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Pediatric dyslipidemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919346/disease-control-via-intensified-lipoprotein-apheresis-in-three-siblings-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#1
Christina Taylan, Andrea Schlune, Thomas Meissner, Karolis Ažukaitis, Floris E A Udink Ten Cate, Lutz T Weber
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the prevalent monogenic form of hypercholesterolemia, carries the risk of premature coronary heart disease. Lipoprotein-apheresis is established in children with severe dyslipidemia. We present 3 siblings with a negative/negative residual low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mutation (p.Trp577Arg), unresponsive to drug treatment. OBJECTIVE: Intensified lipoprotein-apheresis is well tolerated and results in permanently low lipid values without harming the health-related quality of life in children...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900959/effect-of-vitamin-c-supplementation-on-lipid-profile-serum-uric-acid-and-ascorbic-acid-in-children-on-hemodialysis
#2
Ghada Mohamed El Mashad, Hanan M ElSayed, Nahla A Nosair
Children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) suffer from dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia that might play a causal role in the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the study is to assess the effects of Vitamin C supplementation on uric acid, ascorbic acid, and serum lipid levels among children on hemodialysis (HD). This prospective study was conducted in the pediatric nephrology unit at Menoufia University Hospital. The study included a total of 60 children with ESRD on maintenance HD therapy...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877092/pediatric-statin-administration-navigating-a-frontier-with-limited-data
#3
REVIEW
Jonathan Wagner, Susan M Abdel-Rahman
Increasingly, children and adolescents with dyslipidemia qualify for pharmacologic intervention. As they are for adults, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are the mainstay of pediatric dyslipidemia treatment when lifestyle modifications have failed. Despite the overall success of these drugs, the magnitude of variability in dose-exposure-response profiles contributes to adverse events and treatment failure. In children, the cause of treatment failures remains unclear. This review describes the updated guidelines for screening and management of pediatric dyslipidemia and statin disposition pathway to assist the provider in recognizing scenarios where alterations in dosage may be warranted to meet patients' specific needs...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828697/aripiprazole-induced-hyperlipidemia-an-update
#4
Caroline Tarraf, Wadih J Naja
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the metabolic side effects of aripiprazole. Three cases of aripiprazole-induced hypertriglyceridemia are also presented. DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted of English-language articles and abstracts (meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, naturalistic open-label trials, reviews, and case reports) published up to August 31, 2014, in electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE). STUDY SELECTION: Free-text and MeSH search keywords included aripiprazole, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipid profile, hyperlipidemia, and hypercholesterolemia and their differing terminations and combinations...
August 25, 2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822442/cardiovascular-risk-factor-screening-and-management-of-obese-patients-at-an-outpatient-pediatric-cardiology-center
#5
Margaret Greco, Arun Sood, Soyang Kwon, Adolfo J Ariza
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate documentation of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and obesity management by pediatric cardiologists. STUDY DESIGN: Review of medical records of obese (≥95th body mass index percentile) 2-17 year-old children presenting to outpatient pediatric cardiology over 1 year. Subjects were categorized as: heart disease (HD) with increased risk for atherosclerosis; HD with average risk for atherosclerosis; or no HD. Data were evaluated on documentation of the assessment of seven CV risk factors [including recognition of elevated blood pressure (BP)] and management of obesity...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740518/%C3%A2-most-overweight-and-obese-indian-children-have-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
Sunil V Pawar, Vinay G Zanwar, Ajay S Choksey, Ashok R Mohite, Samit S Jain, Ravindra G Surude, Qais Q Contractor, Pravin M Rathi, Ravi U Verma, Premlata K Varthakavi
:  Background and rationale. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of pediatric liver disease in western countries. Its prevalence in Indian subcontinent is not well studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a school based cross sectional study we have screened overweight and obese children in the age group of 11 to 15 years for NAFLD. Ultrasonography, elevated serum transaminases, fibroscan were used for defining NAFLD. Dietary habits, blood pressure, serum lipid profile, blood counts and insulin resistance were recorded...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710244/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-lipodystrophy-syndromes-a-multi-society-practice-guideline
#7
Rebecca J Brown, David Araujo-Vilar, Pik To Cheung, David Dunger, Abhimanyu Garg, Michelle Jack, Lucy Mungai, Elif A Oral, Nivedita Patni, Kristina Rother, Julia von Schnurbein, Ekaterina Sorkina, Takara Stanley, Corinne Vigouroux, Martin Wabitsch, Rachel Williams, Tohru Yorifuji
OBJECTIVE: Lipodystrophy syndromes are extremely rare disorders of deficient body fat associated with potentially serious metabolic complications, including diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and steatohepatitis. Due to their rarity, most clinicians are not familiar with their diagnosis and management. This practice guideline summarizes diagnosis and management of lipodystrophy syndromes not associated with HIV or injectable drugs. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen participants were nominated by worldwide endocrine societies or selected by the committee as content experts...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688650/pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-recent-solutions-unresolved-issues-and-future-research-directions
#8
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Clemente, Claudia Mandato, Marco Poeta, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619923/cardiovascular-consequences-of-childhood-secondhand-tobacco-smoke-exposure-prevailing-evidence-burden-and-racial-and-socioeconomic-disparities-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#9
Geetha Raghuveer, David A White, Laura L Hayman, Jessica G Woo, Juan Villafane, David Celermajer, Kenneth D Ward, Sarah D de Ferranti, Justin Zachariah
BACKGROUND: Although public health programs have led to a substantial decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking, the adverse health effects of tobacco smoke exposure are by no means a thing of the past. In the United States, 4 of 10 school-aged children and 1 of 3 adolescents are involuntarily exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), with children of minority ethnic backgrounds and those living in low-socioeconomic-status households being disproportionately affected (68% and 43%, respectively)...
October 18, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592099/correlates-of-achieving-statin-therapy-goals-in-children-and-adolescents-with-dyslipidemia
#10
Michael M Mendelson, Todd Regh, James Chan, Annette Baker, Heather Harker Ryan, Nicole Palumbo, Philip K Johnson, Suzanne Griggs, Meera Boghani, Nirav K Desai, Elizabeth Yellen, Lucy Buckley, Matthew W Gillman, Justin P Zachariah, Dionne Graham, Sarah D de Ferranti
OBJECTIVE: To determine the real-world effectiveness of statins and impact of baseline factors on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction among children and adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data prospectively collected from a quality improvement initiative in the Boston Children's Hospital Preventive Cardiology Program. We included patients ≤21 years of age initiated on statins between September 2010 and March 2014. The primary outcome was first achieving goal LDL-C, defined as <130 mg/dL, or <100 mg/dL with high-level risk factors (eg, diabetes, etc)...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592098/referral-patterns-and-cascade-screening-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-a-pediatric-lipid-clinic
#11
Hilary Stempel, Ann Dodge, Erin Marriott, Amy L Peterson
Charts of 42 children with familial hypercholesterolemia from a dyslipidemia clinic were reviewed for initial cholesterol screen indication and cascade screening results. Indications were universal screening (8/28 after guideline release, none before), family history (26/42), risk factor (5/42), and other (3/42). Cascade screening identified 63 relatives with unknown familial hypercholesterolemia.
August 31, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582288/outpatient-evaluation-recognition-and-initial-management-of-pediatric-overweight-and-obesity-in-u-s-military-medical-treatment-facilities
#12
Wayne Dickey, David R Arday, Joseph Kelly, Col David Carnahan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As childhood obesity is a concern in many communities, this study investigated outpatient evaluation and initial management of overweight and obese pediatric patients in U.S. military medical treatment facilities (MTFs). METHODS: Samples of 579 overweight and 341 obese patients (as determined by body mass index [BMI]) aged 3-17 years were drawn from MTFs. All available FY2011 outpatient records were searched for documentation of BMI assessment, overweight/obesity diagnosis, and counseling...
September 1, 2016: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578113/patterns-and-predictors-of-medication-adherence-to-lipid-lowering-therapy-in-children-aged-8-to-20-years
#13
Nina R Joyce, Gregory A Wellenius, Charles B Eaton, Amal N Trivedi, Justin P Zachariah
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) for children at high risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the use of LLT in children is rare, and rates of nonadherence are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify patterns of use and predictors of nonadherence to LLT in children aged 8 to 20 years and the subgroup with dyslipidemia. METHODS: Commercially insured patients with a new dispensing for an LLT were included...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570910/association-of-dyslipidemia-and-glucose-abnormalities-with-antiretroviral-treatment-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-latin-american-children
#14
Machline P Paganella, Rachel A Cohen, Donald R Harris, Ricardo de Souza Kuchenbecker, Rosa D Sperhacke, Sergio K Kato, Carmem L Oliveira da Silva, Fernanda T Sturzbecher, Ricardo H S Oliveira, Noris Pavía-Ruz, Rohan Hazra
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of lipid and glucose abnormalities and assess their association with exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) regimens among perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Pediatric Latin American Countries Epidemiologic Study...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496827/statins-in-the-management-of-pediatric-dyslipidemia
#15
Joyce L Ross
Hypercholesterolemia is a major concern in the USA, with studies identifying children as young as 2years old with early-stage atherosclerosis. Genetics play a major role in the dyslipidemia of children, but other factors, such as diet and lack of physical activity, confound the problem. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic condition that causes lifelong elevations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The heterozygous form of the disease affects around 1 in 200 people, and the homozygous form of the disease affects around 1 in 160,000-300,000 people...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462584/the-changes-of-subtypes-in-pediatric-diabetes-and-their-clinical-and-laboratory-characteristics-over-the-last-20-years
#16
Eun Byul Kwon, Hae Sang Lee, Young Seok Shim, Hwal Rim Jeong, Jin Soon Hwang
PURPOSE: We studied the changes in subtypes of diabetes mellitus (DM) in children and evaluated the characteristics of each group over the past 20 years. In addition, we also examined the correlation between the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values at the time of diagnosis and lipid profiles. METHODS: The patients were divided into 2 groups: there were a total of 190 patients under 20 years of age firstly diagnosed with DM in Ajou University Hospital. The patients in groups I and II were diagnosed from September 1995 to December 2004 and from January 2005 to April 2014, respectively...
June 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432166/evaluation-of-differential-effects-of-metformin-treatment-in-obese-children-according-to-pubertal-stage-and-genetic-variations-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Belén Pastor-Villaescusa, Javier Caballero-Villarraso, M Dolores Cañete, Raúl Hoyos, José Maldonado, Gloria Bueno, Rosaura Leis, Ángel Gil, Ramón Cañete, Concepción M Aguilera
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are considered to be serious public health problems. In pediatric populations, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension associated with obesity occur with increased frequencies. Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent that has been demonstrated to be efficacious in the treatment of diabetic and non-diabetic obese adults. A considerable amount of pharmacogenetic research has demonstrated that genetic variation is one of the major factors affecting metformin response...
2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391242/an-animal-model-for-the-juvenile-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#18
Veronica Marin, Natalia Rosso, Matteo Dal Ben, Alan Raseni, Manuela Boschelle, Cristina Degrassi, Ivana Nemeckova, Petr Nachtigal, Claudio Avellini, Claudio Tiribelli, Silvia Gazzin
Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) are the hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome; worrisome is the booming increase in pediatric age. To recreate the full spectrum of juvenile liver pathology and investigate the gender impact, male and female C57Bl/6 mice were fed with high fat diet plus fructose in the drinking water (HFHC) immediately after weaning (equal to 3-years old human), and disease progression followed for 16 weeks, until adults (equal to 30-years old human)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391043/census-tract-based-income-level-and-lipid-levels-in-urban-pediatric-primary-care-a-retrospective-study
#19
Enid E Martinez, Peter W Forbes, Sharon E O'Brien, Sarah D de Ferranti
BACKGROUND: Lower socioeconomic status has been associated with adverse lipid levels in adult populations. Childhood dyslipidemia is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining relationships between socioeconomic indicators and lipid levels in children are limited. To examine the relationship between income level and lipid levels in childhood. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of primary care patients, ages 2 to 18 years, who had lipid levels drawn at two large pediatric practices in Boston, MA between August 01, 2008 and August 31, 2010...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298049/evaluation-of-hip-height-p-ratio-as-an-index-for-adiposity-and-metabolic-complications-in-obese-children-comparison-with-waist-related-indices
#20
Kazushige Dobashi, Kenichiro Takahashi, Keiko Nagahara, Daisuke Tanaka, Kazuo Itabashi
AIM: To investigate whether body adiposity index (BAI; hip/height(1.5)-18), pediatric BAI (BAIp; hip/height(0.8) - 38), and other hip/height(P) ratios are useful in obese children. METHOD: Ninety obese Japanese children, 55 boys and 35 girls, who visited our University Clinic, were enrolled. The age was 9.92±2.6 (mean±SD) years, and the percentage overweight (POW) was 51.6±18.8%. We set the power value of the hip/height(P) 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1, 1.5, and 2 and studied the association with overweight indices, biochemical data, and fat area measured by computed tomography...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
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