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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412893/public-attitudes-and-feelings-of-warmth-toward-women-and-men-experiencing-depression-during-the-perinatal-period
#1
Jennifer N Felder, Sarah Banchefsky, Bernadette Park, Sona Dimidjian
OBJECTIVE: Depression is a major public health concern and often goes untreated. In response to a growing body of research documenting stigma as a barrier to depression care, this study focused on examining public stigma toward potentially vulnerable subpopulations. METHODS: Participants (N=241) were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk and randomly assigned to provide anonymous ratings on attitudes and feelings of warmth toward pregnant women and expectant fathers experiencing depression, mothers and fathers experiencing postpartum depression, or women and men experiencing depression during nonperinatal periods...
April 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412153/the-effect-of-counseling-on-willingness-to-use-a-hypothetical-medication-and-perceptions-of-medication-safety
#2
Michael Bitonti, Payal Patel, Rebecca Dickinson, Peter Knapp, Susan J Blalock
BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence is an ongoing issue, and contributes to increased hospitalizations and healthcare costs. Although most adverse effects are rare, the perceived risk of adverse effects may contribute to low adherence rates. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine how adverse effect likelihood and pharmacist counseling on adverse effect prevention affects individuals': (1) willingness to use a hypothetical medication and (2) perceptions of medication safety...
March 31, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396304/comparing-crowdsourcing-and-friendsourcing-a-social-media-based-feasibility-study-to-support-alzheimer-disease-caregivers
#3
Daniel Robert Bateman, Erin Brady, David Wilkerson, Eun-Hye Yi, Yamini Karanam, Christopher M Callahan
BACKGROUND: In the United States, over 15 million informal caregivers provide unpaid care to people with Alzheimer disease (AD). Compared with others in their age group, AD caregivers have higher rates of stress, and medical and psychiatric illnesses. Psychosocial interventions improve the health of caregivers. However, constraints of time, distance, and availability inhibit the use of these services. Newer online technologies, such as social media, online groups, friendsourcing, and crowdsourcing, present alternative methods of delivering support...
April 10, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394023/crowdcurio-an-online-crowdsourcing-platform-to-facilitate-climate-change-studies-using-herbarium-specimens
#4
Charles G Willis, Edith Law, Alex C Williams, Brian F Franzone, Rebecca Bernardos, Lian Bruno, Claire Hopkins, Christian Schorn, Ella Weber, Daniel S Park, Charles C Davis
Phenology is a key aspect of plant success. Recent research has demonstrated that herbarium specimens can provide important information on plant phenology. Massive digitization efforts have the potential to greatly expand herbarium-based phenological research, but also pose a serious challenge regarding efficient data collection. Here, we introduce CrowdCurio, a crowdsourcing tool for the collection of phenological data from herbarium specimens. We test its utility by having workers collect phenological data (number of flower buds, open flowers and fruits) from specimens of two common New England (USA) species: Chelidonium majus and Vaccinium angustifolium...
April 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383983/for-whom-does-deterrence-affect-behavior-identifying-key-individual-differences
#5
Adam Fine, Benjamin van Rooij
Deterrence threats are essential mechanisms for affecting behavior, yet they are often ineffective. The literature is beginning to consider individual differences underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The present study sampled 223 adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk and used an experimental cheating paradigm to examine the role of 3 individual differences, including morality, self-control, and rule orientation, underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The results indicate that deterrence threats may be more influential for people who have low moral disengagement, who possess more self-control, or who are more rule oriented...
April 6, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382006/conducting-online-behavioral-research-using-crowdsourcing-services-in-japan
#6
Yoshimasa Majima, Kaoru Nishiyama, Aki Nishihara, Ryosuke Hata
Recent research on human behavior has often collected empirical data from the online labor market, through a process known as crowdsourcing. As well as the United States and the major European countries, there are several crowdsourcing services in Japan. For research purpose, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is the widely used platform among those services. Previous validation studies have shown many commonalities between MTurk workers and participants from traditional samples based on not only personality but also performance on reasoning tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377932/understanding-preferences-for-treatment-after-hypothetical-first-time-anterior-shoulder-dislocation-surveying-an-online-panel-utilizing-a-novel-shared-decision-making-tool
#7
Ben Streufert, Shelby D Reed, Lori A Orlando, Dean C Taylor, Joel C Huber, Richard C Mather
BACKGROUND: Although surgical management of a first-time anterior shoulder dislocation (FTASD) can reduce the risk of recurrent dislocation, other treatment characteristics, costs, and outcomes are important to patients considering treatment options. While patient preferences, such as those elicited by conjoint analysis, have been shown to be important in medical decision-making, the magnitudes or effects of patient preferences in treating an FTASD are unknown. PURPOSE: To test a novel shared decision-making tool after sustained FTASD...
March 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347716/unique-prediction-of-cannabis-use-severity-and-behaviors-by-delay-discounting-and-behavioral-economic-demand
#8
Justin C Strickland, Joshua A Lile, William W Stoops
Few studies have simultaneously evaluated delay discounting and behavioral economic demand to determine their unique contribution to drug use. A recent study in cannabis users found that monetary delay discounting uniquely predicted cannabis dependence symptoms, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency. This study sought to replicate and extend this research by evaluating delay discounting and behavioral economic demand measures for multiple commodities and including a use quantity measure. Amazon...
March 24, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330707/structure-based-feeding-strategies-a-key-component-of-child-nutrition
#9
Maija B Taylor, Elizabeth Emley, Mercedes Pratt, Dara R Musher-Eizenman
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between structure, autonomy promotion, and control feeding strategies and parent-reported child diet. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N = 497) were parents of children ages 2.5 to 7.5 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk. This sample was a Caucasian (79%), educated sample (61% college graduates) with most reports from mothers (76%). METHODS AND MEASURES: Online survey including measures of parent feeding strategies and child dietary intake...
March 19, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319525/crowdsourcing-to-evaluate-fundus-photographs-for-the-presence-of-glaucoma
#10
Xueyang Wang, Lucy I Mudie, Mani Baskaran, Ching-Yu Cheng, Wallace L Alward, David S Friedman, Christopher J Brady
PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of crowdsourcing for grading optic nerve images for glaucoma using Amazon Mechanical Turk before and after training modules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images (n=60) from 2 large population studies were graded for glaucoma status and vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR). In the baseline trial, users on Amazon Mechanical Turk (Turkers) graded fundus photos for glaucoma and VCDR after reviewing annotated example images. In 2 additional trials, Turkers viewed a 26-slide PowerPoint training or a 10-minute video training and passed a quiz before being permitted to grade the same 60 images...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296556/beliefs-about-the-direct-comparison-of-e-cigarettes-and-cigarettes
#11
Alexandra R Hershberger, Kenny A Karyadi, J Davis VanderVeen, Melissa A Cyders
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggests that positive beliefs about electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) use can lead to later e-cig use. Considering that many advertisements claim that e-cigs are superior to cigarettes, individuals' likelihood to view e-cigs more favorably than cigarettes can also influence subsequent e-cig use; however, no studies have directly assessed such a comparison. OBJECTIVES: The present study created and validated the Comparing E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes questionnaire (CEAC), which asks individuals to directly compare e-cigs and cigarettes on a number of dimensions, in two independent samples...
March 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278732/longitudinal-evaluation-of-anhedonia-as-a-mediator-of-fear-of-positive-evaluation-and-other-depressive-symptoms
#12
D Gage Jordan, E Samuel Winer, Taban Salem, Jenna Kilgore
Fear of positive evaluation (FPE) is experiencing dread during real or potential praise. FPE is associated with social anxiety, but its relation to depressive symptoms is unclear. Anhedonia is a core symptom of depression related to symptoms of anxiety in cross-sectional research. The current study investigated the indirect effect of FPE on depressive symptoms via anhedonia over time. One-hundred ninety-six participants completed three waves of questionnaires over a total timespan of approximately four months via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, including measures of FPE, depressive symptoms, and anticipatory and consummatory anhedonia...
March 6, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254738/readability-formulas-and-user-perceptions-of-electronic-health-records-difficulty-a-corpus-study
#13
Jiaping Zheng, Hong Yu
BACKGROUND: Electronic health records (EHRs) are a rich resource for developing applications to engage patients and foster patient activation, thus holding a strong potential to enhance patient-centered care. Studies have shown that providing patients with access to their own EHR notes may improve the understanding of their own clinical conditions and treatments, leading to improved health care outcomes. However, the highly technical language in EHR notes impedes patients' comprehension...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251868/unboxing-cluster-heatmaps
#14
Sophie Engle, Sean Whalen, Alark Joshi, Katherine S Pollard
BACKGROUND: Cluster heatmaps are commonly used in biology and related fields to reveal hierarchical clusters in data matrices. This visualization technique has high data density and reveal clusters better than unordered heatmaps alone. However, cluster heatmaps have known issues making them both time consuming to use and prone to error. We hypothesize that visualization techniques without the rigid grid constraint of cluster heatmaps will perform better at clustering-related tasks. RESULTS: We developed an approach to "unbox" the heatmap values and embed them directly in the hierarchical clustering results, allowing us to use standard hierarchical visualization techniques as alternatives to cluster heatmaps...
February 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248987/why-do-people-use-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-electronic-cigarettes-a-content-analysis-of-twitter-2012-2015
#15
John W Ayers, Eric C Leas, Jon-Patrick Allem, Adrian Benton, Mark Dredze, Benjamin M Althouse, Tess B Cruz, Jennifer B Unger
The reasons for using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are poorly understood and are primarily documented by expensive cross-sectional surveys that use preconceived close-ended response options rather than allowing respondents to use their own words. We passively identify the reasons for using ENDS longitudinally from a content analysis of public postings on Twitter. All English language public tweets including several ENDS terms (e.g., "e-cigarette" or "vape") were captured from the Twitter data stream during 2012 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240924/time-constraints-in-the-alcohol-purchase-task
#16
Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed, James G Murphy, Amy J Henley, Florence D DiGennaro Reed, Peter G Roma, Steven R Hursh
Hypothetical purchase tasks have advanced behavioral economic evaluations of demand by circumventing practical and ethical restrictions associated with delivering drug reinforcers to participants. Numerous studies examining the reliability and validity of purchase task methodology suggest that it is a valuable method for assessing demand that warrants continued use and evaluation. Within the literature examining purchase tasks, the alcohol purchase task (APT) has received the most investigation, and currently represents the most experimentally validated variant...
February 27, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229624/do-step-and-biological-grandparents-show-differences-in-investment-and-emotional-closeness-with-their-grandchildren
#17
Peter B Gray, Elizabeth Brogdon
Human children are raised by a variety of caregivers including grandparents. A few studies have assessed potential differences in direct caregiving, financial expenditures, and emotional closeness between biological and step-grandparents. Drawing upon kin selection theory, we hypothesized that step-grandparents would provide less care and be less emotionally close to grandchildren than would biological grandparents. A sample of 341 heterosexual U.S. adults 25-35 years of age in a long-term partnership and with a biological child 5 years of age or younger were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206793/do-positive-spontaneous-thoughts-function-as-incentive-salience
#18
Elise L Rice, Barbara L Fredrickson
The present work explores the theoretical relationship between positive spontaneous thoughts and incentive salience-a psychological property thought to energize wanting and approach motivation by rendering cues that are associated with enjoyment more likely to stand out to the individual when subsequently encountered in the environment (Berridge, 2007). We reasoned that positive spontaneous thoughts may at least be concomitants of incentive salience, and as such, they might likewise mediate the effect of liking on wanting...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196693/public-perceptions-of-overlapping-surgery
#19
Michael Kent, Richard Whyte, Aaron Fleishman, David Tomich, Lachlan Forrow, James Rodrigue
BACKGROUND: Overlapping surgery is highly contentious, both in terms of the safety of the practice and the degree to which patients should be informed. However, no study has surveyed attitudes of the general public toward overlapping surgery and willingness to consent to such a procedure. STUDY DESIGN: A survey on overlapping surgery was completed by participants using Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online crowd-sourcing worksite. Responders completed a 51-question survey on their knowledge of overlapping surgery, expectations on disclosure during the informed consent process, and their willingness to participate in such a procedure...
February 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127682/evaluating-amazon-s-mechanical-turk-for-psychological-research-on-the-symbolic-control-of-attention
#20
Joseph R Pauszek, Pedro Sztybel, Bradley S Gibson
The use of online crowdsourcing services like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) as a method of collecting behavioral data online has become increasingly popular in recent years. A growing body of contemporary research has empirically validated the use of AMT as a tool in psychological research by replicating a wide range of well-established effects that have been previously reported in controlled laboratory studies. However, the potential for AMT to be used to conduct spatial cuing experiments has yet to be investigated in depth...
January 26, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
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