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animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884458/locally-reducing-kcc2-activity-in-the-hippocampus-is-sufficient-to-induce-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Matt R Kelley, Ross A Cardarelli, Joshua L Smalley, Thomas A Ollerhead, Peter M Andrew, Nicholas J Brandon, Tarek Z Deeb, Stephen J Moss
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is the most common form of epilepsy, believed to arise in part from compromised GABAergic inhibition. The neuronal specific K+ /Cl- co-transporter 2 (KCC2) is a critical determinant of the efficacy of GABAergic inhibition and deficits in its activity are observed in mTLE patients and animal models of epilepsy. To test if reductions of KCC2 activity directly contribute to the pathophysiology of mTLE, we locally ablated KCC2 expression in a subset of principal neurons within the adult hippocampus...
June 5, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795651/functional-disruption-of-stress-modulatory-circuits-in-a-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Aynara C Wulsin, Ana Franco-Villanueva, Christian Romancheck, Rachel L Morano, Brittany L Smith, Benjamin A Packard, Steve C Danzer, James P Herman
Clinical data suggest that the neuroendocrine stress response is chronically dysregulated in a subset of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), potentially contributing to both disease progression and the development of psychiatric comorbidities such as anxiety and depression. Whether neuroendocrine dysregulation and psychiatric comorbidities reflect direct effects of epilepsy-related pathologies, or secondary effects of disease burden particular to humans with epilepsy (i.e. social estrangement, employment changes) is not clear...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774009/signaling-pathways-and-cellular-mechanisms-regulating-mossy-fiber-sprouting-in-the-development-of-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Christin M Godale, Steve C Danzer
The sprouting of hippocampal dentate granule cell axons, termed mossy fibers, into the dentate inner molecular layer is one of the most consistent findings in tissue from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Decades of research in animal models have revealed that mossy fiber sprouting creates de novo recurrent excitatory connections in the hippocampus, fueling speculation that the pathology may drive temporal lobe epileptogenesis. Conducting definitive experiments to test this hypothesis, however, has been challenging due to the difficulty of dissociating this sprouting from the many other changes occurring during epileptogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738432/neuroimmunology-research-a-report-from-the-cuban-network-of-neuroimmunology
#4
María de Los Angeles Robinson-Agramonte, Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Orlando Ramón Serrano-Barrera
Neuroimmunology can be traced back to the XIX century through the descriptions of some of the disease’s models (e.g., multiple sclerosis and Guillain Barret syndrome, amongst others). The diagnostic tools are based in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis developed by Quincke or in the development of neuroimmunotherapy with the earlier expression in Pasteur’s vaccine for rabies. Nevertheless, this field, which began to become delineated as an independent research area in the 1940s, has evolved as an innovative and integrative field at the shared edges of neurosciences, immunology, and related clinical and research areas, which are currently becoming a major concern for neuroscience and indeed for all of the scientific community linked to it...
May 8, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737364/control-of-excessive-neural-circuit-excitability-and-prevention-of-epileptic-seizures-by-endocannabinoid-signaling
#5
REVIEW
Yuki Sugaya, Masanobu Kano
Progress in research on endocannabinoid signaling has greatly advanced our understanding of how it controls neural circuit excitability in health and disease. In general, endocannabinoid signaling at excitatory synapses suppresses seizures by inhibiting glutamate release. In contrast, endocannabinoid signaling promotes seizures by inhibiting GABA release at inhibitory synapses. The physiological distribution of endocannabinoid signaling molecules becomes disrupted with the development of epileptic focus in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in animal models of experimentally induced epilepsy...
May 8, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665128/a-role-for-astrocyte-derived-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-in-the-degeneration-of-neurons-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
A Kodam, D Ourdev, M Maulik, J Hariharakrishnan, M Banerjee, Y Wang, S Kar
Kainic acid, an analogue of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, can trigger seizures and neurotoxicity in the hippocampus and other limbic structures in a manner that mirrors the neuropathology of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, the underlying mechanisms associated with the neurotoxicity remain unclear. Since amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which are critical in the development of Alzheimer's disease, can mediate toxicity by activating glutamatergic NMDA receptors, it is likely that the enhanced glutamatergic transmission that renders hippocampal neurons vulnerable to kainic acid treatment may involve Aβ peptides...
April 17, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600825/depression-comorbidity-in-epileptic-rats-is-related-to-brain-glucose-hypometabolism-and-hypersynchronicity-in-the-metabolic-network-architecture
#7
Gabriele Zanirati, Pamella Nunes Azevedo, Gianina Teribele Venturin, Samuel Greggio, Allan Marinho Alcará, Eduardo R Zimmer, Paula Kopschina Feltes, Jaderson Costa DaCosta
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common types of epilepsy syndromes in the world. Depression is an important comorbidity of epilepsy, which has been reported in patients with TLE and in different experimental models of epilepsy. However, there is no established consensus on which brain regions are associated with the manifestation of depression in epilepsy. Here, we investigated the alterations in cerebral glucose metabolism and the metabolic network in the pilocarpine-induced rat model of epilepsy and correlated it with depressive behavior during the chronic phase of epilepsy...
May 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597334/microglia-after-seizures-and-in-epilepsy
#8
REVIEW
Toshimitsu Hiragi, Yuji Ikegaya, Ryuta Koyama
Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain that constitute the brain's innate immune system. Recent studies have revealed various functions of microglia in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS) in both health and disease. However, the role of microglia in epilepsy remains largely undiscovered, partly because of the complex phenotypes of activated microglia. Activated microglia likely exert different effects on brain function depending on the phase of epileptogenesis. In this review, we mainly focus on the animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and discuss the proepileptic and antiepileptic roles of activated microglia in the epileptic brain...
March 28, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587280/inhibition-of-cgkii-suppresses-seizure-activity-and-hippocampal-excitation-by-regulating-the-postsynaptic-delivery-of-glua1
#9
Juan Gu, Xin Tian, Wei Wang, Qin Yang, Peijia Lin, Yuanlin Ma, Yan Xiong, Demei Xu, Yanke Zhang, Yong Yang, Shanshan Lu, Zijun Lin, Jing Luo, Fei Xiao, Xuefeng Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The imbalance between excitation and inhibition is a defining feature of epilepsy. GluA1 is an AMPA receptor subunit that can strengthen excitatory synaptic transmission when upregulated in the postsynaptic membrane, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. cGKII, a cGMP-dependent protein kinase, regulates the GluA1 levels at the plasma membrane. METHODS: To explore the role of cGKII in epilepsy, we investigated the expression of cGKII in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in a pilocarpine-induced rat model and then performed behavioral, histological, and electrophysiological analyses by applying either a cGKII agonist or inhibitor in the hippocampus of the animal model...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565791/animal-models-of-status-epilepticus-and-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-narrative-review
#10
Nikita Nirwan, Preeti Vyas, Divya Vohora
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the chronic and pharmacoresistant form of epilepsy observed in humans. The current literature is insufficient in explicating the comprehensive mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis and advancement. Consequently, the development of a suitable animal model mimicking the clinical characteristics is required. Further, the relevance of status epilepticus (SE) to animal models is dubious. SE occurs rarely in people; most epilepsy patients never experience it. The present review summarizes the established animal models of SE and TLE, along with a brief discussion of the animal models that have the distinctiveness and carries the possibility to be developed as effective models for TLE...
March 22, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565514/correlation-between-nurr1-expression-and-drug-resistance-in-the-brain-of-rats-with-epilepsy
#11
H-Y Li, F Liu, H-R Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between nuclear receptor related 1 (Nurr1) expression and drug resistance in the brain of rats with epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected, and the animal model of epilepsy was established by electrical stimulation. These rats were randomly divided into the control group and the drug-resistant group. The model of drug-resistant epilepsy was screened with phenytoin (PHT) and phenobarbital (PB); the hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex tissues were isolated from rats; the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels of Nurr1 in the hippocampus and cortex tissues of the two groups of rats were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555850/electrophysiological-evidence-for-the-development-of-a-self-sustained-large-scale-epileptic-network-in-the-kainate-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Laurent Sheybani, Gwenaël Birot, Alessandro Contestabile, Margitta Seeck, Jozsef Zoltan Kiss, Karl Schaller, Christoph M Michel, Charles Quairiaux
Most research on focal epilepsy focuses on mechanisms of seizure generation in the primary epileptic focus (EF). However, neurological deficits that are not directly linked to seizure activity and that may persist after focus removal are frequent. The recruitment of remote brain regions of an epileptic network (EN) is recognized as a possible cause, but a profound lack of experimental evidence exists concerning their recruitment and the type of pathological activities they exhibit. We studied the development of epileptic activities at the large-scale in male mice of the kainate model of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using high-density surface EEG and multiple-site intracortical recordings...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553531/the-pilocarpine-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-eeg-monitoring-using-radiotelemetry-system-in-mice
#13
Ji-Eun Kim, Kyung-Ok Cho
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common neurological disorder in adulthood. For translational studies of chronic epilepsy, pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) is frequently selected to recapitulate spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Here we present a protocol of SE induction by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pilocarpine and monitoring of chronic recurring seizures in live animals using a wireless telemetry video and electroencephalogram (EEG) system. We demonstrated notable behavioral changes that need attention after pilocarpine injection and their correlation with hippocampal neuronal loss at 7 days and 6 weeks post-pilocarpine...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547770/an-on-demand-macaque-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-seizures-induced-by-unilateral-intra-hippocampal-injection-of-penicillin
#14
Ariana Sherdil, Stéphan Chabardès, Isabelle Guillemain, Sandrine Michallat, Shivadatta Prabhu, Karine Pernet-Gallay, Olivier David, Brigitte Piallat
PURPOSE: Our objective was to propose a new on demand non-human primate model of mesial temporal lobe seizures suitable for pre-clinical innovative therapeutic research. METHODS: Five macaques were stereotaxically implanted unilaterally with a deep recording electrode in the hippocampus. For each experiment, penicillin was injected into the hippocampus and animals were monitored during five consecutive hours. A total of 12-27 experiments with a mean cumulative dose of 162644 ± 70190 UI of penicillin have been performed per animal Injections were repeated at least once a week over a period of 98-276 days...
May 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524833/ablation-of-aberrant-neurogenesis-fails-to-attenuate-cognitive-deficit-of-chronically-epileptic-mice
#15
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Cheng-Jun Li, Jie-Hua Xu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Pilocarpine-induced acute seizures strongly induce aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, characterized by increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fibre sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs), which may disturb hippocampal neuronal circuits and thus contribute to cognitive impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and animal models. Previous studies via ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures produced inconsistent results regarding the development of long-term cognitive impairment...
May 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506554/effects-of-dexamethasone-on-the-li-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy-protection-against-hippocampal-inflammation-and-astrogliosis
#16
Adriana Fernanda K Vizuete, Fernanda Hansen, Elisa Negri, Marina Concli Leite, Diogo Losch de Oliveira, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of partial epilepsy and is accompanied, in one third of cases, by resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AED). Most AED target neuronal activity modulated by ionic channels, and the steroid sensitivity of these channels has supported the use of corticosteroids as adjunctives to AED. Assuming the importance of astrocytes in neuronal activity, we investigated inflammatory and astroglial markers in the hippocampus, a key structure affected in TLE and in the Li-pilocarpine model of epilepsy...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486299/phase-amplitude-coupling-and-epileptogenesis-in-an-animal-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Soheila Samiee, Maxime Lévesque, Massimo Avoli, Sylvain Baillet
Polyrhythmic coupling of oscillatory components in electrophysiological signals results from the interactions between neuronal sub-populations within and between cell assemblies. Since the mechanisms underlying epileptic disorders should affect such interactions, abnormal level of cross-frequency coupling is expected to provide a signal marker of epileptogenesis. We measured phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), a form of cross-frequency coupling between neural oscillations, in a rodent model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy...
June 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476870/high-frequency-oscillations-in-epileptic-rodents-are-we-doing-it-right
#18
Maxime Lévesque, Siyan Wang, Jean Gotman, Massimo Avoli
BACKGROUND: The detection of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs, ripples: 80-200 Hz, fast ripples: 250-500 Hz) is often based on considering ripples or fast ripples in isolation; overlapping ripples and fast ripples are excluded from further analysis. Here, we studied overlapping HFOs during spontaneous seizures in pilocarpine-treated animals. NEW METHOD: Spontaneous seizures (n = 6 animals) presented with either hypersynchronous- (HYP, n = 18) or low-voltage fast-onset (LVF, n = 21) pattern...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367144/a-clinical-grade-gene-therapy-vector-for-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy-successfully-overexpresses-npy-in-a-human-neuronal-cell-line
#19
Maria I Patrício, Alun R Barnard, Alexander L Green, Matthew J During, Arjune Sen, Robert E MacLaren
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition characterised by recurrent unprovoked seizures and often treatable with appropriate medication. However, almost 30% of cases are pharmacoresistant and while a proportion of these may be amenable to resective surgery, a gene therapy approach could be an attractive alternative option. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has anticonvulsant and anti-epileptogenic properties in animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy when delivered by an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector...
February 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364511/-18-f-ge180-positron-emission-tomographic-imaging-indicates-a-potential-double-hit-insult-in-the-intrahippocampal-kainate-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Mirjam Brackhan, Pablo Bascuñana, Tobias L Ross, Frank M Bengel, Jens P Bankstahl, Marion Bankstahl
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests that brain inflammation, elicited by epileptogenic insults, is involved in epilepsy development. Noninvasive nuclear imaging of brain inflammation in animal models of epileptogenesis represents a diagnostic in vivo approach with potential for direct translation into the clinic. Here, we investigated up-regulation of the translocator protein (TSPO) indicative of microglial activation by serial [18 F]GE180 positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy...
March 2018: Epilepsia
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