, longissiminone A (1) was isolated from a lichen, Usnea longissima. It was screened for its' in vivo anti-inflammatroy and anti-platelet aggregation activities. Compound 1 showed moderate in vivo anti-inflammatory activity as well as moderately active against the aggregation induced by arachidonic acid at different doses.
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035365/omega-3-fatty-acid-epoxides-are-autocrine-mediators-that-control-the-magnitude-of-ige-mediated-mast-cell-activation
#10
Yuta Shimanaka, Nozomu Kono, Yoshitaka Taketomi, Makoto Arita, Yoshimichi Okayama, Yuki Tanaka, Yasumasa Nishito, Tatsuki Mochizuki, Hiroyuki Kusuhara, Alexander Adibekian, Benjamin F Cravatt, Makoto Murakami, Hiroyuki Arai
Critical to the function of mast cells in immune responses including allergy is their production of lipid mediators, among which only omega-6 (ω-6) arachidonate-derived eicosanoids have been well characterized. Here, by employing comprehensive lipidomics, we identify omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid epoxides as new mast cell-derived lipid mediators and show that they are produced by PAF-AH2, an oxidized-phospholipid-selective phospholipase A2. Genetic or pharmacological deletion of PAF-AH2 reduced the steady-state production of ω-3 epoxides, leading to attenuated mast cell activation and anaphylaxis following FcɛRI cross-linking...
October 9, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035123/physiopathology-and-genetics-in-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#11
Gandhi F Pavón-Romero, Fernando Ramírez-Jiménez, Marco Alejandro Roldán-Alvarez, Luis M Terán, Ramcés Falfán-Valencia
INTRODUCTION: Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a clinical entity characterized by hypersensitivity to aspirin leading to asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasosinusal polyposis. The pathophysiology of the disease involves disruption at the level of arachidonic acid metabolism. Therefore, genetic association studies have been focused on the genes coding this pathway. As other mechanisms involved in the genesis of the disease were elucidated, the corresponding genes were also explored...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034544/cyp2u1-activity-is-altered-by-missense-mutations-in-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia-56
#12
Christelle M Durand, Laura Dhers, Christelle Tesson, Alessandra Tessa, Laetitia Fouillen, Stéphanie Jacqueré, Laure Raymond, Isabelle Coupry, Giovanni Benard, Frédéric Darios, Khalid H El-Hachimi, Guja Astrea, François Rivier, Guillaume Banneau, Claire Pujol, Didier Lacombe, Alexandra Durr, Patrick J Babin, Filippo M Santorelli, Nicolas Pietrancosta, Jean-Luc Boucher, Daniel Mansuy, Giovanni Stevanin, Cyril Goizet
Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is an inherited disorder of the central nervous system mainly characterized by gradual spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. SPG56 is a rare autosomal recessive early onset complicated form of HSP caused by mutations in CYP2U1. The CYP2U1 enzyme was shown to catalyze the hydroxylation of arachidonic acid. Here, we report two further SPG56 families carrying 3 novel CYP2U1 missense variants and the development of an in vitro biochemical assay to determine the pathogenicity of missense variants of uncertain clinical significance...
October 16, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033952/essential-role-for-ethanolamine-plasmalogen-hydrolysis-in-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-priming-of-macrophages-for-enhanced-arachidonic-acid-release
#13
Luis Gil-de-Gómez, Alma M Astudillo, Patricia Lebrero, María A Balboa, Jesús Balsinde
Due to their high content in esterified arachidonic acid (AA), macrophages provide large amounts of eicosanoids during innate immune reactions. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a poor trigger of AA mobilization in macrophages but does have the capacity to prime these cells for greatly increased AA release upon subsequent stimulation. In this work, we have studied molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. By using mass spectrometry-based lipidomic analyses, we show in this work that LPS-primed zymosan-stimulated macrophages exhibit an elevated consumption of a particular phospholipid species, i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032841/circulating-fatty-acids-in-relation-to-alcohol-consumption-cross-sectional-results-from-a-cohort-of-60-year-old-men-and-women
#14
F Laguzzi, U Risérus, M Marklund, M Vikström, P Sjögren, B Gigante, Z D Alsharari, M-L Hellénius, T Cederholm, P Frumento, U de Faire, K Leander
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol consumption is considered to affect circulating fatty acids (FAs) but knowledge about specific associations is limited. We aimed to assess the relation between alcohol consumption and serum FAs in 60-year-old Swedish men and women. METHODS: In a random sample of 1917 men and 2058 women residing in Stockholm county, cross-sectional associations between different categories of alcohol consumption and FAs were assessed using linear regression; β1 coefficients with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated...
September 25, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032760/9-4-dimethylaminophenyl-2-6-7-trihydroxy-xanthene-3-one-is-a-potentially-novel-antiplatelet-drug-which-antagonizes-the-effect-of-thromboxane-a2
#15
Lenka Applova, Elma Veljovic, Samija Muratovic, Jana Karlickova, Katerina Macakova, Davorka Završnik, Luciano Saso, Kemal Duric, Premysl Mladenka
BACKGROUND: Currently used oral antiplatelet drugs are both limited and associated with risk of treatment failure/resistance. Research in this area is hence highly desired. A series of xanthene-3-ones derivatives, we had synthesized, showed us that these derivatives had antiplatelet activity. As far as we know, no research on the effects of xanthen-3-ones in this area has been done. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the antiplatelet potential of a series of synthesised 9-phenyl-xanthene-3-ones and to find the ideal structural feature(s) for antiplatelet potential and determine the mechanism of action...
October 10, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032103/mast-cells-in-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-activators-and-actions
#16
Petri T Kovanen, Ilze Bot
Mast cells are potent actors involved in inflammatory reactions in various tissues, including both in the intimal and the adventitial layers of atherosclerotic arteries. In the arterial intima, the site of atherogenesis, mast cells are activated to degranulate, and thereby triggered to release an abundance of preformed inflammatory mediators, notably histamine, heparin, neutral proteases and cytokines stored in their cytoplasmic secretory granules. Depending on the stimulus, mast cell activation may also launch prolonged synthesis and secretion of single bioactive molecules, such as cytokines and derivatives of arachidonic acid...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032079/omega-6-fatty-acid-biomarkers-and-incident-type-2-diabetes-pooled-analysis-of-individual-level-data-for-39%C3%A2-740-adults-from-20-prospective-cohort-studies
#17
Jason H Y Wu, Matti Marklund, Fumiaki Imamura, Nathan Tintle, Andres V Ardisson Korat, Janette de Goede, Xia Zhou, Wei-Sin Yang, Marcia C de Oliveira Otto, Janine Kröger, Waqas Qureshi, Jyrki K Virtanen, Julie K Bassett, Alexis C Frazier-Wood, Maria Lankinen, Rachel A Murphy, Kalina Rajaobelina, Liana C Del Gobbo, Nita G Forouhi, Robert Luben, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nick Wareham, Anya Kalsbeek, Jenna Veenstra, Juhua Luo, Frank B Hu, Hung-Ju Lin, David S Siscovick, Heiner Boeing, Tzu-An Chen, Brian Steffen, Lyn M Steffen, Allison Hodge, Gudny Eriksdottir, Albert V Smith, Vilmunder Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Claudine Berr, Catherine Helmer, Cecilia Samieri, Markku Laakso, Michael Y Tsai, Graham G Giles, Tarja Nurmi, Lynne Wagenknecht, Matthias B Schulze, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Kuo-Liong Chien, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Johanna M Geleijnse, Qi Sun, William S Harris, Lars Lind, Johan Ärnlöv, Ulf Riserus, Renata Micha, Dariush Mozaffarian
BACKGROUND: The metabolic effects of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) remain contentious, and little evidence is available regarding their potential role in primary prevention of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the associations of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of new, harmonised, individual-level analyses for the biomarkers linoleic acid and its metabolite arachidonic acid and incident type 2 diabetes...
October 11, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032044/multiplex-quantitative-analysis-of-eicosanoid-mediators-in-human-plasma-and-serum-possible-introduction-into-clinical-testing
#18
Atsushi Yasumoto, Suzumi M Tokuoka, Yoshihiro Kita, Takao Shimizu, Yutaka Yatomi
Eicosanoid mediators play important roles in maintaining the physiological and pathophysiological homeostasis in the body. Their measurements, however, are rarely performed in clinical practice. In the present study, we analyzed 30 varieties of eicosanoid mediators that were detectable in human plasma and serum collected from healthy donors, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from the viewpoint of the clinical application of the multiplex quantitation of eicosanoid mediators. Wider variety of eicosanoid mediators were detected in serum (27 out of 30) than in plasma (14 out of 30), since the serum was thought to contain lipid mediators released from activated platelets...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031400/neither-linoleic-acid-nor-arachidonic-acid-promote-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-fads2-mice-fed-low-fat-diets
#19
Katherine Suitor, George W Payne, Ousseynou Sarr, Salma Abdelmagid, Manabu T Nakamura, David Wl Ma, David M Mutch
Dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are widely perceived to promote inflammation and contribute to the development of chronic diseases. This dogma has been recently questioned due to evidence that n-6 PUFA, specifically linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), do not appear to activate inflammatory signalling pathways when consumed in moderate amounts. However, delineating the independent roles of different dietary n-6 PUFA in vivo is challenging because LA is continuously converted into AA in a pathway regulated by the fatty acid desaturase 2 (Fads2) gene...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031396/supplementing-dams-with-both-arachidonic-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-has-beneficial-effects-on-growth-and-immune-development
#20
K B Hadley, F Guimont-Desrochers, E Bailey-Hall, N Salem, K Yurko-Mauro, C J Field
Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAS) modulate immune cells in vitro and in vivo. This study investigated the effects of enriching the maternal diet with the n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs, arachidonic (20:4n-6, 0.6%wt ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, 0.32%wt DHA), or 1:1 and 2:1 ratios (ARA: DHA) on total lipids in milk, total lipids, and immunophenotypes in plasma, lymph nodes, and spleen from isolated immune cells from 28d old pups. From day 15 of gestation to day 3 pp, Sprague-Dawley dams were fed a commercial chow...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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