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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536096/harnessing-facebook-for-smoking-reduction-and-cessation-interventions-facebook-user-engagement-and-social-support-predict-smoking-reduction
#1
Sunny Jung Kim, Lisa A Marsch, Mary F Brunette, Jesse Dallery
BACKGROUND: Social media technologies offer a novel opportunity for scalable health interventions that can facilitate user engagement and social support, which in turn may reinforce positive processes for behavior change. OBJECTIVE: By using principles from health communication and social support literature, we implemented a Facebook group-based intervention that targeted smoking reduction and cessation. This study hypothesized that participants' engagement with and perceived social support from our Facebook group intervention would predict smoking reduction...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509415/ratings-of-affective-and-interpersonal-tendencies-differ-for-grandiose-and-vulnerable-narcissism-a-replication-and-extension-of-gore-widiger
#2
Courtland S Hyatt, Chelsea E Sleep, Donald R Lynam, Thomas A Widiger, W Keith Campbell, Joshua D Miller
OBJECTIVE: Theoretical conceptions of narcissism have long been characterized by two seemingly opposing poles: grandiosity and vulnerability. The goal of the current study was to investigate the extent to which traits associated with one profile are perceived to co-occur with the other within an individual. METHOD: Lay raters (n = 862; 56% female; 80% Caucasian; mean age = 37) recruited from Amazon's MTurk and assigned to one of four conditions in which they rated how often a series of narcissistic traits were displayed by a prototypical grandiose narcissist, vulnerable narcissist, a close friend, or themselves...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450081/a-qualitative-study-of-what-u-s-parents-say-and-do-when-their-young-children-see-pornography
#3
Emily F Rothman, Jennifer Paruk, Ashlee Espensen, Jeff R Temple, Kelley Adams
OBJECTIVE: There is no empirical information about how parents react when they discover that their young children have seen pornography. To address this gap in the literature, the current study sought to improve our understanding of parental reactions to discovering that their children ages <12 years old have seen pornography using a mixed-methods approach. METHODS: A convenience sample of participants (N=279) were recruited from the online survey service mTurk...
April 24, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412835/validation-of-a-seven-factor-structure-for-the-motives-for-playing-drinking-games-measure
#4
Byron L Zamboanga, Shannon Audley, Janine V Olthuis, Heidemarie Blumenthal, Cara C Tomaso, Ngoc Bui, Brian Borsari
Playing drinking games can be characterized as a high-risk drinking activity because games are typically designed to promote heavy alcohol consumption. While research suggests that young adults are motivated to play drinking games for a variety of reasons (e.g., for thrills/fun, for the competition), the Motives for Playing Drinking Games measure has received limited empirical attention. We examined the psychometric properties of this measure with a confirmation sample of young adults recruited from Amazon's MTurk ( N = 1,809, ages 18-25 years, 47% men; 41% not currently enrolled in college) and a validation sample of college students ( N = 671; ages 18-23 years; 26% men)...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382006/conducting-online-behavioral-research-using-crowdsourcing-services-in-japan
#5
Yoshimasa Majima, Kaoru Nishiyama, Aki Nishihara, Ryosuke Hata
Recent research on human behavior has often collected empirical data from the online labor market, through a process known as crowdsourcing. As well as the United States and the major European countries, there are several crowdsourcing services in Japan. For research purpose, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is the widely used platform among those services. Previous validation studies have shown many commonalities between MTurk workers and participants from traditional samples based on not only personality but also performance on reasoning tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364134/evaluating-the-dimensionality-of-pornography
#6
Dean M Busby, Hsin-Yao Chiu, Joseph A Olsen, Brian J Willoughby
Pornography may be a construct with a single trait or one with many traits. Research in the past was inconsistent in this regard with most researchers assuming that pornography was unidimensional (with one single trait of pornography). However, the considerable amounts of residual variation found in these studies beyond that explained by the single trait hints at what might be a multidimensional construct (with multiple traits such as sensitization and differentiation). Consequently, in this study, we intended to address the question of whether pornography consisted of a single trait or if it was multidimensional...
March 31, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332037/comparing-self-reported-demographic-and-sexual-behavioral-factors-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-recruited-through-mechanical-turk-qualtrics-and-a-hiv-sti-clinic-based-sample-implications-for-researchers-and-providers
#7
Matthew R Beymer, Ian W Holloway, Christian Grov
Recruitment for HIV research among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) has increasingly moved to the online sphere. However, there are limited data comparing the characteristics of clinic-based respondents versus those recruited via online survey platforms. MSM were recruited from three sampling sites (STI clinic, MTurk, and Qualtrics) to participate in a survey from March 2015 to April 2016. Respondents were compared between each of the sampling sites on demographics, sexual history, substance use, and attention filter passage...
March 22, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230410/a-self-report-measure-for-the-icd-11-dimensional-trait-model-proposal-the-personality-inventory-for-icd-11
#8
Joshua R Oltmanns, Thomas A Widiger
Proposed for the 11th edition of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is a dimensional trait model for the classification of personality disorder (Tyrer, Reed, & Crawford, 2015). The ICD-11 proposal consists of 5 broad domains: negative affective, detachment, dissocial, disinhibition, and anankastic (Mulder, Horwood, Tyrer, Carter, & Joyce, 2016). Several field trials have examined this proposal, yet none has included a direct measure of the trait model. The purpose of the current study was to develop and provide initial validation for the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD), a self-report measure of this proposed 5-domain maladaptive trait model...
February 23, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196693/public-perceptions-of-overlapping-surgery
#9
Michael Kent, Richard Whyte, Aaron Fleishman, David Tomich, Lachlan Forrow, James Rodrigue
BACKGROUND: Overlapping surgery is highly contentious, both in terms of the safety of the practice and the degree to which patients should be informed. However, no study has surveyed attitudes of the general public toward overlapping surgery and willingness to consent to such a procedure. STUDY DESIGN: A survey on overlapping surgery was completed by participants using Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online crowd-sourcing worksite. Responders completed a 51-question survey on their knowledge of overlapping surgery, expectations on disclosure during the informed consent process, and their willingness to participate in such a procedure...
February 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156668/who-chooses-palliative-chemotherapy-when-a-cure-is-possible-results-of-a-risk-tolerance-survey-of-laypersons
#10
Karen Scherr, Annabel Wang, Monica Lemmon, Peter A Ubel
35 Background: Many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) face a difficult choice about whether to receive palliative chemotherapy or high-dose, potentially-curative chemotherapy that poses a risk of early death. How people weigh these factors in decision-making is unknown. We hypothesized that the possibility of cure primarily drives decision-making, regardless of treatment risk. METHODS: We designed an electronic survey describing two treatment paths: (1) high-dose chemotherapy with possibility of cure but a 10% risk of early death, and (2) palliative chemotherapy with no chance of cure but no risk of early death...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088051/online-recruitment-and-testing-of-infants-with-mechanical-turk
#11
Michelle Tran, Laura Cabral, Ronak Patel, Rhodri Cusack
Testing infants in the laboratory is expensive in time and money; consequently, many studies are underpowered, reducing their reproducibility. We investigated whether the online platform, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), could be used as a resource to more easily recruit and measure the behavior of infant populations. Using a looking time paradigm, with users' webcams we recorded how long infants aged 5 to 8months attended while viewing children's television programs. We found that infants (N=57) were more reliably engaged by some movies than by others and that the most engaging movies could maintain attention for approximately 70% of a 10- to 13-min period...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068116/the-crowded-life-is-a-slow-life-population-density-and-life-history-strategy
#12
Oliver Sng, Steven L Neuberg, Michael E W Varnum, Douglas T Kenrick
The world population has doubled over the last half century. Yet, research on the psychological effects of human population density, once a popular topic, has decreased over the past few decades. Applying a fresh perspective to an old topic, we draw upon life history theory to examine the effects of population density. Across nations and across the U.S. states (Studies 1 and 2), we find that dense populations exhibit behaviors corresponding to a slower life history strategy, including greater future-orientation, greater investment in education, more long-term mating orientation, later marriage age, lower fertility, and greater parental investment...
May 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063326/mindful-feeding-and-child-dietary-health
#13
Elizabeth A Emley, Maija B Taylor, Dara R Musher-Eizenman
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between mindful feeding as a novel construct and parent-reported child dietary intake. METHODS: Participants (N=497) were parents of children ages 2.9 to 7.5 recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Parents were primarily non-Hispanic white (79%) and female (76%). Simple and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between parental mindful feeding (i.e., parent mental and emotional presence while feeding a child) and their children's dietary intake...
December 21, 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045305/using-online-crowdsourcing-platforms-for-data-collection-in-personality-disorder-research-the-example-of-amazon-s-mechanical-turk
#14
Joshua D Miller, Michael Crowe, Brandon Weiss, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Donald R Lynam
The use of crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) for data collection in the behavioral sciences has increased substantially in the past several years due in large part to (a) the ability to recruit large samples, (b) the inexpensiveness of data collection, (c) the speed of data collection, and (d) evidence that the data collected are, for the most part, of equal or better quality to that collected in undergraduate research pools. In this review, we first evaluate the strengths and potential limitations of this approach to data collection...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893213/reliability-and-validity-of-data-obtained-from-alcohol-cannabis-and-gambling-populations-on-amazon-s-mechanical-turk
#15
Hyoun S Kim, David C Hodgins
Researchers recently have begun using Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online crowdsourcing platform, to recruit addiction populations. However, whether the data obtained from substance users and gamblers on MTurk are reliable and valid is unknown. Herein, we assessed the internal and retest reliability of and concurrent and convergent validity of data obtained from addiction populations on MTurk. Current drinkers (N = 208), cannabis users (N = 200), and gamblers (N = 200) residing in the United States completed measures of alcohol, cannabis, and gambling severity, psychological constructs (e...
November 28, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853533/no-evidence-that-a-range-of-artificial-monitoring-cues-influence-online-donations-to-charity-in-an-mturk-sample
#16
Timothy J Saunders, Alex H Taylor, Quentin D Atkinson
Monitoring cues, such as an image of a face or pair of eyes, have been found to increase prosocial behaviour in several studies. However, other studies have found little or no support for this effect. Here, we examined whether monitoring cues affect online donations to charity while manipulating the emotion displayed, the number of watchers and the cue type. We also include as statistical controls a range of likely covariates of prosocial behaviour. Using the crowdsourcing Internet marketplace, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), 1535 participants completed our survey and were given the opportunity to donate to charity while being shown an image prime...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760403/body-dysmorphic-disorder-symptoms-and-risk-for-suicide-the-role-of-depression
#17
A M Shaw, K A Arditte Hall, E Rosenfield, K R Timpano
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is associated with elevated suicidality. Little is known about why BDD patients are at increased risk. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) could clarify suicidality in BDD, and theorizes that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness lead to suicidal desire, while an acquired capability for suicide is necessary to attempt suicide. No study has investigated how BDD symptoms relate to IPTS constructs or mediators of the relationship between BDD and suicidality...
December 2016: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749186/the-conceptualization-and-assessment-of-schizotypal-traits-a-comparison-of-the-ffsi-and-pid-5
#18
Cristina Crego, Thomas A Widiger
The purpose of the present study was to compare the cognitive and perceptual aberration scales from the Five-Factor Schizotypal Inventory (FFSI; Edmundson, Lynam, Miller, Gore, & Widiger, 2011) and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012), as well as to address more generally the validity of the FFSI as a measure of both schizotypal personality traits and the FFM. Two independent samples were obtained, including 259 college students (55 of whom were preselected with elevated scores on a measure of schizotypal personality disorder [STPD]) and 346 adult MTurk participants (43% of whom had been or were currently in mental health treatment)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712126/perceptions-of-e-cigarettes-a-comparison-of-adult-smokers-and-non-smokers-in-a-mechanical-turk-sample
#19
Sebastian Bauhoff, Adrian Montero, Deborah Scharf
BACKGROUND: Given plans to extend its regulatory authority to e-cigarettes, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) urgently needs to understand how e-cigarettes are perceived by the public. OBJECTIVES: To examine how smoking status impacts adult perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. METHODS: We used Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a "crowdsourcing" platform, to rapidly survey a large (n = 796; female = 381; male = 415), diverse sample of adult ever (44%) and never smokers (56%), including ever (28%) and never (72%) users of e-cigarettes...
May 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651401/what-do-our-patients-truly-want-conjoint-analysis-of-an-aesthetic-plastic-surgery-practice-using-internet-crowdsourcing
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Cindy Wu, C Scott Hultman, Paul Diegidio, Steven Hermiz, Roja Garimella, Trisha M Crutchfield, Clara N Lee
BACKGROUND: What do patients want when looking for an aesthetic surgeon? When faced with attributes like reputation, years in practice, testimonials, photos, and pricing, which is more valuable? Moreover, are attributes procedure-specific? Currently, inadequate evidence exists on which attributes are most important to patients, and to our knowledge, none on procedure-specific preferences. OBJECTIVES: First, to determine the most important attributes to breast augmentation, combined breast/abdominal surgery, and facelift patients using conjoint analysis...
January 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
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