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Rachael D Reavis, Stephanie E Miller, Jordyn A Grimes, Abou-Nica N M Fomukong
Although work with children demonstrates a benefit of process-focused praise relative to person-focused praise on post-failure motivation, few studies have examined this result in adults. We tested the effect of three types of praise on adults' post-failure outcomes: person-focused intelligence ("high intelligence"), person-focused effort ("hard worker"), and process-focused effort ("worked hard") in a sample of 156 adults recruited from Amazon's MTurk. Participants completed a set of easy visual pattern recognition problems and were told that they performed better than most adults and were given one of the three types of feedback...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Morgan N McCredie, Leslie C Morey
As online data collection services such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) gain popularity, the quality and representativeness of such data sources have gained research attention. To date, the majority of existing studies have compared MTurk workers with undergraduate samples, localized community samples, or other Internet-based samples, and thus, there remains little known about the personality and mental health constructs of MTurk workers relative to a national representative sample. The present study addresses these limitations and broadens the scope of existing research through the use of the Personality Assessment Inventory, a multiscale, self-report questionnaire which provides information regarding data validity and personality and psychopathology features standardized against a national U...
February 1, 2018: Assessment
Mike C Parent, Sheila Garos, Emily Branscome, Margaret Piper
Existing measures of experiences of sexualization and objectification of women focus on behaviors that men do toward women. However, women may also contribute to the objectification of other women. The aim of the present study was to develop the Women's Objectification of Women Scale (WOWS). Through a series of four studies using samples of college women and samples obtained through MTurk, we (a) established that existing measures of objectification focus on behaviors that men perform, (b) gathered qualitative data on women's experiences of objectification by women, (c) developed models of the WOWS using classical test theory methods and item response theory, and (d) subjected the WOWS to confirmatory factor analysis and validity testing...
February 1, 2018: Assessment
Jordan M Ellis, Rebecca R Schenk, Amy T Galloway, Hana F Zickgraf, Rose Mary Webb, Denise M Martz
OBJECTIVE: Adult picky eating (PE) has received increased attention in the eating behavior literature due to its important association with adult avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The current study tested a model of potential risk factors of adult PE behavior, including perceived early parental feeding practices. An exploratory model was also utilized to understand associations with different aspects of adult PE behaviors. METHODS: A sample of 1339 US adults recruited through Amazon's MTurk completed an online survey that included the recently developed Adult Picky Eating Questionnaire (APEQ), retrospective reports of parental feeding practices, and other measures of eating behavior and demographic variables...
January 26, 2018: Appetite
Karoline Mortensen, Manuel G Alcalá, Michael T French, Tianyan Hu
BACKGROUND: Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) platform has become a data source for peer-reviewed academic research publications, with over 24,000 Google Scholar search results. Although well-developed and supportive in other disciplines, the literature in health and medicine comparing results from samples generated on MTurk to gold standard, nationally representative health and medical surveys is beginning to emerge. OBJECTIVE: To compare the demographic, socioeconomic, and self-reported health status variables in an MTurk sample to those from 2 prominent national probability surveys, including the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)...
January 11, 2018: Medical Care
Joshua R Oltmanns, Cristina Crego, Thomas A Widiger
A series of self-report measures of personality disorder from the perspective of the five-factor model (FFM) have been published; however, no informant-report versions have been developed. An informant version of the Five Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI) is particularly apt, given the degree of distortion in self-description inherent to narcissism. The present study provides initial validation for the Informant Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (IFFNI). In Study 1, informant reports from friends, romantic partners, parents, and other family members were compared with self-reports provided by undergraduate college students on the IFFNI, FFM personality, and social dysfunction...
January 2018: Psychological Assessment
Megan L Rogers, Thomas E Joiner
Suicide-specific rumination, defined as a mental fixation on one's suicidal thoughts, intentions, and plans, may be an important predictor of suicidal behavior. To date, suicide-specific rumination has demonstrated convergence with, yet distinction from, a variety of suicide risk factors, and differentiated suicide attempters from ideators. However, no research has examined whether suicide-specific rumination is associated with lifetime suicide attempts above and beyond the presence of a host of other relevant suicide risk factors...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Karoline Mortensen, Taylor L Hughes
BACKGROUND: The goal of this article is to conduct an assessment of the peer-reviewed primary literature with study objectives to analyze 's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) as a research tool in a health services research and medical context. METHODS: Searches of Google Scholar and PubMed databases were conducted in February 2017. We screened article titles and abstracts to identify relevant articles that compare data from MTurk samples in a health and medical context to another sample, expert opinion, or other gold standard...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Meghan E Morean, Ellyn R Butler, Krysten W Bold, Grace Kong, Deepa R Camenga, Dana A Cavallo, Patricia Simon, Stephanie S O'Malley, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
INTRODUCTION: Many e-cigarette users find the variety of e-cigarette flavors appealing. We examined whether preferences for e-liquid flavors and the total number of flavors preferred differed between samples of adolescent and adult e-cigarette users. We also examined whether these preferences were associated with e-cigarette use frequency for adolescents or adults, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analytic samples comprised 1) 396 adolescent, past-month e-cigarette users from 5 Connecticut high schools who completed an anonymous, school-based survey in Fall 2014 (56...
2018: PloS One
Jessie Rudi, Jodi Dworkin
BACKGROUND: Prevention researchers have identified parental monitoring leading to parental knowledge to be a protective factor against adolescent substance use. In today's digital society, parental monitoring can occur using technology-mediated communication methods, such as text messaging, email, and social networking sites. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to identify patterns, or clusters, of in-person and technology-mediated monitoring behaviors, and examine differences between the patterns (clusters) in adolescent substance use...
January 3, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Chris Hydock
Crowdsourcing services, such as MTurk, have opened a large pool of participants to researchers. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to confidently acquire a sample that matches a given demographic, psychographic, or behavioral dimension. This problem exists because little information is known about individual participants and because some participants are motivated to misrepresent their identity with the goal of financial reward. Despite the fact that online workers do not typically display a greater than average level of dishonesty, when researchers overtly request that only a certain population take part in an online study, a nontrivial portion misrepresent their identity...
December 22, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Hyeseung Elizabeth Koh, Jeeyun Oh, Michael Mackert
BACKGROUND: There has been a sharp increase in the number of pedestrians injured while using a mobile phone, but little research has been conducted to explain how and why people use mobile devices while walking. Therefore, we conducted a survey study to explicate the motivations of mobile phone use while walking. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the critical predictors of behavioral intention to play a popular mobile game, Pokemon Go, while walking, based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB)...
December 11, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
John A Cunningham, Alexandra Godinho, Vladyslav Kushnir
BACKGROUND: Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is an online portal operated by Amazon where 'requesters' (individuals or businesses) can submit jobs for 'workers.' MTurk is used extensively by academics as a quick and cheap means of collecting questionnaire data, including information on alcohol consumption, from a diverse sample of participants. We tested the feasibility of recruiting for alcohol Internet intervention trials through MTurk. METHODS: Participants, 18 years or older, who drank at least weekly were recruited for four intervention trials (combined sample size, N = 11,107)...
December 1, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Sebastian Deri, Shai Davidai, Thomas Gilovich
Although decades of research show that people tend to see themselves in the best possible light, we present evidence that people have a surprisingly grim outlook on their social lives. In 11 studies (N = 3,293; including 3 preregistered), we find that most people think that others lead richer and more active social lives than they do themselves. We show that this bias holds across multiple populations (college students, MTurk respondents, shoppers at a local mall, and participants from a large, income-stratified online panel), correlates strongly with well-being, and is particularly acute for social activities (e...
December 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Katherine E Darling, Amy F Sato, Manfred van Dulmen, Christopher Flessner, Geoffrey Putt
BACKGROUND: Families face many barriers related to creating or maintaining a healthy lifestyle, which likely contributes to the prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States; however, no measure currently exists to examine these barriers. This study developed a quantitative measure of parents' perceptions of barriers to family healthy lifestyle. METHODS: Parents of children between the ages of 7-17 were recruited using Amazon Mturk (n = 812). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and preliminary convergent validity analyses were conducted...
November 21, 2017: Childhood Obesity
Sara Jahnke
Cognitive and affective antecedents of the desire to avoid or punish non-offending pedophilic individuals are not well understood. In this article, we examined the effects of non-offending motivation (internal vs. external) and sexual orientation (pedophilic vs. teleiophilic) on cognitive apprehensions (amorality, dangerousness, abnormality), emotions (fear, anger, disgust), punitive attitudes, and social distance toward a man experiencing a sexually transgressive impulse. A total of 205 U.S.-based MTurk workers were randomly assigned to one of four groups in this 2 × 2 factorial vignette study...
February 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Ruiyang Jiang, Brian M Inouye, Hsin-Hsiao S Wang, Rohit Tejwani, Jonathan C Routh
INTRODUCTION: Cost-utility analyses (CUA) are useful when the treatment conditions depend on patient preferences that are in turn dependent on health state utility value. Spina bifida (SB) is an example of such a preference-sensitive condition. Historically, the SB utility value for CUA has been gathered via a traditional face-to-face interview. However, due to funding and time constrains, utility estimation via online crowdsourcing has recently gained popularity. Our aim was to estimate the utility value for a generic SB health state using a validated online tool...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
Sanjay Naran, Ari M Wes, Daniel M Mazzaferro, Scott P Bartlett, Jesse A Taylor
In judging normalcy, surgeons rely on established facial anthropometric measures and proportions. However, there exists a range of "normal," and a degree of disproportion may be considered more attractive. The authors set out to determine how changes in only intercanthal distance affect the layperson's perception of beauty and personality traits of a face. The authors used's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a crowdsourcing tool, to determine how changes in intercanthal distance affect overall perception of beauty and personality...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Daniel M Mazzaferro, Ari M Wes, Sanjay Naran, Rebecca Pearl, Scott P Bartlett, Jesse A Taylor
BACKGROUND: The effects of orthognathic surgery go beyond objective cephalometric correction of facial and dental disproportion and malocclusion, respectively. The authors hypothesized that there is tangible improvement following surgery that alters publicly perceived personality traits and emotions. METHODS: The authors used's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a crowdsourcing tool, to determine how preoperative and postoperative images of orthognathic surgery patients were perceived on six personality traits and six emotional expressions based on posteroanterior and lateral photographs...
November 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Jenna S Hynes, Jessica M Sales, Anandi N Sheth, Eva Lathrop, Lisa B Haddad
OBJECTIVE: High rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy suggest a role for multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) designed to combine contraception and infection prophylaxis into one unified method. This study aims to determine factors associated with interest in MPTs among US women. STUDY DESIGN: We administered a national cross-sectional survey via MTurk. Eligibility criteria included female gender, age 18-29 years, residence in the USA, and sexual activity with a male partner in the past three months...
October 18, 2017: Contraception
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