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Hyoun S Kim, David C Hodgins
Researchers recently have begun using Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online crowdsourcing platform, to recruit addiction populations. However, whether the data obtained from substance users and gamblers on MTurk are reliable and valid is unknown. Herein, we assessed the internal and retest reliability of and concurrent and convergent validity of data obtained from addiction populations on MTurk. Current drinkers (N = 208), cannabis users (N = 200), and gamblers (N = 200) residing in the United States completed measures of alcohol, cannabis, and gambling severity, psychological constructs (e...
November 28, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Timothy J Saunders, Alex H Taylor, Quentin D Atkinson
Monitoring cues, such as an image of a face or pair of eyes, have been found to increase prosocial behaviour in several studies. However, other studies have found little or no support for this effect. Here, we examined whether monitoring cues affect online donations to charity while manipulating the emotion displayed, the number of watchers and the cue type. We also include as statistical controls a range of likely covariates of prosocial behaviour. Using the crowdsourcing Internet marketplace, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), 1535 participants completed our survey and were given the opportunity to donate to charity while being shown an image prime...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
A M Shaw, K A Arditte Hall, E Rosenfield, K R Timpano
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is associated with elevated suicidality. Little is known about why BDD patients are at increased risk. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) could clarify suicidality in BDD, and theorizes that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness lead to suicidal desire, while an acquired capability for suicide is necessary to attempt suicide. No study has investigated how BDD symptoms relate to IPTS constructs or mediators of the relationship between BDD and suicidality...
December 2016: Body Image
Cristina Crego, Thomas A Widiger
The purpose of the present study was to compare the cognitive and perceptual aberration scales from the Five-Factor Schizotypal Inventory (FFSI; Edmundson, Lynam, Miller, Gore, & Widiger, 2011) and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012), as well as to address more generally the validity of the FFSI as a measure of both schizotypal personality traits and the FFM. Two independent samples were obtained, including 259 college students (55 of whom were preselected with elevated scores on a measure of schizotypal personality disorder [STPD]) and 346 adult MTurk participants (43% of whom had been or were currently in mental health treatment)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Sebastian Bauhoff, Adrian Montero, Deborah Scharf
BACKGROUND: Given plans to extend its regulatory authority to e-cigarettes, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) urgently needs to understand how e-cigarettes are perceived by the public. OBJECTIVES: To examine how smoking status impacts adult perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. METHODS: We used Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a "crowdsourcing" platform, to rapidly survey a large (n = 796; female = 381; male = 415), diverse sample of adult ever (44%) and never smokers (56%), including ever (28%) and never (72%) users of e-cigarettes...
August 11, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Cindy Wu, C Scott Hultman, Paul Diegidio, Steven Hermiz, Roja Garimella, Trisha M Crutchfield, Clara N Lee
BACKGROUND: What do patients want when looking for an aesthetic surgeon? When faced with attributes like reputation, years in practice, testimonials, photos, and pricing, which is more valuable? Moreover, are attributes procedure-specific? Currently, inadequate evidence exists on which attributes are most important to patients, and to our knowledge, none on procedure-specific preferences. OBJECTIVES: First, to determine the most important attributes to breast augmentation, combined breast/abdominal surgery, and facelift patients using conjoint analysis...
September 20, 2016: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Yasuko Kanamori, Jeffrey H D Cornelius-White, Teresa K Pegors, Todd Daniel, Joseph Hulgus
: In recent years, issues surrounding transgender have garnered media and legal attention, contributing to rapidly shifting views on gender in the U.S. Yet, there is a paucity of data-driven studies on the public's views of transgender identity. This study reports the development and validation of the Transgender Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (TABS). After constructing an initial 96-item pool from consulting experts and existing scales, Phase 1 of the study was launched, involving an exploratory factor analysis of 48 items...
August 29, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Jonah Bardos, Jenna Friedenthal, Jessica Spiegelman, Zev Williams
BACKGROUND: There are many challenges in conducting surveys of study participants, including cost, time, and ability to obtain quality and reproducible work. Cloudsourcing (an arrangement where a cloud provider is paid to carry out services that could be provided in-house) has the potential to provide vastly larger, less expensive, and more generalizable survey pools. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate, using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a cloud-based workforce to assess patients' perspectives of health care...
August 23, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Michael Chmielewski, Margarita Sala, Rui Tang, Austin Baldwin
Affective judgments of physical activity have emerged as important predictors of physical activity and interventions targeting affective judgments are a promising approach to improving regular physical activity. Currently, measures assessing a variety of potentially distinct constructs are treated as interchangeable assessments of affective judgments of physical activity. Moreover, little is known about the construct validity of the purported measures of this construct. We review several components of construct validity; highlighting their importance for health psychology research...
September 2016: Psychological Assessment
Jacqueline Woerner, Antonia Abbey
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of positive and negative affect following casual sex. Specifically, the primary goal was to investigate how traditional gender-role beliefs, peer approval of casual sex, perceptions of others, sexual assertiveness, and sexual pleasure influence affective experiences. Second, we aimed to determine the extent to which these associations were comparable for men and women. Although we expected mean differences on many of these constructs (e.g., men perceiving more peer approval), we expected the relationships between these constructs to be comparable for women and men...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
Eve-Marie C Blouin-Hudon, John M Zelenski
In the present research, we looked at how positive-constructive daydreaming, guilty-dysphoric daydreaming, and poor attentional control associate with both broad (i.e., openness to experience) and specific (i.e., introspection) personality traits. A second aim was to determine how daydreaming styles were associated with psychological well-being. Across four studies, 1081 undergraduate (studies 1, 2, and 4) and MTurk (study 3) participants completed online questionnaires. A fixed-effect meta-analysis revealed that introspection was a significant predictor of both positive and negative daydreaming styles, but not a consistent predictor of poor attentional control...
August 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Miriam R Jacobson, Tarek Azzam
BACKGROUND: When evaluations are broadly disseminated, the public can use them to support a program or to advocate for change. METHODS: To explore how evaluations are perceived and used by the public, individuals in a sample of 425 people in the United States were recruited through an online crowdsourcing service called Mechanical Turk ( Participants were randomly assigned to receive different versions of a press release describing a summative evaluation of a program...
February 2016: Evaluation Review
Justin C Strickland, B Levi Bolin, Joshua A Lile, Craig R Rush, William W Stoops
BACKGROUND: Altered sensitivity to positive and negative outcomes may be linked to the maladaptive choices characteristic of substance use disorders. Few studies have determined the distinct roles that positive and negative outcomes play in stimulus-response learning in cocaine users. The purpose of the present study was to investigate sensitivity to learning from positive and negative outcomes on a probabilistic learning task in cocaine users employing human laboratory and crowdsourcing techniques...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Elizabeth A Necka, Stephanie Cacioppo, Greg J Norman, John T Cacioppo
The reliance on small samples and underpowered studies may undermine the replicability of scientific findings. Large sample sizes may be necessary to achieve adequate statistical power. Crowdsourcing sites such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) have been regarded as an economical means for achieving larger samples. Because MTurk participants may engage in behaviors which adversely affect data quality, much recent research has focused on assessing the quality of data obtained from MTurk samples. However, participants from traditional campus- and community-based samples may also engage in behaviors which adversely affect the quality of the data that they provide...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer Tosti-Kharas, Caryn Conley
In this paper we evaluate how to effectively use the crowdsourcing service, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), to content analyze textual data for use in psychological research. MTurk is a marketplace for discrete tasks completed by workers, typically for small amounts of money. MTurk has been used to aid psychological research in general, and content analysis in particular. In the current study, MTurk workers content analyzed personally-written textual data using coding categories previously developed and validated in psychological research...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Haotian Zhou, Ayelet Fishbach
The authors find that experimental studies using online samples (e.g., MTurk) often violate the assumption of random assignment, because participant attrition-quitting a study before completing it and getting paid-is not only prevalent, but also varies systemically across experimental conditions. Using standard social psychology paradigms (e.g., ego-depletion, construal level), they observed attrition rates ranging from 30% to 50% (Study 1). The authors show that failing to attend to attrition rates in online panels has grave consequences...
October 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Joanna J Arch, Alaina L Carr
OBJECTIVE: The successful recruitment and study of cancer survivors within psycho-oncology research can be challenging, time-consuming, and expensive, particularly for key subgroups such as young adult cancer survivors. Online crowdsourcing platforms offer a potential solution that has not yet been investigated with regard to cancer populations. The current study assessed the presence of cancer survivors on Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and the feasibility of using MTurk as an efficient, cost-effective, and reliable psycho-oncology recruitment and research platform...
June 10, 2016: Psycho-oncology
Roberta A Schriber, Joanne M Chung, Katherine S Sorensen, Richard W Robins
Contempt is a powerful emotion. Marriages fail (Gottman, 1994), coworkers are shamed (Melwani & Barsade, 2011), terrorism is tended toward (Tausch et al., 2011). Despite its importance, contempt has not been investigated at the level of personality. The present research examines how our contemptuous reactions can be conceptualized and measured as a stable individual-difference variable with a range of theoretically predicted correlates. First, we introduce a measure of dispositional contempt, the tendency to look down on, distance, and derogate others who violate our standards...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jennifer Nguyen, Michael Moorhouse, Barbara Curbow, Juliette Christie, Kim Walsh-Childers, Sabrina Islam
BACKGROUND: The Internet has become a ubiquitous venue for information seeking, especially for health information. Public health practitioners have noticed the promise and potential of the Internet, however, little is known about individuals' skills of their eHealth literacy. The eHealth Literacy Scale, eHEALS, was designed to measure perceptions of individuals' eHealth literacy skills. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the psychometric validity and reliability of the eHEALS with two adult populations using the Rasch Model...
2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Scott R Braithwaite, Christophe Giraud-Carrier, Josh West, Michael D Barnes, Carl Lee Hanson
BACKGROUND: One of the leading causes of death in the United States (US) is suicide and new methods of assessment are needed to track its risk in real time. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to validate the use of machine learning algorithms for Twitter data against empirically validated measures of suicidality in the US population. METHODS: Using a machine learning algorithm, the Twitter feeds of 135 Mechanical Turk (MTurk) participants were compared with validated, self-report measures of suicide risk...
2016: JMIR Mental Health
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