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animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy

Samuel A Neymotin, Zoe N Talbot, Jeeyune Q Jung, André A Fenton, William W Lytton
BACKGROUND: Correlated neuronal activity in the brain is hypothesized to contribute to information representation, and is important for gauging brain dynamics in health and disease. Due to high dimensional neural datasets, it is difficult to study temporal variations in correlation structure. NEW METHOD: We developed a multiscale method, Population Coordination (PCo), to assess neural population structure in multiunit single neuron ensemble and multi-site local field potential (LFP) recordings...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Melissa L Barker-Haliski, Taylor D Heck, E Jill Dahle, Fabiola Vanegas, Timothy H Pruess, Karen S Wilcox, H Steve White
OBJECTIVE: Infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in C57Bl/6J mice induces acute seizures and development of spontaneous recurrent seizures and behavioral comorbidities weeks later. The present studies sought to determine whether acute therapeutic intervention with an anti-inflammatory-based approach could prevent or modify development of TMEV-induced long-term behavioral comorbidities. Valproic acid (VPA), in addition to its prototypical anticonvulsant properties, inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, which may alter expression of the inflammasome...
October 14, 2016: Epilepsia
Isabel Vieira de Assis Lima, Alline Cristina de Campos, Paula Maria Quaglio Bellozi, Juliana Guimaraes Doria, Fabiola Mara Ribeiro, Marcio Flavio Dutra Moraes, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of epilepsy in adults. The pilocarpine (PILO) experimental model of TLE portrays behavioral and pathophysiological changes in rodents that are very similar to those found in humans with TLE. However, this model is associated with an unfortunate high mortality rate. Studies have shown that intrahippocampal injection of PILO, while having a much smaller mortality rate, induces status epilepticus (SE) that secondarily leads to TLE. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to evaluate the cognitive and histological alterations 72h after intrahippocampal microinjection of PILO in C57BL/6 mice...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Mykaella Andrade de Araújo, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales Marques, Shirley Octacílio-Silva, Carmem Lúcia de Arroxelas-Silva, Marília Gabriella Alves Goulart Pereira, José Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, João Pereira Leite, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Olagide Wagner Castro, Marcelo Duzzioni, Geraldo Aleixo Passos, Maria Luisa Paçó-Larson, Daniel Leite Góes Gitaí
The involvement of miRNA in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) pathogenesis has increasingly become a focus of epigenetic studies. Despite advances, the number of known miRNAs with a consistent expression response during epileptogenesis is still small. Addressing this situation requires additional miRNA profiling studies coupled to detailed individual expression analyses. Here, we perform a miRNA microarray analysis of the hippocampus of Wistar rats 24 hours after intra-hippocampal pilocarpine-induced Status Epilepticus (H-PILO SE)...
2016: PloS One
Xiaoxue Xu, Feng Guo, Xinze Cai, Jun Yang, Jiuhan Zhao, Dongyu Min, Qianhui Wang, Liying Hao, Jiqun Cai
Excessive excitation or loss of inhibitory neurotransmission has been closely related to epileptic activity. Somatostatin (SST) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are members of endogenous neuropeptides which are recognized as important modulator of classical neurotransmitter, distributed abundantly in mammalian central nervous system. Abnormal expression of these two neuropeptides evidenced in some epileptic models highlights the relevance of SST or NPY in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. The tremor rat (TRM) is a genetic epileptic animal model which can manifest tonic convulsions without any external stimuli...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Joanna Bednarczyk, Konrad J Dębski, Anna M Bot, Katarzyna Lukasiuk
The aim of the present study was to examine involvement of MBD3 (methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3), a protein involved in reading DNA methylation patterns, in epileptogenesis and epilepsy. We used a well-characterized rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy that is triggered by status epilepticus, evoked by electrical stimulation of the amygdala. Stimulated and sham-operated animals were sacrificed 14 days after stimulation. We found that MBD3 transcript was present in neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes in both control and epileptic animals...
2016: Scientific Reports
Candi L LaSarge, Raymund Y K Pun, Michael B Muntifering, Steve C Danzer
Abnormal hippocampal granule cells are present in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and are a prominent feature of most animal models of the disease. These abnormal cells are hypothesized to contribute to epileptogenesis. Isolating the specific effects of abnormal granule cells on hippocampal physiology, however, has been difficult in traditional temporal lobe epilepsy models. While epilepsy induction in these models consistently produces abnormal granule cells, the causative insults also induce widespread cell death among hippocampal, cortical and subcortical structures...
September 3, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Idrish Ali, Stephanie Boets, Pieter Janssens, Annemie Van Eetveldt, Halima Amhaoul, Xavier Langlois, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
Dysregulation in the glutamatergic function is considered a major contributor to hyperexcitatory neuronal networks in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Studies in animal models of MTLE have shown positive outcomes of augmenting group 2-metabotropic receptor functions that can regulate neuronal excitability from extrasynaptic locations. To assist in efficient translation of these findings to the clinical settings, we aimed to characterise the expression of mGluR2/3 receptors in the brain areas relevant to MTLE...
August 13, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Dinesh Upadhya, Bharathi Hattiangady, Geetha A Shetty, Gabriele Zanirati, Maheedhar Kodali, Ashok K Shetty
Grafting of neural stem cells (NSCs) or GABA-ergic progenitor cells (GPCs) into the hippocampus could offer an alternative therapy to hippocampal resection in patients with drug-resistant chronic epilepsy, which afflicts >30% of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cases. Multipotent, self-renewing NSCs could be expanded from multiple regions of the developing and adult brain, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). On the other hand, GPCs could be generated from the medial and lateral ganglionic eminences of the embryonic brain and from hESCs and hiPSCs...
2016: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Svenja Heischmann, Kevin Quinn, Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Li-Ping Liang, Rick Reisdorph, Nichole Reisdorph, Manisha Patel
Currently, no reliable markers are available to evaluate the epileptogenic potential of a brain injury. The electroencephalogram is the standard method of diagnosis of epilepsy; however, it is not used to predict the risk of developing epilepsy. Biomarkers that indicate an individual's risk to develop epilepsy, especially those measurable in the periphery are urgently needed. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of acquired epilepsy, is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures following brain injury and a seizure-free "latent" period...
2016: Scientific Reports
Catarina Orcinha, Gert Münzner, Johannes Gerlach, Antje Kilias, Marie Follo, Ulrich Egert, Carola A Haas
Granule cell dispersion (GCD) represents a pathological widening of the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus and it is frequently observed in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Recent studies in human MTLE specimens and in animal epilepsy models have shown that a decreased expression and functional inactivation of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin correlates with GCD formation, but causal evidence is still lacking. Here, we used unilateral kainate (KA) injection into the mouse hippocampus, an established MTLE animal model, to precisely map the loss of reelin mRNA-synthesizing neurons in relation to GCD along the septotemporal axis of the epileptic hippocampus...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Katarzyna Zybura-Broda, Renata Amborska, Magdalena Ambrozek-Latecka, Joanna Wilemska, Agnieszka Bogusz, Joanna Bucko, Anna Konopka, Wieslawa Grajkowska, Marcin Roszkowski, Andrzej Marchel, Andrzej Rysz, Lukasz Koperski, Grzegorz M Wilczynski, Leszek Kaczmarek, Marcin Rylski
Enhanced levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy in humans and rodents. Lack of Mmp-9 impoverishes, whereas excess of Mmp-9 facilitates epileptogenesis. Epigenetic mechanisms driving the epileptogenesis-related upregulation of MMP-9 expression are virtually unknown. The aim of this study was to reveal these mechanisms. We analyzed hippocampi extracted from adult and pediatric patients with temporal lobe epilepsy as well as from partially and fully pentylenetetrazole kindled rats...
2016: PloS One
Pengfei Fu, YueTao Wen, Yan Xiong, Yanke Zhang, Haiyang Zhang, Yanfeng Xie, Quanhong Shi
E3 ubiquitin ligases are important protein-modifying enzymes involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 20 (FBXL20), an E3 ubiquitin ligase widely expressed in the central nervous system, plays an important role in the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 1 (RIM1), which is an important factor in the release of synaptic vesicles. FBXL20 has been associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases; thus, we hypothesized that FBXL20 is involved in the development of epilepsy...
August 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Sueun Lee, Miyoung Yang, Jinwook Kim, Sohi Kang, Juhwan Kim, Jong-Choon Kim, Chaeyong Jung, Taekyun Shin, Sung-Ho Kim, Changjong Moon
Trimethyltin (TMT), a toxic organotin compound, induces neurodegeneration selectively involving the limbic system and especially prominent in the hippocampus. Neurodegeneration-associated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperactivity, aggression, cognitive deficits, and epileptic seizures, occur in both exposed humans and experimental animal models. Previously, TMT had been used generally in industry and agriculture, but the use of TMT has been limited because of its dangers to people. TMT has also been used to make a promising in vivo rodent model of neurodegeneration because of its region-specific characteristics...
July 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Evan Wicker, Patrick A Forcelli
Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of medically-intractable epilepsy. While seizures in TLE originate in structures such as hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal cortex, they propagate through a crucial relay: the midline/intralaminar thalamus. Prior studies have shown that pharmacological inhibition of midline thalamus attenuates limbic seizures. Here, we examined a recently developed technology, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs), as a means of chemogenetic silencing to attenuate limbic seizures...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
Kee Hang Lee, Hyun Nam, Da Eun Jeong, Sung Soo Kim, Hye Jin Song, Hee Jang Pyeon, Kyeongjin Kang, Seung-Cheol Hong, Do-Hyun Nam, Kyeung Min Joo
Stem cells and therapeutic genes are emerging as a new therapeutic approach to treat various neurodegenerative diseases with few effective treatment options. However, potential formation of tumors by stem cells has hampered their clinical application. Moreover, adequate preclinical platforms to precisely test tumorigenic potential of stem cells are controversial. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of various animal models for in vivo stem cell tumorigenicity testing to identify the most sensitive platform...
2016: PloS One
Suganya Karunakaran, Dane W Grasse, Karen A Moxon
Multiple studies have observed heterogeneous neuronal firing patterns as a local network transitions to spontaneous seizures. We demonstrated that separately examining interneurons and pyramidal cells during this transition in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy elucidates some of this heterogeneity. Recently, it was demonstrated that classifying cells into specific theta-related subtypes further clarified the heterogeneity. Moreover, changes in neuronal synchrony with the local field potential were identified and determined to be specific to interneurons during the transition to seizures...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
Fabiane Ochai Ramos, Luiz Renato Rodrigues Carreiro, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Roberta Monterazzo Cysneiros
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate cognitive and behavioural changes consistent with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD -like behavior in male Wistar rats with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHOD: Male Wistar rats at 25 day of age were submitted to animal model of TLE by pilocarpine injection (350 mg/kg, ip) and a control group received saline 0.9%. The animals were continuously video monitored up to the end of experiments. The behavioural tests (open field, elevated plus maze and operant conditioning box) started from 60 days postnatal...
June 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
A Alexander, M Maroso, I Soltesz
When studying the pathological mechanisms of epilepsy, there are a seemingly endless number of approaches from the ultrastructural level-receptor expression by EM-to the behavioral level-comorbid depression in behaving animals. Epilepsy is characterized as a disorder of recurrent seizures, which are defined as "a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain" (Fisher et al., 2005). Such abnormal activity typically does not occur in a single isolated neuron; rather, it results from pathological activity in large groups-or circuits-of neurons...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
Sanaz Eftekhari, Soraya Mehrabi, Fariba Karimzadeh, Mohammad-Taghi Joghataei, Mojtaba Khaksarian, Mahmoud Reza Hadjighassem, Majid Katebi, Mansooreh Soleimani
INTRODUCTION: Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory property, which has been considered as an essential risk factor in the inflammatory process of Ischemic Stroke (IS), by involving in the pathophysiological progression of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and lipid metabolisms. -509C/T TGF-β1 gene polymorphism has been found to be associated with the risk of IS. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a relatively comprehensive account of the relation between -509C/T gene polymorphisms of TGF-β1 and susceptibility to IS...
April 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
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