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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922125/key-genes-and-pathways-associated-with-inner-ear-malformation-in-sox10-p-r109w-mutation-pigs
#1
Qing-Qing Hao, Liang Li, Wei Chen, Qing-Qing Jiang, Fei Ji, Wei Sun, Hong Wei, Wei-Wei Guo, Shi-Ming Yang
SRY-box 10 (SOX10) mutation may lead to inner ear deformities. However, its molecular mechanisms on inner ear development are not clear. In this work, the inner ear morphology was investigated at different embryonic stages of the SOX10 mutation miniature porcine model with sensorineural hearing loss, and high-throughput RNA-seq and bioinformatics analyses were applied. Our results indicated that the SOX10 mutation in the miniature pigs led to an incomplete partition (IP) of the cochlea, a cystic apex caused by fusion from middle and apical turns, cochlear modiolar defects and a shortened cochlear duct...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920917/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-increases-cox-2-expression-and-pge-2-secretion-in-colonic-myofibroblasts-via-a-myd88-dependent-mechanism-during-homeostasis
#2
Gabriela Uribe, Romain Villéger, Philippe Bressollier, Rachel N Dillard, Daniel L Worthley, Timothy C Wang, Don W Powell, Maria C Urdaci, Irina V Pinchuk
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) plays a critical role in intestinal mucosal tolerance and barrier integrity. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-dependent PGE2 production involves mobilization of arachidonic acid (AA). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LbGG) is one of the most widely used probiotics reported to colonize the colonic mucosa. LbGG contributes to the protection of the small intestine against radiation injury through the repositioning of mucosal COX-2 expressing cells. However, it is unknown if LbGG modulates PGE2 production in the colonic mucosa under homeostasis and the major cellular elements involved in these processes...
June 19, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920913/variability-of-tissue-factor-activated-thromboelastography-and-whole-blood-impedance-platelet-aggregometry-in-healthy-dogs
#3
Sarah B Shropshire, Christine S Olver, Michael R Lappin
OBJECTIVE: To assess interindividual (CVG ) and intraindividual (CVI ) variability over time for results of thromboelastography (TEG) and whole-blood impedance platelet aggregometry in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: Six healthy Beagle dogs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Tissue factor (TF)-activated TEG and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced whole blood impedance platelet aggregometry were performed at 3 different time points (days 1, 4, and 6)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916257/total-synthesis-and-biological-activity-of-the-arachidonic-acid-metabolite-hemiketal-e-2
#4
Robert E Boer, Juan Antonio Giménez-Bastida, Olivier Boutaud, Somnath Jana, Claus Schneider, Gary A Sulikowski
The total synthesis of hemiketal E2 (HKE2 ) has been accomplished using a gold(I)-mediated cycloisomerization followed by oxidation of the enol ether product to introduce a unique keto-hemiketal, the core structure of HKE2 . Synthetic hemiketal E2 reproduced biosynthetically derived HKE2 in the inhibition of human platelet aggregation.
June 19, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913556/immunoregulatory-role-of-15-lipoxygenase-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-keratitis
#5
Thomas W Carion, Matthew Greenwood, Abdul Shukkur Ebrahim, Andrew Jerome, Susmit Suvas, Karsten Gronert, Elizabeth A Berger
Although autacoids primarily derived from the cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways are essential mediators of inflammation, endogenous specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) act as robust agonists of resolution. SPM biosynthesis is initiated by the conversion of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid primarily via the 12/15-LOX pathway. Although 12/15-LOX activity is prominent in the cornea, the role of SPM pathway activation during infection remains largely unknown and is the focus of the current study...
April 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913432/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-novel-insights-into-the-response-of-low-dose-benzo-a-pyrene-exposure-in-male-tilapia
#6
Reyna Cristina Colli-Dula, Xiefan Fang, David Moraga-Amador, Nacira Albornoz-Abud, Roberto Zamora-Bustillos, Ana Conesa, Omar Zapata-Perez, Diego Moreno, Emanuel Hernandez-Nuñez
Despite a wide number of toxicological studies that describe benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) effects, the metabolic mechanisms that underlie these effects in fish are largely unknown. Of great concern is the presence of BaP in aquatic systems, especially those in close proximity to human activity leading to consumption of potentially contaminated foods. BaP is a known carcinogen and it has been reported to have adverse effects on the survival, development and reproduction of fish. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a low dose of BaP can alter genes and key metabolic pathways in the liver and testis in male adult tilapia, and whether these could be associated with biological endpoints disruption...
June 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909837/catalase-related-allene-oxide-synthase-on-a-biosynthetic-route-to-fatty-acid-cyclopentenones-expression-and-assay-of-the-enzyme-and-preparation-of-the-8r-hpete-substrate
#7
Alan R Brash
Catalase-related allene oxide synthase (cAOS) is a hemoprotein that converts a specific fatty acid hydroperoxide to an unstable allene oxide intermediate at turnover rates in the order of 1000 per second. Fatty acid allene oxides are intermediates in the formation of cyclopentenone or hydrolytic products in marine systems, most notably the prostanoid-related clavulones. Although the key catalytic amino acid residues around the active site of cAOS are the same as in true catalases, cAOS does not react with hydrogen peroxide...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909440/thrombospondin-1-interactions-regulate-eicosanoid-metabolism-and-signaling-in-cancer-related-inflammation
#8
Manuel U Ramirez, Elizabeth R Stirling, Nancy J Emenaker, David D Roberts, David R Soto-Pantoja
The metabolism of arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids produces eicosanoids, a family of biologically active lipids that are implicated in homeostasis and in several pathologies that involve inflammation. Inflammatory processes mediated by eicosanoids promote carcinogenesis by exerting direct effects on cancer cells and by affecting the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, understanding how eicosanoids mediate cancer progression may lead to better approaches and chemopreventive strategies for the treatment of cancer...
June 16, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908721/time-dependent-expression-pattern-of-cytochrome-p450-epoxygenases-and-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-in-normal-human-placenta
#9
K Cizkova, Z Tauber
CYP2C and CYP2 J enzymes, commonly named as cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases, convert arachidonic acid to four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), biologically active eicosanoids with many functions in organism. EETs are rapidly hydrolysed to less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We investigated spatio-temporal expression pattern of CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2 J2 and sEH in normal human placenta by immunohistochemical method. In the villous trophoblast, CYP2C8 was the most abundant protein...
June 13, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907355/effect-of-changing-the-lipid-component-of-home-parenteral-nutrition-in-adults
#10
Sylwia Osowska, Marek Kunecki, Jacek Sobocki, Joanna Tokarczyk, Krystyna Majewska, Mohamed Omidi, Marek Radkowski, Helena L Fisk, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND: The effect of different lipid emulsions (LEs) within the parenteral nutrition (PN) regimen of adult home PN (HPN) patients is not clear. This study investigated the effect of changing adult HPN patients from a soybean oil based LE (Intralipid) to either a fish oil containing LE (providing n-3 fatty acids) (SMOFLipid) or an olive oil based LE (ClinOleic). METHODS: Thirty two adults receiving long-term HPN with Intralipid as the LE were transferred to receive either SMOFLipid (n = 13) or ClinOleic (n = 19) for 60 days...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905079/untargeted-profiling-of-concordant-discordant-phenotypes-of-high-insulin-resistance-and-obesity-to-predict-the-risk-of-developing-diabetes
#11
Anna Marco-Ramell, Sara Tulipani, Magali Palau-Rodriguez, Raul Gonzalez-Dominguez, Antonio Miñarro, Olga Jauregui, Alex Sanchez-Pla, Manuel Macias-Gonzalez, Fernando Cardona, Francisco J Tinahones, Cristina Andres-Lacueva
This study explores the metabolic profiles of concordant/discordant phenotypes of high insulin resistance (IR) and obesity. Through untargeted metabolomics (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS), we analyzed the fasting serum of subjects with high IR and/or obesity ( n = 64). An partial least-squares discriminant analysis with orthogonal signal correction followed by univariate statistics and enrichment analysis allowed exploration of these metabolic profiles. A multivariate regression method (LASSO) was used for variable selection and a predictive biomarker model to identify subjects with high IR regardless of obesity was built...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903179/-difference-of-fatty-acids-in-human-milk-bovine-milk-and-powdered-formulas-with-the-change-of-lactation-period-or-suitable-object
#12
Fan Yang, Juan Wu, Ying Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the fatty acids in human milk, bovine milk and powdered formulas with the change of lactation period and suitable object. METHODS: A total of 50 human milk samples of healthy maternal, 35 Holstein milk samples and 30 formula samples were selected. The fatty acids in different samples were tested by gas chromatography. RESULTS: 28 fatty acids were detected in powdered formulas, 30 fatty acids were detected in bovine milk and 27 fatty acids were detected in human milk...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902569/resolvin-e1-and-its-precursor-18r-hepe-restore-mitochondrial-function-in-inflammation
#13
Matthias Hecker, Natascha Sommer, Sebastian Foch, Andreas Hecker, Holger Hackstein, Martin Witzenrath, Norbert Weissmann, Werner Seeger, Konstantin Mayer
Inflammatory disorders such as sepsis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered a key factor in the pathogenesis of severe inflammation. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the impact of arachidonic acid, omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, and n-3-derived lipid mediators 18R-HEPE and resolvin (Rv) E1 on mitochondrial function in experimental inflammation. The results revealed that, in contrast to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, both 18R-HEPE and RvE1 possess anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902005/fingerprinting-of-phospholipids-molecular-species-from-human-milk-and-infant-formula-using-hilic-esi-it-tof-ms-and-discriminatory-analysis-by-principal-component-analysis
#14
Chenyu Jiang, Baokai Ma, Shuang Song, Oi-Ming Lai, Ling-Zhi Cheong
Phospholipids composition in the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fluctuates during entire lactation period in order to suit the growing needs of newborn infants. Present study elucidated and relatively quantified phospholipids molecular species extracted from human milk (HM), mature human milk (MHM) and infant formulas (with or without MFGM supplementation) using HILIC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS system. Principal component analysis was used to clarify the differences between phospholipids composition in HM, MHM and infant formulas...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899878/prostaglandins-in-the-pathogenesis-of-kidney-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Yuanyuan Li, Weiwei Xia, Fei Zhao, Zhaoying Wen, Aihua Zhang, Songming Huang, Zhanjun Jia, Yue Zhang
Prostaglandins (PGs) are important lipid mediators produced from arachidonic acid via the sequential catalyzation of cyclooxygenases (COXs) and specific prostaglandin synthases. There are five subtypes of PGs, namely PGE2, PGI2, PGD2, PGF2α, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). PGs exert distinct roles by combining to a diverse family of membrane-spanning G protein-coupled prostanoid receptors. The distribution of these PGs, their specific synthases and receptors vary a lot in the kidney. This review summarized the recent findings of PGs together with the COXs and their specific synthases and receptors in regulating renal function and highlighted the insights into their roles in the pathogenesis of various kidney diseases...
May 29, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899383/strong-and-sustained-activation-of-the-anticipatory-unfolded-protein-response-induces-necrotic-cell-death
#16
Mara Livezey, Rui Huang, Paul J Hergenrother, David J Shapiro
The endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor, the unfolded protein response (UPR), regulates intracellular protein homeostasis. While transient activation of the reactive UPR by unfolded protein is protective, prolonged and sustained activation of the reactive UPR triggers CHOP-mediated apoptosis. In the recently characterized, evolutionarily conserved anticipatory UPR, mitogenic hormones and other effectors pre-activate the UPR; how strong and sustained activation of the anticipatory UPR induces cell death was unknown...
June 13, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898596/metabolomics-reveals-how-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-reprograms-metabolites-to-cope-with-silver-ions-and-silver-nanoparticle-induced-oxidative-stress
#17
Huiling Zhang, Wenchao Du, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey, Jason C White, Arturo A Keller, Hongyan Guo, Rong Ji, Lijuan Zhao
Due to their well-known antifungal activity, the intentional use of Ag nanoparticle (NPs) as sustainable nano-fungicides is expected to increase in agriculture. However, the impacts of AgNPs on plants must be critically evaluated to guarantee their safe use in food production. In this study, 4-week-old cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants received a foliar application of AgNPs (4 or 40 mg per plant) or Ag+ (0.04 or 0.4 mg per plant) for seven days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based non-target metabolomics enabled the identification and quantification of 268 metabolites in cucumber leaves...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897843/design-characterization-and-evaluation-of-aceclofenac-loaded-eudragit-rs-100-nanoparticulate-system-for-ocular-delivery
#18
Rajesh Katara, Sameer Sachdeva, Dipak K Majumdar
The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate positively charged nanoparticles of aceclofenac for ocular delivery. The nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation method using Eudragit RS 100. The optimized nanoparticles were found to have narrow particle size range (238.9± 8 nm) with nearly spherical shape, positive zeta potential (40.3 ± 3.8). Higher entrapment efficiency of aceclofenac (94.53±1.0%) with prolonged in vitro drug release profiles was also observed. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry studies indicated decrease in crystallinity of drug within the nanoparticulate polymeric matrix...
June 13, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897665/endocannabinoid-receptor-cb2r-is-significantly-expressed-in-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease-a-pilot-study
#19
Alessia Corrado, Monica Battle, Sarah K Wise, F Eun-Hyung Lee, David M Guidot, John M DelGaudio, Samuel A Molina, Joshua M Levy
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid system represents a highly conserved, innate signaling network with direct and indirect control of eicosanoid-mediated inflammation. Activation of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) leads to decreased type 2 inflammation and reduced production of arachidonic acid (AA). Given that altered AA metabolism is associated with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), we hypothesized that expression of the CB2R gene CNR2 is increased in AERD. METHODS: Nasal polyps from consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for AERD or allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) were prospectively evaluated...
June 13, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896109/dan-lou-prescription-inhibits-foam-cell-formation-induced-by-ox-ldl-via-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-pathways
#20
Li-Na Gao, Xin Zhou, Yu-Ren Lu, Kefeng Li, Shan Gao, Chun-Quan Yu, Yuan-Lu Cui
Atherosclerosis is the major worldwide cause of mortality for patients with coronary heart disease. Many traditional Chinese medicine compound prescriptions for atherosclerosis treatment have been tried in patients. Dan-Lou prescription, which is improved from Gualou-Xiebai-Banxia decoction, has been used to treat chest discomfort (coronary atherosclerosis) for approximately 2,000 years in China. Although the anti-inflammatory activities of Dan-Lou prescription have been proposed previously, the mechanism remains to be explored...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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