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Pediatric dyslipidemia

Sunil V Pawar, Vinay G Zanwar, Ajay S Choksey, Ashok R Mohite, Samit S Jain, Ravindra G Surude, Qais Q Contractor, Pravin M Rathi, Ravi U Verma, Premlata K Varthakavi
:  Background and rationale. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of pediatric liver disease in western countries. Its prevalence in Indian subcontinent is not well studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a school based cross sectional study we have screened overweight and obese children in the age group of 11 to 15 years for NAFLD. Ultrasonography, elevated serum transaminases, fibroscan were used for defining NAFLD. Dietary habits, blood pressure, serum lipid profile, blood counts and insulin resistance were recorded...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Rebecca J Brown, David Araujo-Vilar, Pik To Cheung, David Dunger, Abhimanyu Garg, Michelle Jack, Lucy Mungai, Elif A Oral, Nivedita Patni, Kristina Rother, Julia von Schnurbein, Ekaterina Sorkina, Takara Stanley, Corinne Vigouroux, Martin Wabitsch, Rachel Williams, Tohru Yorifuji
OBJECTIVE: Lipodystrophy syndromes are extremely rare disorders of deficient body fat associated with potentially serious metabolic complications, including diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and steatohepatitis. Due to their rarity, most clinicians are not familiar with their diagnosis and management. This practice guideline summarizes diagnosis and management of lipodystrophy syndromes not associated with HIV or injectable drugs. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen participants were nominated by worldwide endocrine societies or selected by the committee as content experts...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Maria Grazia Clemente, Claudia Mandato, Marco Poeta, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Geetha Raghuveer, David A White, Laura L Hayman, Jessica G Woo, Juan Villafane, David Celermajer, Kenneth D Ward, Sarah D de Ferranti, Justin Zachariah
BACKGROUND: Although public health programs have led to a substantial decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking, the adverse health effects of tobacco smoke exposure are by no means a thing of the past. In the United States, 4 of 10 school-aged children and 1 of 3 adolescents are involuntarily exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), with children of minority ethnic backgrounds and those living in low-socioeconomic-status households being disproportionately affected (68% and 43%, respectively)...
October 18, 2016: Circulation
Michael M Mendelson, Todd Regh, James Chan, Annette Baker, Heather Harker Ryan, Nicole Palumbo, Philip K Johnson, Suzanne Griggs, Meera Boghani, Nirav K Desai, Elizabeth Yellen, Lucy Buckley, Matthew W Gillman, Justin P Zachariah, Dionne Graham, Sarah D de Ferranti
OBJECTIVE: To determine the real-world effectiveness of statins and impact of baseline factors on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction among children and adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data prospectively collected from a quality improvement initiative in the Boston Children's Hospital Preventive Cardiology Program. We included patients ≤21 years of age initiated on statins between September 2010 and March 2014. The primary outcome was first achieving goal LDL-C, defined as <130 mg/dL, or <100 mg/dL with high-level risk factors (eg, diabetes, etc)...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Hilary Stempel, Ann Dodge, Erin Marriott, Amy L Peterson
Charts of 42 children with familial hypercholesterolemia from a dyslipidemia clinic were reviewed for initial cholesterol screen indication and cascade screening results. Indications were universal screening (8/28 after guideline release, none before), family history (26/42), risk factor (5/42), and other (3/42). Cascade screening identified 63 relatives with unknown familial hypercholesterolemia.
August 31, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Wayne Dickey, David R Arday, Joseph Kelly, Col David Carnahan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As childhood obesity is a concern in many communities, this study investigated outpatient evaluation and initial management of overweight and obese pediatric patients in U.S. military medical treatment facilities (MTFs). METHODS: Samples of 579 overweight and 341 obese patients (as determined by body mass index [BMI]) aged 3-17 years were drawn from MTFs. All available FY2011 outpatient records were searched for documentation of BMI assessment, overweight/obesity diagnosis, and counseling...
September 1, 2016: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Nina R Joyce, Gregory A Wellenius, Charles B Eaton, Amal N Trivedi, Justin P Zachariah
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) for children at high risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the use of LLT in children is rare, and rates of nonadherence are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify patterns of use and predictors of nonadherence to LLT in children aged 8 to 20 years and the subgroup with dyslipidemia. METHODS: Commercially insured patients with a new dispensing for an LLT were included...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Machline Paim Paganella, Rachel A Cohen, D Robert Harris, Ricardo de Souza Kuchenbecker, Rosa Dea Sperhacke, Sergio Kakuta Kato, Carmem Lúcia Oliveira da Silva, Fernanda Tomé Sturzbecher, Ricardo Hugo S Oliveira, Noris Pavía-Ruz, Rohan Hazra
OBJECTIVE(S): To estimate the incidence of lipid and glucose abnormalities and assess their association with exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) regimens among perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Pediatric Latin American Countries Epidemiologic Study (PLACES)...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Joyce L Ross
Hypercholesterolemia is a major concern in the USA, with studies identifying children as young as 2years old with early-stage atherosclerosis. Genetics play a major role in the dyslipidemia of children, but other factors, such as diet and lack of physical activity, confound the problem. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic condition that causes lifelong elevations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The heterozygous form of the disease affects around 1 in 200 people, and the homozygous form of the disease affects around 1 in 160,000-300,000 people...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Eun Byul Kwon, Hae Sang Lee, Young Seok Shim, Hwal Rim Jeong, Jin Soon Hwang
PURPOSE: We studied the changes in subtypes of diabetes mellitus (DM) in children and evaluated the characteristics of each group over the past 20 years. In addition, we also examined the correlation between the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values at the time of diagnosis and lipid profiles. METHODS: The patients were divided into 2 groups: there were a total of 190 patients under 20 years of age firstly diagnosed with DM in Ajou University Hospital. The patients in groups I and II were diagnosed from September 1995 to December 2004 and from January 2005 to April 2014, respectively...
June 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Belén Pastor-Villaescusa, Javier Caballero-Villarraso, M Dolores Cañete, Raúl Hoyos, José Maldonado, Gloria Bueno, Rosaura Leis, Ángel Gil, Ramón Cañete, Concepción M Aguilera
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are considered to be serious public health problems. In pediatric populations, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension associated with obesity occur with increased frequencies. Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent that has been demonstrated to be efficacious in the treatment of diabetic and non-diabetic obese adults. A considerable amount of pharmacogenetic research has demonstrated that genetic variation is one of the major factors affecting metformin response...
2016: Trials
Veronica Marin, Natalia Rosso, Matteo Dal Ben, Alan Raseni, Manuela Boschelle, Cristina Degrassi, Ivana Nemeckova, Petr Nachtigal, Claudio Avellini, Claudio Tiribelli, Silvia Gazzin
Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) are the hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome; worrisome is the booming increase in pediatric age. To recreate the full spectrum of juvenile liver pathology and investigate the gender impact, male and female C57Bl/6 mice were fed with high fat diet plus fructose in the drinking water (HFHC) immediately after weaning (equal to 3-years old human), and disease progression followed for 16 weeks, until adults (equal to 30-years old human)...
2016: PloS One
Enid E Martinez, Peter W Forbes, Sharon E O'Brien, Sarah D de Ferranti
BACKGROUND: Lower socioeconomic status has been associated with adverse lipid levels in adult populations. Childhood dyslipidemia is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining relationships between socioeconomic indicators and lipid levels in children are limited. To examine the relationship between income level and lipid levels in childhood. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of primary care patients, ages 2 to 18 years, who had lipid levels drawn at two large pediatric practices in Boston, MA between August 01, 2008 and August 31, 2010...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Kazushige Dobashi, Kenichiro Takahashi, Keiko Nagahara, Daisuke Tanaka, Kazuo Itabashi
AIM: To investigate whether body adiposity index (BAI; hip/height(1.5)-18), pediatric BAI (BAIp; hip/height(0.8) - 38), and other hip/height(P) ratios are useful in obese children. METHOD: Ninety obese Japanese children, 55 boys and 35 girls, who visited our University Clinic, were enrolled. The age was 9.92±2.6 (mean±SD) years, and the percentage overweight (POW) was 51.6±18.8%. We set the power value of the hip/height(P) 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1, 1.5, and 2 and studied the association with overweight indices, biochemical data, and fat area measured by computed tomography...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
D López-González, A Miranda-Lora, M Klünder-Klünder, G Queipo-García, M Bustos-Esquivel, M Paez-Villa, E Villanueva-Ortega, I Chávez-Requena, E Laresgoiti-Servitje, N Garibay-Nieto
BACKGROUND: The accumulation of abdominal fat is associated with cardiometabolic abnormalities. Waist circumference (WC) measurements allow an indirect evaluation of abdominal adiposity. However, controversy exists over which WC reference values are the most suitable for identifying the pediatric population at risk. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the ability of various WC indices to identify abdominal obesity as diagnostic tools for predicting cardiometabolic risk in Mexican children and adolescents...
June 13, 2016: Endocrine Practice
Rudolph L Gleason, Alexander W Caulk, Daniel Seifu, Julia C Rosebush, Alyssa M Shapiro, Matthew H Schwartz, Allison Ross Eckard, Wondwossen Amogne, Workeabeba Abebe
BACKGROUND: HIV patients on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have shown elevated incidence of dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and markers of cardiovascular disease. Evidence is beginning to emerge that implicates efavirenz (EFV) as a potential mediator of early on-set cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Pediatric and adult HIV-infected HAART-naïve, EFV-treated, nevirapine (NVP)-treated, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r)-treated subjects were recruited from Black Lion Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
L Y Pang, L P Zou, L L Huang, Y Gao, S F Ma, M N Zhang, Y Y Wang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin in treatment of children with cardiac rhabdomyoma, associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). METHOD: The clinical data of children with cardiac rhabdomyomas, who had received a diagnosis of TSC previously, were collected between September 2011 and November 2015 from Pediatric Department of the People's Liberation Army General Hospital.Patients in line with the inclusion criteria received long-term treatment with sirolimus...
June 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Michela Sonego, Maria José Sagrado, Gustavo Escobar, Marzia Lazzerini, Estefanie Rivas, Rocio Martín-Cañavate, Elsy Pérez de López, Sandra Ayala, Luis Castaneda, Pilar Aparicio, Estefanía Custodio
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemias are common in HIV-infected children, especially if treated with protease inhibitors, but there are few data on how to treat dyslipidemias in this population. We estimated the dyslipidemia prevalence and its association with treatment, diet and physical exercise in children on antiretroviral treatment at the El Salvador reference center for pediatric HIV care (CENID). METHODS: Information was gathered regarding socio-demographic characteristics, treatment, diet and physical activity of 173 children aged 5-18 years and receiving antiretroviral therapy...
October 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
L T Weber, J Dötsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
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