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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529439/pubertal-timing-and-youth-internalizing-psychopathology-the-role-of-relational-aggression
#1
Hayley Pomerantz, Justin Parent, Rex Forehand, Nicole Lafko Breslend, Jeffrey P Winer
The current study examined relational aggression as a potential mechanism that explains the association between off-time pubertal development and internalizing problems in youth. Youth gender was also examined as a moderator for the association between these variables. It was hypothesized that early pubertal maturation would be associated with higher levels of relationally aggressive behavior which, in turn, would be associated with elevated levels of internalizing problems. Parents of 372 children between the ages of 8 and 17 were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk...
February 2017: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508382/think-fast-rapid-assessment-of-the-effects-of-episodic-future-thinking-on-delay-discounting-in-overweight-obese-participants
#2
Jeffrey S Stein, Yan Yan Sze, Liqa Athamneh, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Leonard H Epstein, Warren K Bickel
Accumulating laboratory-based evidence indicates that reducing delay discounting (devaluation of delayed outcomes) with the use of episodic future thinking (EFT; mental simulation of future events) improves dietary decision-making and other maladaptive behaviors. Recent work has adapted EFT for use in the natural environment to aid in dietary and weight control by engaging participants in EFT repeatedly throughout the day. These efforts may benefit from minimizing the amount of time required for measurement and implementation of EFT...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494000/validating-bayesian-truth-serum-in-large-scale-online-human-experiments
#3
Morgan R Frank, Manuel Cebrian, Galen Pickard, Iyad Rahwan
Bayesian truth serum (BTS) is an exciting new method for improving honesty and information quality in multiple-choice survey, but, despite the method's mathematical reliance on large sample sizes, existing literature about BTS only focuses on small experiments. Combined with the prevalence of online survey platforms, such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk, which facilitate surveys with hundreds or thousands of participants, BTS must be effective in large-scale experiments for BTS to become a readily accepted tool in real-world applications...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493743/stimulus-selectivity-of-drug-purchase-tasks-a-preliminary-study-evaluating-alcohol-and-cigarette-demand
#4
Justin C Strickland, William W Stoops
The use of drug purchase tasks to measure drug demand in human behavioral pharmacology and addiction research has proliferated in recent years. Few studies have systematically evaluated the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks to demonstrate that demand metrics are specific to valuation of or demand for the commodity under study. Stimulus selectivity is broadly defined for this purpose as a condition under which a specific stimulus input or target (e.g., alcohol, cigarettes) is the primary determinant of behavior (e...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476264/a-pilot-study-of-online-feedback-for-adult-drinkers-50-and-older-feasibility-efficacy-and-preferences-for-intervention
#5
Alexis N Kuerbis, Lisa Hail, Alison A Moore, Frederick J Muench
Normative (NF) and personalized feedback (PF) are moderately effective brief interventions for at-risk drinking middle-aged and older adults. This study tested the feasibility of online feedback for drinkers 50 and older. This study's aims were to identify whether there is differential effectiveness of PF over NF in prompting drinkers 50years old and older to plan for change and to determine potential preferences for intervention among adult drinkers 50 and older with practical knowledge about computers. METHOD: Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, 138 male and female drinkers aged 50 to 75+ were recruited to complete an online survey that asked about their: perceptions of their drinking, quantity and frequency of drinking, and any comorbid health and/or mental health disorders/medications...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475047/retrieval-of-sentence-sequences-for-an-image-stream-via-coherence-recurrent-convolutional-networks
#6
Cesc Park, Youngjin Kim, Gunhee Kim
We propose an approach for retrieving a sequence of natural sentences for an image stream. Since general users often take a series of pictures on their experiences, much online visual information exists in the form of image streams, for which it would better take into consideration of the whole image stream to produce natural language descriptions. While almost all previous studies have dealt with the relation between a single image and a single natural sentence, our work extends both input and output dimension to a sequence of images and a sequence of sentences...
May 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447815/development-of-the-healthcare-triggering-questionnaire-in-adult-sexual-abuse-survivors
#7
Julie B Schnur, William F Chaplin, Kiran Khurshid, Jazmin N Mogavero, Rachel E Goldsmith, Young-Sun Lee, Leib Litman, Guy H Montgomery
OBJECTIVE: One in 4 women and 1 in 10 men in the United States are survivors of sexual abuse (SA). For these survivors, healthcare experiences may trigger memories, thoughts, feelings or sensations related to this past abuse. Such triggering can be associated with negative responses to healthcare (e.g., anxiety, avoidance). However, to date, no healthcare triggering assessment tool exists. Therefore, the study goal was to describe the prevalence of healthcare triggering, to develop a brief Healthcare Triggering Questionnaire (HTQ), and to examine its initial validity...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437124/marijuana-and-tobacco-cigarettes-estimating-their-behavioral-economic-relationship-using-purchasing-tasks
#8
Erica N Peters, Zachary R Rosenberry, Gillian L Schauer, Kevin E O'Grady, Patrick S Johnson
Although marijuana and tobacco are commonly coused, the nature of their relationship has not been fully elucidated. Behavioral economics has characterized the relationship between concurrently available commodities but has not been applied to marijuana and tobacco couse. U.S. adults ≥18 years who coused marijuana and tobacco cigarettes were recruited via Mechanical Turk, a crowdsourcing service by Amazon. Participants (N = 82) completed online purchasing tasks assessing hypothetical marijuana or tobacco cigarette puff consumption across a range of per-puff prices; 2 single-commodity tasks assessed these when only 1 commodity was available, and 2 cross-commodity tasks assessed these in the presence of a concurrently available fixed-price commodity...
June 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435281/first-do-no-harm-institutional-betrayal-and-trust-in-health-care-organizations
#9
Carly Parnitzke Smith
PURPOSE: Patients' trust in health care is increasingly recognized as important to quality care, yet questions remain about what types of health care experiences erode trust. The current study assessed the prevalence and impact of institutional betrayal on patients' trust and engagement in health care. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Participants who had sought health care in the US in October 2013 were recruited from an online marketplace, Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Participants (n = 707; 73% Caucasian; 56...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412893/public-attitudes-and-feelings-of-warmth-toward-women-and-men-experiencing-depression-during-the-perinatal-period
#10
Jennifer N Felder, Sarah Banchefsky, Bernadette Park, Sona Dimidjian
OBJECTIVE: Depression is a major public health concern and often goes untreated. In response to a growing body of research documenting stigma as a barrier to depression care, this study focused on examining public stigma toward potentially vulnerable subpopulations. METHODS: Participants (N=241) were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk and randomly assigned to provide anonymous ratings on attitudes and feelings of warmth toward pregnant women and expectant fathers experiencing depression, mothers and fathers experiencing postpartum depression, or women and men experiencing depression during nonperinatal periods...
April 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412153/the-effect-of-counseling-on-willingness-to-use-a-hypothetical-medication-and-perceptions-of-medication-safety
#11
Michael Bitonti, Payal Patel, Rebecca Dickinson, Peter Knapp, Susan J Blalock
BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence is an ongoing issue, and contributes to increased hospitalizations and healthcare costs. Although most adverse effects are rare, the perceived risk of adverse effects may contribute to low adherence rates. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine how adverse effect likelihood and pharmacist counseling on adverse effect prevention affects individuals': (1) willingness to use a hypothetical medication and (2) perceptions of medication safety...
March 31, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396304/comparing-crowdsourcing-and-friendsourcing-a-social-media-based-feasibility-study-to-support-alzheimer-disease-caregivers
#12
Daniel Robert Bateman, Erin Brady, David Wilkerson, Eun-Hye Yi, Yamini Karanam, Christopher M Callahan
BACKGROUND: In the United States, over 15 million informal caregivers provide unpaid care to people with Alzheimer disease (AD). Compared with others in their age group, AD caregivers have higher rates of stress, and medical and psychiatric illnesses. Psychosocial interventions improve the health of caregivers. However, constraints of time, distance, and availability inhibit the use of these services. Newer online technologies, such as social media, online groups, friendsourcing, and crowdsourcing, present alternative methods of delivering support...
April 10, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394023/crowdcurio-an-online-crowdsourcing-platform-to-facilitate-climate-change-studies-using-herbarium-specimens
#13
Charles G Willis, Edith Law, Alex C Williams, Brian F Franzone, Rebecca Bernardos, Lian Bruno, Claire Hopkins, Christian Schorn, Ella Weber, Daniel S Park, Charles C Davis
Phenology is a key aspect of plant success. Recent research has demonstrated that herbarium specimens can provide important information on plant phenology. Massive digitization efforts have the potential to greatly expand herbarium-based phenological research, but also pose a serious challenge regarding efficient data collection. Here, we introduce CrowdCurio, a crowdsourcing tool for the collection of phenological data from herbarium specimens. We test its utility by having workers collect phenological data (number of flower buds, open flowers and fruits) from specimens of two common New England (USA) species: Chelidonium majus and Vaccinium angustifolium...
April 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383983/for-whom-does-deterrence-affect-behavior-identifying-key-individual-differences
#14
Adam Fine, Benjamin van Rooij
Deterrence threats are essential mechanisms for affecting behavior, yet they are often ineffective. The literature is beginning to consider individual differences underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The present study sampled 223 adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk and used an experimental cheating paradigm to examine the role of 3 individual differences, including morality, self-control, and rule orientation, underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The results indicate that deterrence threats may be more influential for people who have low moral disengagement, who possess more self-control, or who are more rule oriented...
April 6, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382006/conducting-online-behavioral-research-using-crowdsourcing-services-in-japan
#15
Yoshimasa Majima, Kaoru Nishiyama, Aki Nishihara, Ryosuke Hata
Recent research on human behavior has often collected empirical data from the online labor market, through a process known as crowdsourcing. As well as the United States and the major European countries, there are several crowdsourcing services in Japan. For research purpose, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is the widely used platform among those services. Previous validation studies have shown many commonalities between MTurk workers and participants from traditional samples based on not only personality but also performance on reasoning tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377932/understanding-preferences-for-treatment-after-hypothetical-first-time-anterior-shoulder-dislocation-surveying-an-online-panel-utilizing-a-novel-shared-decision-making-tool
#16
Ben Streufert, Shelby D Reed, Lori A Orlando, Dean C Taylor, Joel C Huber, Richard C Mather
BACKGROUND: Although surgical management of a first-time anterior shoulder dislocation (FTASD) can reduce the risk of recurrent dislocation, other treatment characteristics, costs, and outcomes are important to patients considering treatment options. While patient preferences, such as those elicited by conjoint analysis, have been shown to be important in medical decision-making, the magnitudes or effects of patient preferences in treating an FTASD are unknown. PURPOSE: To test a novel shared decision-making tool after sustained FTASD...
March 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347716/unique-prediction-of-cannabis-use-severity-and-behaviors-by-delay-discounting-and-behavioral-economic-demand
#17
Justin C Strickland, Joshua A Lile, William W Stoops
Few studies have simultaneously evaluated delay discounting and behavioral economic demand to determine their unique contribution to drug use. A recent study in cannabis users found that monetary delay discounting uniquely predicted cannabis dependence symptoms, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency. This study sought to replicate and extend this research by evaluating delay discounting and behavioral economic demand measures for multiple commodities and including a use quantity measure. Amazon...
March 24, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330707/structure-based-feeding-strategies-a-key-component-of-child-nutrition
#18
Maija B Taylor, Elizabeth Emley, Mercedes Pratt, Dara R Musher-Eizenman
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between structure, autonomy promotion, and control feeding strategies and parent-reported child diet. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N = 497) were parents of children ages 2.5 to 7.5 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk. This sample was a Caucasian (79%), educated sample (61% college graduates) with most reports from mothers (76%). METHODS AND MEASURES: Online survey including measures of parent feeding strategies and child dietary intake...
March 19, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319525/crowdsourcing-to-evaluate-fundus-photographs-for-the-presence-of-glaucoma
#19
Xueyang Wang, Lucy I Mudie, Mani Baskaran, Ching-Yu Cheng, Wallace L Alward, David S Friedman, Christopher J Brady
PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of crowdsourcing for grading optic nerve images for glaucoma using Amazon Mechanical Turk before and after training modules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images (n=60) from 2 large population studies were graded for glaucoma status and vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR). In the baseline trial, users on Amazon Mechanical Turk (Turkers) graded fundus photos for glaucoma and VCDR after reviewing annotated example images. In 2 additional trials, Turkers viewed a 26-slide PowerPoint training or a 10-minute video training and passed a quiz before being permitted to grade the same 60 images...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296556/beliefs-about-the-direct-comparison-of-e-cigarettes-and-cigarettes
#20
Alexandra R Hershberger, Kenny A Karyadi, J Davis VanderVeen, Melissa A Cyders
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggests that positive beliefs about electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) use can lead to later e-cig use. Considering that many advertisements claim that e-cigs are superior to cigarettes, individuals' likelihood to view e-cigs more favorably than cigarettes can also influence subsequent e-cig use; however, no studies have directly assessed such a comparison. OBJECTIVES: The present study created and validated the Comparing E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes questionnaire (CEAC), which asks individuals to directly compare e-cigs and cigarettes on a number of dimensions, in two independent samples...
March 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
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