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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088051/online-recruitment-and-testing-of-infants-with-mechanical-turk
#1
Michelle Tran, Laura Cabral, Ronak Patel, Rhodri Cusack
Testing infants in the laboratory is expensive in time and money; consequently, many studies are underpowered, reducing their reproducibility. We investigated whether the online platform, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), could be used as a resource to more easily recruit and measure the behavior of infant populations. Using a looking time paradigm, with users' webcams we recorded how long infants aged 5 to 8months attended while viewing children's television programs. We found that infants (N=57) were more reliably engaged by some movies than by others and that the most engaging movies could maintain attention for approximately 70% of a 10- to 13-min period...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068116/the-crowded-life-is-a-slow-life-population-density-and-life-history-strategy
#2
Oliver Sng, Steven L Neuberg, Michael E W Varnum, Douglas T Kenrick
The world population has doubled over the last half century. Yet, research on the psychological effects of human population density, once a popular topic, has decreased over the past few decades. Applying a fresh perspective to an old topic, we draw upon life history theory to examine the effects of population density. Across nations and across the U.S. states (Studies 1 and 2), we find that dense populations exhibit behaviors corresponding to a slower life history strategy, including greater future-orientation, greater investment in education, more long-term mating orientation, later marriage age, lower fertility, and greater parental investment...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063326/mindful-feeding-and-child-dietary-health
#3
Elizabeth A Emley, Maija B Taylor, Dara R Musher-Eizenman
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between mindful feeding as a novel construct and parent-reported child dietary intake. METHODS: Participants (N=497) were parents of children ages 2.9 to 7.5 recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Parents were primarily non-Hispanic white (79%) and female (76%). Simple and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between parental mindful feeding (i.e., parent mental and emotional presence while feeding a child) and their children's dietary intake...
December 21, 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045305/using-online-crowdsourcing-platforms-for-data-collection-in-personality-disorder-research-the-example-of-amazon-s-mechanical-turk
#4
Joshua D Miller, Michael Crowe, Brandon Weiss, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Donald R Lynam
The use of crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) for data collection in the behavioral sciences has increased substantially in the past several years due in large part to (a) the ability to recruit large samples, (b) the inexpensiveness of data collection, (c) the speed of data collection, and (d) evidence that the data collected are, for the most part, of equal or better quality to that collected in undergraduate research pools. In this review, we first evaluate the strengths and potential limitations of this approach to data collection...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893213/reliability-and-validity-of-data-obtained-from-alcohol-cannabis-and-gambling-populations-on-amazon-s-mechanical-turk
#5
Hyoun S Kim, David C Hodgins
Researchers recently have begun using Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online crowdsourcing platform, to recruit addiction populations. However, whether the data obtained from substance users and gamblers on MTurk are reliable and valid is unknown. Herein, we assessed the internal and retest reliability of and concurrent and convergent validity of data obtained from addiction populations on MTurk. Current drinkers (N = 208), cannabis users (N = 200), and gamblers (N = 200) residing in the United States completed measures of alcohol, cannabis, and gambling severity, psychological constructs (e...
November 28, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853533/no-evidence-that-a-range-of-artificial-monitoring-cues-influence-online-donations-to-charity-in-an-mturk-sample
#6
Timothy J Saunders, Alex H Taylor, Quentin D Atkinson
Monitoring cues, such as an image of a face or pair of eyes, have been found to increase prosocial behaviour in several studies. However, other studies have found little or no support for this effect. Here, we examined whether monitoring cues affect online donations to charity while manipulating the emotion displayed, the number of watchers and the cue type. We also include as statistical controls a range of likely covariates of prosocial behaviour. Using the crowdsourcing Internet marketplace, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), 1535 participants completed our survey and were given the opportunity to donate to charity while being shown an image prime...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760403/body-dysmorphic-disorder-symptoms-and-risk-for-suicide-the-role-of-depression
#7
A M Shaw, K A Arditte Hall, E Rosenfield, K R Timpano
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is associated with elevated suicidality. Little is known about why BDD patients are at increased risk. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) could clarify suicidality in BDD, and theorizes that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness lead to suicidal desire, while an acquired capability for suicide is necessary to attempt suicide. No study has investigated how BDD symptoms relate to IPTS constructs or mediators of the relationship between BDD and suicidality...
December 2016: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749186/the-conceptualization-and-assessment-of-schizotypal-traits-a-comparison-of-the-ffsi-and-pid-5
#8
Cristina Crego, Thomas A Widiger
The purpose of the present study was to compare the cognitive and perceptual aberration scales from the Five-Factor Schizotypal Inventory (FFSI; Edmundson, Lynam, Miller, Gore, & Widiger, 2011) and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012), as well as to address more generally the validity of the FFSI as a measure of both schizotypal personality traits and the FFM. Two independent samples were obtained, including 259 college students (55 of whom were preselected with elevated scores on a measure of schizotypal personality disorder [STPD]) and 346 adult MTurk participants (43% of whom had been or were currently in mental health treatment)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712126/perceptions-of-e-cigarettes-a-comparison-of-adult-smokers-and-non-smokers-in-a-mechanical-turk-sample
#9
Sebastian Bauhoff, Adrian Montero, Deborah Scharf
BACKGROUND: Given plans to extend its regulatory authority to e-cigarettes, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) urgently needs to understand how e-cigarettes are perceived by the public. OBJECTIVES: To examine how smoking status impacts adult perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. METHODS: We used Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a "crowdsourcing" platform, to rapidly survey a large (n = 796; female = 381; male = 415), diverse sample of adult ever (44%) and never smokers (56%), including ever (28%) and never (72%) users of e-cigarettes...
August 11, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651401/what-do-our-patients-truly-want-conjoint-analysis-of-an-aesthetic-plastic-surgery-practice-using-internet-crowdsourcing
#10
Cindy Wu, C Scott Hultman, Paul Diegidio, Steven Hermiz, Roja Garimella, Trisha M Crutchfield, Clara N Lee
BACKGROUND: What do patients want when looking for an aesthetic surgeon? When faced with attributes like reputation, years in practice, testimonials, photos, and pricing, which is more valuable? Moreover, are attributes procedure-specific? Currently, inadequate evidence exists on which attributes are most important to patients, and to our knowledge, none on procedure-specific preferences. OBJECTIVES: First, to determine the most important attributes to breast augmentation, combined breast/abdominal surgery, and facelift patients using conjoint analysis...
January 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571743/development-and-validation-of-the-transgender-attitudes-and-beliefs-scale
#11
Yasuko Kanamori, Jeffrey H D Cornelius-White, Teresa K Pegors, Todd Daniel, Joseph Hulgus
: In recent years, issues surrounding transgender have garnered media and legal attention, contributing to rapidly shifting views on gender in the U.S. Yet, there is a paucity of data-driven studies on the public's views of transgender identity. This study reports the development and validation of the Transgender Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (TABS). After constructing an initial 96-item pool from consulting experts and existing scales, Phase 1 of the study was launched, involving an exploratory factor analysis of 48 items...
August 29, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554915/cloud-based-surveys-to-assess-patient-perceptions-of-health-care-1000-respondents-in-3-days-for-us-300
#12
Jonah Bardos, Jenna Friedenthal, Jessica Spiegelman, Zev Williams
BACKGROUND: There are many challenges in conducting surveys of study participants, including cost, time, and ability to obtain quality and reproducible work. Cloudsourcing (an arrangement where a cloud provider is paid to carry out services that could be provided in-house) has the potential to provide vastly larger, less expensive, and more generalizable survey pools. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate, using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a cloud-based workforce to assess patients' perspectives of health care...
August 23, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537007/examining-the-construct-validity-of-affective-judgments-of-physical-activity-measures
#13
Michael Chmielewski, Margarita Sala, Rui Tang, Austin Baldwin
Affective judgments of physical activity have emerged as important predictors of physical activity and interventions targeting affective judgments are a promising approach to improving regular physical activity. Currently, measures assessing a variety of potentially distinct constructs are treated as interchangeable assessments of affective judgments of physical activity. Moreover, little is known about the construct validity of the purported measures of this construct. We review several components of construct validity; highlighting their importance for health psychology research...
September 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485260/positive-feelings-after-casual-sex-the-role-of-gender-and-traditional-gender-role-beliefs
#14
Jacqueline Woerner, Antonia Abbey
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of positive and negative affect following casual sex. Specifically, the primary goal was to investigate how traditional gender-role beliefs, peer approval of casual sex, perceptions of others, sexual assertiveness, and sexual pleasure influence affective experiences. Second, we aimed to determine the extent to which these associations were comparable for men and women. Although we expected mean differences on many of these constructs (e.g., men perceiving more peer approval), we expected the relationships between these constructs to be comparable for women and men...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479809/the-daydreamer-exploring-the-personality-underpinnings-of-daydreaming-styles-and-their-implications-for-well-being
#15
Eve-Marie C Blouin-Hudon, John M Zelenski
In the present research, we looked at how positive-constructive daydreaming, guilty-dysphoric daydreaming, and poor attentional control associate with both broad (i.e., openness to experience) and specific (i.e., introspection) personality traits. A second aim was to determine how daydreaming styles were associated with psychological well-being. Across four studies, 1081 undergraduate (studies 1, 2, and 4) and MTurk (study 3) participants completed online questionnaires. A fixed-effect meta-analysis revealed that introspection was a significant predictor of both positive and negative daydreaming styles, but not a consistent predictor of poor attentional control...
August 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460880/methodological-credibility-an-empirical-investigation-of-the-public-s-perception-of-evaluation-findings-and-methods
#16
Miriam R Jacobson, Tarek Azzam
BACKGROUND: When evaluations are broadly disseminated, the public can use them to support a program or to advocate for change. METHODS: To explore how evaluations are perceived and used by the public, individuals in a sample of 425 people in the United States were recruited through an online crowdsourcing service called Mechanical Turk (www.mturk.com). Participants were randomly assigned to receive different versions of a press release describing a summative evaluation of a program...
February 2016: Evaluation Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373186/differential-sensitivity-to-learning-from-positive-and-negative-outcomes-in-cocaine-users
#17
Justin C Strickland, B Levi Bolin, Joshua A Lile, Craig R Rush, William W Stoops
BACKGROUND: Altered sensitivity to positive and negative outcomes may be linked to the maladaptive choices characteristic of substance use disorders. Few studies have determined the distinct roles that positive and negative outcomes play in stimulus-response learning in cocaine users. The purpose of the present study was to investigate sensitivity to learning from positive and negative outcomes on a probabilistic learning task in cocaine users employing human laboratory and crowdsourcing techniques...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351378/measuring-the-prevalence-of-problematic-respondent-behaviors-among-mturk-campus-and-community-participants
#18
Elizabeth A Necka, Stephanie Cacioppo, Greg J Norman, John T Cacioppo
The reliance on small samples and underpowered studies may undermine the replicability of scientific findings. Large sample sizes may be necessary to achieve adequate statistical power. Crowdsourcing sites such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) have been regarded as an economical means for achieving larger samples. Because MTurk participants may engage in behaviors which adversely affect data quality, much recent research has focused on assessing the quality of data obtained from MTurk samples. However, participants from traditional campus- and community-based samples may also engage in behaviors which adversely affect the quality of the data that they provide...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303321/coding-psychological-constructs-in-text-using-mechanical-turk-a-reliable-accurate-and-efficient-alternative
#19
Jennifer Tosti-Kharas, Caryn Conley
In this paper we evaluate how to effectively use the crowdsourcing service, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), to content analyze textual data for use in psychological research. MTurk is a marketplace for discrete tasks completed by workers, typically for small amounts of money. MTurk has been used to aid psychological research in general, and content analysis in particular. In the current study, MTurk workers content analyzed personally-written textual data using coding categories previously developed and validated in psychological research...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295328/the-pitfall-of-experimenting-on-the-web-how-unattended-selective-attrition-leads-to-surprising-yet-false-research-conclusions
#20
Haotian Zhou, Ayelet Fishbach
The authors find that experimental studies using online samples (e.g., MTurk) often violate the assumption of random assignment, because participant attrition-quitting a study before completing it and getting paid-is not only prevalent, but also varies systemically across experimental conditions. Using standard social psychology paradigms (e.g., ego-depletion, construal level), they observed attrition rates ranging from 30% to 50% (Study 1). The authors show that failing to attend to attrition rates in online panels has grave consequences...
October 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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