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Amelia E Van Pelt, Beatriz Quiñones, Hannah L Lofgren, Faith E Bartz, Kira L Newman, Juan S Leon
Foodborne illness burdens individuals around the world and may be caused by consuming fresh produce contaminated with bacterial, parasite, and viral pathogens. Pathogen contamination on produce may originate at the farm and packing facility. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of human pathogens (bacteria, parasites, and viruses) on fresh produce (fruits, herbs, and vegetables) on farms and in packing facilities worldwide through a systematic review of 38 peer-reviewed articles. The median and range of the prevalence was calculated, and Kruskal-Wallis tests and logistic regression were performed to compare prevalence among pooled samples of produce groups, pathogen types, and sampling locations...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Elizabeth Nalintya, David B Meya, Sarah Lofgren, Kathy Huppler Hullsiek, David R Boulware, Radha Rajasingham
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus is a leading cause of AIDS-related mortality. Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) is detectable in blood before meningitis onset, and predicts death. CrAg screening amongst those with advanced HIV, and treatment of those CrAg+ with fluconazole has demonstrated survival benefit. However, implementation and widespread uptake have been slow outside of clinical trials. METHODS: We designed a CrAg screening program for routine care that incorporated intensive education and training of clinic staff...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Mia Fahlén, Hua Zhang, Lars Löfgren, Britt Masironi, Eva VON Schoultz, B O VON Schoultz, Lena Sahlin
BACKGROUND: Progesterone and androgens are important for normal development and tumorigenesis of the breast. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Breast tissue samples from 49 premenopausal women were obtained. The progesterone receptors (PRA, PRB, PGRMC1 and PGRMC2) and the androgen receptor (AR) were determined in malignant and benign breast tumors and control tissues. RESULTS: The PRB and AR mRNA levels were highest in tumors. PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA levels were higher in malignant tumors compared to their paired normal tissues...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
Lars W Andersen, Mathias J Holmberg, Asger Granfeldt, Bo Løfgren, Kimberly Vellano, Bryan F McNally, Bob Siegerink, Tobias Kurth, Michael W Donnino
BACKGROUND: Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be used by bystanders to provide rapid defibrillation for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Whether neighborhood characteristics are associated with AED use is unknown. Furthermore, the association between AED use and outcomes has not been well characterized for all (i.e. shockable and non-shockable) public OHCAs. METHODS: We included public, non-911-responder witnessed OHCAs registered in the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) between 2013 and 2016...
February 22, 2018: Resuscitation
Marie Vognstoft Hjortbak, Johanne Hjort, Jonas Agerlund Povlsen, Rebekka Vibjerg Jensen, Nicolaj Brejnholdt Støttrup, Mia R Laursen, Nichlas Riise Jespersen, Bo Løfgren, Hans Erik Bøtker
Augmented mortality and morbidity following an acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus Type 2 (T2DM) may be caused by increased sensitivity to ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury or altered activation of endogenous cardioprotective pathways modified by T2DM per se or ischemic preconditioning (IPC). We aimed to investigate, whether the duration of T2DM influences sensitivity against IR injury and the efficacy of IPC, and how myocardial glucose oxidation rate was involved. Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (homozygote (fa/fa)) at ages 6-(prediabetic), 12- (onset diabetes) and 24-weeks of age (late diabetes) and their age-matched non-diabetic controls (heterozygote (fa/+) were subjected to IR injury in the Langendorff model and randomised to IPC stimulus or control...
2018: PloS One
Manan Pareek, Martin Bødtker Mortensen, Bo Løfgren, Mette Lundgren Nielsen, Michael Hecht Olsen, Niels Holmark Andersen
This review summarizes the cardiovascular non-inferiority trials of novel antidiabetic drugs performed since 2008, when regulatory agencies started mandating thorough examination of their cardiovascular safety. So far, eight randomized trials on three different drug classes have been completed. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists may reduce cardiovascular risk and possibly mortality, while dipeptidyl dipeptidase-4 inhibitors may increase the risk of heart failure...
February 5, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
U Flodin, B Rolander, H Löfgren, B Krapi, F Nyqvist, C Wåhlin
BACKGROUND: No previous research has been performed into neck pain among forklift operators. This is a common complaint among these workers, who number around 150,000 in Sweden and six million in Europe. The aim of the study was to examine long-term exposure to unnatural neck positions among forklift operators as a risk factor for neck pain. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of all eligible employees at a high-level warehouse. Forklift operators and office workers answered an 18-page questionnaire comprising questions about joint pain, work tasks, work postures and year of start for all items...
February 9, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Kasper Glerup Lauridsen, Anders Sjørslev Schmidt, Kasper Adelborg, Leif Bach, Nete Hornung, Simon Munkesø Jepsen, Charles D Deakin, Hans Rickers, Bo Løfgren
Oxygen has long been assumed beneficial for all ill and injured patients. However, hyperoxia may be harmful and aggravate myocardial injury such as that caused by myocardial infarction. We aimed to investigate if hyperoxia increases myocardial injury following direct current cardioversion compared with room air. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective biphasic cardioversion for atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter were randomized to receive room air or oxygen (10-15 L/min) during the procedure...
February 2018: American Heart Journal
Lotus Lofgren, Nhu H Nguyen, Peter G Kennedy
Despite the importance of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi in forest ecosystems, knowledge about the ecological and co-evolutionary mechanisms underlying ECM host associations remains limited. Using a widely distributed group of ECM fungi known to form tight associations with trees in the family Pinaceae, we characterized host specificity among three unique Suillus-host species pairs using a combination of field root tip sampling and experimental bioassays. We demonstrate that the ECM fungus S. subaureus can successfully colonize Quercus hosts in both field and glasshouse settings, making this species unique in an otherwise Pinaceae-specific clade...
February 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Emil Hamnevik, Dirk Maurer, Thilak Reddy Enugala, Thao Chu, Robin Löfgren, Doreen Dobritzsch, Mikael Widersten
Laboratory evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase produced enzyme variants with improved turnover numbers with a vicinal 1,2-diol and its corresponding hydroxyketone. Crystal structure and transient kinetics analysis aid in rationalizing the new functions of these variants.
January 31, 2018: Biochemistry
Ida V Lundberg, Maria L Wikberg, Ingrid Ljuslinder, Xingru Li, Robin Myte, Carl Zingmark, Anna Löfgren-Burström, Sofia Edin, Richard Palmqvist
BACKGROUND/AIM: KRAS and BRAF are two genes commonly mutated in colorectal cancer (CRC). Even though BRAF is a downstream target of KRAS in the MAPK signalling pathway, KRAS- and BRAF-mutated CRCs are found to display several different clinical and histopathological features. We investigated whether a differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) could explain the clinicopathological differences seen between KRAS- and BRAF-mutated CRCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a PCR array, we analyzed the expression of 84 different miRNAs in CRC cell lines wild-type in KRAS and BRAF, or mutated in KRAS or BRAF...
February 2018: Anticancer Research
Jelle R Miedema, Ylva Kaiser, Caroline E Broos, Marlies S Wijsenbeek, Johan Grunewald, Mirjam Kool
Sarcoidosis, a multisystem granulomatous disorder, has historically been classified as Th1-driven disease. However, increasing data demonstrate a key role of Th17-cell plasticity in granuloma formation and maintenance. In Löfgren's syndrome (LS), an acute and distinct phenotype of sarcoidosis with a favorable outcome, differences in Th17-lineage cell subsets, cytokine expression and T-cell suppressive mechanisms may account for differences in clinical presentation as well as prognosis compared to non-LS sarcoidosis...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
M Elizabeth Halloran, Kari Auranen, Sarah Baird, Nicole E Basta, Steven E Bellan, Ron Brookmeyer, Ben S Cooper, Victor DeGruttola, James P Hughes, Justin Lessler, Eric T Lofgren, Ira M Longini, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, Berk Özler, George R Seage, Thomas A Smith, Alessandro Vespignani, Emilia Vynnycky, Marc Lipsitch
BACKGROUND: Interventions in infectious diseases can have both direct effects on individuals who receive the intervention as well as indirect effects in the population. In addition, intervention combinations can have complex interactions at the population level, which are often difficult to adequately assess with standard study designs and analytical methods. DISCUSSION: Herein, we urge the adoption of a new paradigm for the design and interpretation of intervention trials in infectious diseases, particularly with regard to emerging infectious diseases, one that more accurately reflects the dynamics of the transmission process...
December 29, 2017: BMC Medicine
Troels Mygind-Klausen, André Jæger, Camilla Hansen, Rasmus Aagaard, Lise Qvirin Krogh, Mette Amalie Nebsbjerg, Kristian Krogh, Bo Løfgren
INTRODUCTION: In-hospital cardiac arrest has a poor prognosis and often occurs in patients lying in a hospital bed. A bed mattress is a soft compressible surface that may decrease cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality. Often hospital CPR training is performed with a manikin on the floor. AIM: To study CPR quality following realistic CPR training with a manikin in a bed compared with one on the floor. METHODS: We conducted a randomised controlled study...
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Marvin H Gee, Arnold Han, Shane M Lofgren, John F Beausang, Juan L Mendoza, Michael E Birnbaum, Michael T Bethune, Suzanne Fischer, Xinbo Yang, Raquel Gomez-Eerland, David B Bingham, Leah V Sibener, Ricardo A Fernandes, Andrew Velasco, David Baltimore, Ton N Schumacher, Purvesh Khatri, Stephen R Quake, Mark M Davis, K Christopher Garcia
The immune system can mount T cell responses against tumors; however, the antigen specificities of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are not well understood. We used yeast-display libraries of peptide-human leukocyte antigen (pHLA) to screen for antigens of "orphan" T cell receptors (TCRs) expressed on TILs from human colorectal adenocarcinoma. Four TIL-derived TCRs exhibited strong selection for peptides presented in a highly diverse pHLA-A∗02:01 library. Three of the TIL TCRs were specific for non-mutated self-antigens, two of which were present in separate patient tumors, and shared specificity for a non-mutated self-antigen derived from U2AF2...
December 20, 2017: Cell
Anton Löfgren, Niklas Andersson, Anton Sellberg, Bernt Nilsson, Magnus Löfgren, Susanne Wood
This work is a proof of concept of how a sequence of industrial batch separation steps together are used to form an integrated autonomous downstream process. The sequence in this case study consisted of an anion chromatography step, virus inactivation and finally a hydrophobic chromatography step. Moving from batch to integrated separation minimizes hold-up times, storage tanks and required equipment. The conversion from batch to integrated mode was achieved by extracting operating points and separation data from batch chromatograms...
December 16, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Rasmus Aagaard, Bo Løfgren, Thorbjørn Grøfte, Erik Sloth, Roni R Nielsen, Christian A Frederiksen, Asger Granfeldt, Morten T Bøtker
INTRODUCTION: Focused cardiac ultrasound can potentially identify reversible causes of cardiac arrest during advanced life support (ALS), but data on the timing of image acquisition are lacking. This study aimed to compare the quality of images obtained during rhythm analysis, bag-mask ventilations, and chest compressions. METHODS: Adult patients in cardiac arrest were prospectively included during 23 months at a Danish community hospital. Physicians who had completed basic ultrasound training performed subcostal focused cardiac ultrasound during rhythm analysis, bag-mask ventilations, and chest compressions...
December 12, 2017: Resuscitation
Emil Nüssler, Jacob Kjær Eskildsen, Emil Karl Nüssler, Marie Bixo, Mats Löfgren
The article "Impact of surgeon experience on routine prolapse operations", written by Emil Nüssler, Jacob Kjær Eskildsen, Emil Karl Nüssler, Marie Bixo, and Mats Löfgren, was originally published without open access.
December 13, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
Andrea Hållstam, Monika Löfgren, Lina Benson, Christer Svensén, Britt-Marie Stålnacke
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pain is one of the most common reasons for patients to seek primary health care. Pain relief is likely to be achieved for patients suffering from acute pain, but for individuals with chronic pain it is more likely that the condition will persist. These patients have the option of being referred to specialised pain clinics. However, the complexity surrounding chronic pain patients is not well studied in these settings. This study aimed to describe patients with chronic pain referred to a pain clinic by using the information submitted during their first visit and one year later and also to identify associations between baseline characteristics and improvements in health-related quality of life in the follow-up...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Jennifer Lofgren, Amy L Miller, Claudia Chui Shan Lee, Carla Bradshaw, Paul Flecknell, Johnny Roughan
Murine orthotopic cancer models often require surgery, potentially causing pain or distress. However, analgesics are often withheld because they may alter tumour development. Two orthotopically implanted cancers were investigated in mice pre-treated with meloxicam (10 mg/kg), buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg) or saline (1 ml/kg). Tumours were imaged and welfare was assessed using body weight, behaviour and nociceptive responses. In study 1, BALB/c mice were inoculated with 4T1 mammary carcinoma or saline during surgery or anaesthesia...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
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