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Human immunodeficiency virus

Teresa T Vo, Sheeba Varghese Gupta
For treatment-naïve patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, efavirenz (EFV) together with tenofovir and emtricitabine were once widely prescribed given its efficacy and ease of administration in a combination pill. However, the high rate of central nervous system toxicities from EFV prompted the United States Department of Health and Human Services to move the EFV-based regimen from the recommended to the alternative category. For patients who do meet the criteria for newer recommended antiretroviral treatments, EFV is a viable option and is often the mainstay of treatment outside the United States, as newer antiretroviral treatments are more expensive...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
R N Villar-Quiles, J Porta-Etessam
INTRODUCTION: Neurosyphilis can occur at any time following infection by Treponema pallidum and its incidence has increased over recent years. The epidemiological and clinical pattern has undergone a substantial change in the post-antibiotic era. AIMS: To describe and analyse the population of patients diagnosed with neurosyphilis at a tertiary hospital in Madrid from January to May 2015. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the following data was performed: demographic, clinical, complementary tests -serology, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuroimaging- and progression of 28 patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2015...
November 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Donald P Rice, John J Faragon, Sarah Banks, Lisa M Chirch
Therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and chronic hepatitis C has evolved over the past decade, resulting in better control of infection and clinical outcomes; however, drug-drug interactions remain a significant hazard. Joint recommendations from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America regarding drug-drug interactions between HIV antiretroviral agents and direct-acting antiviral agents for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are reviewed here...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Jacinta Nwamaka Nwogu, Qing Ma, Chinedum Peace Babalola, Waheed Adeola Adedeji, Gene D Morse, Babafemi Taiwo
Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Pradeep Kumar Maurya, Mayur Deepak Thakkar, Dinkar Kulshreshtha, Ajai Kumar Singh, Anup Kumar Thacker
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection.
October 24, 2016: Clinical Medicine & Research
Kévin Jean, Marie-Claude Boily, Christine Danel, Raoul Moh, Anani Badjé, Annabel Desgrées-du-Loû, Serge Eholié, France Lert, Rosemary Dray-Spira, Xavier Anglaret, Eric Ouattara
Whether risk compensation could offset the preventive effect of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission remains unknown. Using virological and behavioral data collected 12 months after inclusion in the TEMPRANO randomized trial of early ART (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 2009-2012), we estimated the risk of HIV transmission and compared it between the intervention (early ART; n = 490) and control (deferred ART; n = 467) groups. We then simulated increases in various sexual risk behaviors in the intervention group and estimated the resulting preventive effect...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ank E Nijhawan
The United States leads the world in incarceration, which disproportionately affects disadvantaged individuals, including those who are mentally ill, poor, homeless and racial minorities. Incarceration is disruptive to families and communities and contributes to health disparities in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this grand rounds is to review (1) the epidemiology of incarceration in the United States, (2) the social factors which contribute to high rates of STIs in incarcerated individuals and (3) the HIV care cascade in incarcerated and recently released individuals...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
L Petrone, A Cannas, V Vanini, G Cuzzi, F Aloi, M Nsubuga, J Sserunkuma, R A Nazziwa, L Jugheli, T Lukindo, E Girardi, A Antinori, L Pucci, K Reither, D Goletti
SETTING: Blood interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) has been proposed as a biomarker of disease activity for both tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Urine IP-10 has been detected in adults with active TB, and its level decreases after successful anti-tuberculosis treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood and urine IP-10 as biomarker of disease activity. DESIGN: Patients with HIV-TB and active TB were enrolled...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
J Noeske, A Nana Yakam, J-L Abena Foe
SETTING: The Cameroonian National Tuberculosis Programme. OBJECTIVES: To assess case surveillance data for the 9-year period between January 2006 and December 2014. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive analysis of tuberculosis (TB) case finding in Cameroon using routine surveillance data. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, disease category, clinical and laboratory variables, and geographic regions were analysed. RESULTS: The absolute number of TB cases (all forms) notified increased from 24 878 in 2006 to 26 517 in 2014; however, the population-adjusted annual case notification rate (CNR) of TB (all forms) as well as that of new smear-positive pulmonary TB cases decreased significantly, from 139 to 121 (P < 0...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A Daftary, N Padayatchi
OBJECTIVE: To examine influences on health care workers' (HCWs') capacity to deliver health care for multi- and/or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in South Africa. DESIGN: Qualitative data were collected via group and individual interviews with a purposive sample of 17 HCWs at a centralised, tertiary TB facility and analysed using grounded theory. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: 1) personal infection control practices among HCWs may be weakened by a workplace culture comprising low motivation, disparate risk perceptions and practices across workforce hierarchies, physical discomfort, and problems managing patients with treatment-induced hearing loss...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
D J Mibei, J W Kiarie, A Wairia, M Kamene, M E Okumu
SETTING: Successful treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is crucial in preventing disease transmission and reducing related morbidity and mortality. A standardised DR-TB treatment regimen is used in Kenya. Although patients on treatment are monitored, no evaluation of factors affecting treatment outcomes has yet been performed. OBJECTIVE: To analyse treatment outcomes of DR-TB patients in Kenya and factors associated with successful outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of secondary data from Kenya's National Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Lung disease programme...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A J Garcia-Prats, L du Plessis, H R Draper, A Burger, J A Seddon, K Zimri, A C Hesseling, H S Schaaf
SETTING: Isoniazid-resistant rifampicin-susceptible (H(R)R(S)) tuberculosis (TB) is the most prevalent form of drug-resistant TB globally, and may be a risk factor for poor outcomes, but has been poorly described in children. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the clinical presentation, treatment, and clinical and microbiological outcomes among children with culture-confirmed H(R)R(S) TB. DESIGN: Retrospective hospital-based cohort study. RESULTS: Of the 72 children included in the study, the median age was 50...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
S Chaya, Z Dangor, F Solomon, S A Nzenze, A Izu, S A Madhi
SETTING: This study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital in Soweto, a peri-urban low-middle income setting. Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is a severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, mortality and clinical features of TBM in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and non-infected children in South Africa from 2006 to 2011. DESIGN: A retrospective, cross-sectional descriptive study...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A Turkova, E Chappell, S Chalermpantmetagul, M Della Negra, A Volokha, N Primak, S Solokha, V Rozenberg, G Kiselyova, E Yastrebova, M Miloenko, N Bashakatova, S Kanjanavanit, J Calvert, P Rojo, S Ansone, G Jourdain, R Malyuta, R Goodall, A Judd, C Thorne
SETTING: Centres participating in the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA), including Thailand and Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, presentation, treatment and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children. DESIGN: Observational study of TB diagnosed in HIV-infected children in 2011-2013. RESULTS: Of 4265 children aged <16 years, 127 (3%) were diagnosed with TB: 6 (5%) in Western Europe, 80 (63%) in Eastern Europe, 27 (21%) in Thailand and 14 (11%) in Brazil, with estimated TB incidence rates of respectively 239, 982, 1633 and 2551 per 100 000 person-years (py)...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Brennan S Dirk, Logan R Van Nynatten, Jimmy D Dikeakos
Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM) have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell-cell transmission and cell-free viral transmission...
October 19, 2016: Viruses
Athanasios Tsiouris, Lynn Wilson, Rajesh B Sekar, Abeel A Mangi, James J Yun
BACKGROUND: A lack of donor hearts remains a major limitation of heart transplantation. Hearts from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) high-risk donors can be utilized with specific recipient consent. However, outcomes of heart transplantation with CDC high-risk donors are not well known. We sought to define outcomes, including posttransplant hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in recipients of CDC high-risk donor hearts at our institution. METHODS: All heart transplant recipients from August 2010 to December 2014 (n = 74) were reviewed...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Chiara Vendramin, Siobhan McGuckin, Ferras Alwan, John-Paul Westwood, Mari Thomas, Marie Scully
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with acute episodes of thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) require urgent access to plasma exchange (PEX). OctaplasLG, a solvent/detergent fresh-frozen plasma product that has undergone viral inactivation and prion reduction step, has been used in our institution since 2013, replacing Octaplas. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively reviewed 981 PEX procedures where OctaplasLG was the replacement fluid in 90 patients admitted acutely with a TMA presentation within our institution from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015...
October 23, 2016: Transfusion
Daisuke Ikeda, Makiko Sugawa, Kazuo Kawahara
Nucleic acid amplification test (NAT), which was introduced by the Japanese Red Cross Society in October 1999, began to be performed for screening of blood transfusion formulations in Japan in August 2014. In this study, the precision of immunological screenings of hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBcAb, and HBsAb), hepatitis C (HCVAb), and human immunodeficiency (HIVAb) virus antigens in donated blood were evaluated. In addition, the sensitivity of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test for detection of the hepatitis B and C viruses was re-evaluated...
2016: Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences
Juan Sebastián Saavedra, Sebastián Urrego, María Eugenia Toro, Carlos Santiago Uribe, Jenny García, Olga Hernández, Juan Carlos Arango, Ángela Beatriz Pérez, Andrés Franco, Isabel Cristina Vélez, Helena Del Corral
OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of Thwaites Index (TI) in a Colombian population to distinguish meningeal tuberculosis (MTB) from bacterial meningitis (BM) and from non-tuberculous meningitis. Exploratory analyses were conducted to assess the TI's validity for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and children above six-years-old. METHODS: The study included 527 patients, the TI was calculated and results compared with those of a reference standard established by expert neurologists...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Kathleen O Degnan, Emily A Blumberg
Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer, healthier lives on highly active antiretroviral therapy and, as a result, interest in kidney transplantation for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal disease has increased. HIV is no longer considered a contraindication to solid-organ transplantation and the number of kidney transplants performed in HIV-infected patients each year is increasing steadily. HIV-infected kidney transplant recipients have had excellent outcomes overall, but there are still significant challenges, including high rates of acute rejection, drug-drug interactions, and poor outcomes in patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
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