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Pediatric dyslipidemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349100/vitamin-d-deficiency-associated-with-markers-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-children-with-obesity
#1
Marisa Censani, Hoda T Hammad, Paul J Christos, Tiffany Schumaker
Adult studies have reported associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) with dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease; however, there are scarce pediatric data regarding relationships between vitamin D status and specific lipid markers affecting cardiovascular risk. In this cross-sectional study of children evaluated at university-based pediatric endocrinology clinics, 178 patients meeting criteria for overweight or obesity had 25OHD levels assessed over a 2-year period; 60 of 178 had non-HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and fasting lipid parameters performed...
2018: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345597/pediatric-markers-of-adult-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Micah Olson, Melissa Chambers, Gabe Shaibi
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the United States . Atherosclerotic CV events do not occur until adulthood, except in the context of rare genetic disorders such as homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. However, the atherogenic process that leads to CVD begins in childhood and progresses throughout the lifespan . The degree of atherosclerosis early in life is associated with established risk factors for CVD (e.g. family history, obesity, dyslipidemia), indicating that the development and progression of atherosclerosis in childhood is driven by genetic as well as environmental factors...
January 16, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332587/lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-could-dyslipidemia-drive-the-diagnosis
#3
Ornella Guardamagna
LAL-deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare and systemic condition, secondary to LIPA gene mutations, responsible for lysosomal accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides, whose manifestations are very heterogeneous in terms of age of onset, severity and type of clinical and radiological manifestations. Dyslipidemia, hepatomegaly and hepatosteatosis with increased levels of transaminases are the most common features. The increased risk of premature atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders,, secondary to a generalized alteration of lipid profile and lipoprotein dysfunction associated with LAL-D, has been increasingly pointed out...
January 11, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245288/elevated-serum-lipoprotein-a-as-a-risk-factor-for-combined-intracranial-and-extracranial-artery-stenosis-in-a-child-with-arterial-ischemic-stroke-a-case-report
#4
Ji Yoon Han, Hyun Jeong Kim, Soyoung Shin, Joonhong Park, In Goo Lee
RATIONALE: Stroke is an uncommon disease in childhood with an estimated incidence of 1 to 6 per 100,000 and stenoocclusive arteriopathy is the main risk factor of recurrent pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Dyslipidemia may influence strongly before puberty and in late adolescence when plasma levels are naturally highest. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 11-year-old male presented with acute onset seizure, a drowsy mentality, and right hemiplegia. DIAGNOSES: Magnetic resonance (MR) angiogram demonstrated occlusion of distal basilar artery and left vertebral arteries...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229232/dyslipidemia-in-children-with-arterial-ischemic-stroke-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#5
Sally Sultan, Michael Dowling, Adam Kirton, Gabrielle DeVeber, Alexandra Linds, Mitchell S V Elkind
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for pediatric stroke are poorly understood and require study to improve prevention. Total cholesterol and triglyceride values peak to near-adult levels before puberty, a period of increased stroke incidence. The role of lipids in childhood arterial ischemic stroke has been minimally investigated. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of lipid and Lp(a) concentrations in children with arterial ischemic stroke in the International Pediatric Stroke Study to compare the prevalence of dyslipidemia and high- or low-ranking lipid values in our dataset with reported population values...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224938/subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients-carotid-and-aorta-intima-media-thickness-and-their-predictors
#6
Emily R Perito, Andrew Phelps, Tabitha Vase, Vickie A Feldstein, Robert H Lustig, Philip Rosenthal
OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence and predictors of cardiovascular risk in pediatric liver transplant recipients using noninvasive markers of subclinical atherosclerosis: carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and aorta intima-media thickness (aIMT). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 88 pediatric liver transplant recipients. The cIMT and aIMT were measured by ultrasound imaging using standardized protocol. RESULTS: Participants were 15...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218062/preliminary-study-regarding-the-association-between-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-gene-polymorphisms-and-childhood-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome-in-romanian-pediatric-patients
#7
Ioana Tieranu, Monica I Dutescu, Constantin Bara, Cristian G Tieranu, Mihaela Balgradean, Olivia M Popa
Background: Childhood idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is one of the most common glomerular diseases, characterized by heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, dyslipidemia and generalized edema. Although some progresses were made regarding the pathogenesis of this disease, there are a lot of questions still left unanswered. Some of them involve the implications of several cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), in the development and clinical course of INS. Objective: Our objective was to analyze the role of two single nucleotide polymorphisms of TNF-alpha gene in the development of pediatric INS and their implication in the response to corticosteroid therapy...
September 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184820/metabolic-syndrome-in-children-and-adolescents
#8
REVIEW
Dania Al-Hamad, Vandana Raman
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents is increasing, in parallel with the increasing trends in obesity rates. Varying definitions of this syndrome have hindered the development of a consensus for the diagnostic criteria in the pediatric population. While pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is not completely understood, insulin resistance and subsequent inflammation are thought to be among its main mechanistic underpinnings. Overweight and obesity are cardinal features, along with abnormal glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and hypertension...
October 2017: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180296/universal-lipid-screening-in-9-11-year-olds-before-and-after-2011-guidelines
#9
Nicole L Mihalopoulos, Carole Stipelman, Joni Hemond, Laura L Brown, Paul C Young
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the 2011 guidelines for universal routine screening for dyslipidemia in children aged 9 to 11 years, published by the Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, are being followed by pediatric primary care providers. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data were obtained for 63,951 well-child visits (WCV) in children aged 9 to 11 years from two health care systems and one insurance program from 2009 to 2015...
November 24, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166372/placental-lipid-processing-in-response-to-a-maternal-high-fat-diet-and-diabetes-in-rats
#10
Eli J Louwagie, Tricia D Larsen, Angela L Wachal, Michelle L Baack
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and obesity during pregnancy impact the health of both mothers and developing babies. Prevention focuses on glycemic control, but increasing evidence implicates a role for lipids. Using a rat model, we showed that a maternal high-fat (HF) diet, increased perinatal morbidity and mortality, but lipid processing across the maternal-placental-fetal triad remained unstudied. We hypothesized that HF diet would disrupt placental lipid processing to exaggerate fuel-mediated consequences of diabetic pregnancy...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161075/metabolic-dysregulation-systemic-inflammation-and-pediatric-obesity-related-asthma
#11
Deepa Rastogi, Fernando Holguin
Obesity-related asthma is a distinct pediatric asthma phenotype. It is associated with higher disease burden, lower pulmonary function, and suboptimal response to current asthma medications. Recent studies have made inroads into elucidating its pathophysiology. Systemic immune responses in obese children with asthma are skewed to a nonatopic T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) pattern that correlates with pulmonary function deficits. The prevalence of metabolic dysregulation is also higher among obese children with asthma than among normal-weight children with asthma...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147128/the-effect-of-educational-intervention-on-weight-loss-in-adolescents-with-overweight-and-obesity-application-of-the-theory-of-planned-behavior
#12
Seyed Saeed Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad, Zohreh Sadat Navabi, Alireza Ahmadi, Mohsen Askarishahi
BACKGROUND: The increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) efficiently explains the ability of perceived behavioral control and possibly attitude to enhance the motivations of the obese people to lose weight. Our aim was to investigate the effect of TPB-based education on weight loss in obese and overweight adolescents. METHODS: In an interventional study, simple random sampling was used to select 86 overweight and obese adolescents aged 13-18 years in the pediatric clinic at the Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute...
July 2017: ARYA Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131049/changing-characteristics-of-obese-children-and-adolescents-entering-pediatric-lifestyle-intervention-programs-in-germany-over-the-last-11-years-an-adiposity-patients-registry-multicenter-analysis-of-65-453-children-and-adolescents
#13
Barbara Bohn, Susanna Wiegand, Wieland Kiess, Thomas Reinehr, Rainer Stachow, Johannes Oepen, Helmut Langhof, Thomas Hermann, Kurt Widhalm, Martin Wabitsch, Ines Gellhaus, Reinhard Holl
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether characteristics of children and adolescents who start lifestyle intervention (LI) for obesity in Germany changed over the last decade. METHODS: 65,453 subjects (<21 years) from the APV database (Adiposity Patients Registry) with a BMI ≥ 90th percentile were included (years 2005-2015). Logistic regression models (confounders: age, sex, migration background) were created for overweight, obesity, extreme obesity, and obesity-related comorbidities...
2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117624/the-role-of-lipids-in-the-pathogenesis-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-adolescents
#14
Shahnaz Taghizadeh, Mohammad Alizadeh
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a driving force behind the increase in adolescent's metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although there is no clear consensus about the pediatric definition for MetS, this syndrome is becoming very common among adolescents. It is characterized by insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity and hypertension, and is associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD in adulthood. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is strong incentive to reduce the impact of the adverse health effects associated with MetS...
November 8, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022136/aortic-carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-flow-mediated-dilation-as-markers-of-early-atherosclerosis-in-a-cohort-of-pediatric-patients-with-rheumatic-diseases
#15
Emanuela Del Giudice, Anna Dilillo, Luciana Tromba, Giuseppe La Torre, Sara Blasi, Fabrizio Conti, Franca Viola, Salvatore Cucchiara, Marzia Duse
The aims of this study were to identify the presence of endothelial dysfunction as a marker of early atherosclerosis by measuring aortic and carotid intimal-medial thickness (aIMT and cIMT) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and their correlation with traditional and no traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis in children with rheumatic diseases. Thirty-nine patients (mean age 15.3 ± 5.7 years), 23 juvenile idiopathic arthritis, 9 juvenile spondyloarthropathies, 7 connective tissue diseases (mean disease duration and onset respectively 5 ± 3...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984255/risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-obese-children
#16
T Chandrasekhar, M M Suchitra, M Pallavi, P V L N Srinivasa Rao, Alok Sachan
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric obesity. METHODS: 50 obese children (age 5-17y) and 50 apparently healthy non-obese children (body mass index of over 95th percentile and between 5th to 95th percentiles, respectively) using Centre for Disease Control growth charts were included. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, uric acid, fibrinogen, lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, malondialdehyde, ferric reducing ability of plasma and nitric oxide were measured...
September 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899857/high-fat-high-fructose-high-cholesterol-feeding-causes-severe-nash-and-cecal-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-juvenile-ossabaw-swine
#17
Matthew R Panasevich, Grace M Meers, Melissa A Linden, Frank W Booth, James W Perfield, Kevin L Fritsche, Umesh D Wankhade, Sree V Chintapalli, Kartik Shankar, J A Ibdah, R Scott Rector
Pediatric obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are on the rise in industrialized countries, yet our ability to mechanistically examine this relationship is limited by the lack of a suitable higher animal model. Here, we examined the effects of high fat, high fructose corn syrup, high cholesterol Western style diet (WD)-induced obesity on NASH and cecal microbiota dysbiosis in juvenile Ossabaw swine. Juvenile female Ossabaw swine (5 weeks old) were fed WD (43.0% fat; 17.8% high fructose corn syrup; 2% cholesterol) or low-fat diet (CON/lean; 10...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887090/vitamin-c-partially-prevents-reproductive-damage-in-adult-male-rats-exposed-to-rosuvastatin-during-prepuberty
#18
Gabriel Adan Araújo Leite, Thamiris Moreira Figueiredo, Tainá Louise Pacheco, Marciana Sanabria, Patrícia Villela E Silva, Fábio Henrique Fernandes, Wilma De Grava Kempinas
Pediatric obesity is closely associated with dyslipidemias and environmental factors, such as diet and lack of physical exercises, which may alter lipid profile in children. Rosuvastatin decreases serum total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) plays an important role on sperm integrity and fertility. Juvenile male rats were distributed into six experimental groups that received saline solution 0.9%, 3 or 10 mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin, 150 mg/day of ascorbic acid, or 3 or 10 mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin co-administered with 150 mg/day of ascorbic acid from PND23 until PND53 and then the rats were maintained until sexual maturity...
September 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846671/effects-of-postnatal-overfeeding-and-fish-oil-diet-on-energy-expenditure-in-rats
#19
Yanyan Dai, Nan Zhou, Fan Yang, Shanshan Zhou, Lijun Sha, Jianping Wang, Xiaonan Li
BACKGROUD: Early life nutrition may have a role in the regulation of metabolism in adulthood. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of postnatal overfeeding and a postweaning fish oil diet on energy expenditure. METHODS: On postnatal day 3, rat litters were adjusted to a litter size of three (small litters, SLs) or ten (normal litters, NLs). After weaning, SLs were fed the standard diet or a fish oil diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (SL-FOs) for 10 weeks...
August 28, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828986/lipid-profile-of-children-suffering-from-pediatric-rheumatic-diseases-prds
#20
A K M Mamunur Rashid, Habiba Sultana, Tasnuva Islam
Aim of this study is to assess the lipid status of the patients of pediatric rheumatologic diseases (pRDS) This observational study is carried out in the department of pediatrics, Khulna medical college hospital, Bangladesh for a period of one year. Total 23 patients are included in this study. These new cases are diagnosed according to the ILAR, ACR, and EULAR criteria. Early morning blood samples are sent to the laboratory for the assessment of lipid status (TC, TG, HDL, and LDL). These values are collected and statistically recorded...
August 21, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reviews
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