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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338581/perceived-discrimination-as-a-risk-factor-for-use-of-emerging-tobacco-products-more-similarities-than-differences-across-demographic-groups-and-attributions-for-discrimination
#1
Jennifer B Unger
BACKGROUND: Perceived discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking and other substance use among members of disadvantaged minority groups. However, most studies have focused on a single minority group, have not considered the individual's attribution for the discrimination, and have not considered emerging tobacco products. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the associations between perceived discrimination and use of six tobacco products (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, hookah, and smokeless tobacco) in a diverse sample of 1,068 adults in the United States...
January 17, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337585/narrative-theory-ii-self-generated-and-experimenter-provided-negative-income-shock-narratives-increase-delay-discounting
#2
Alexandra M Mellis, Sarah E Snider, Warren K Bickel
Reading experimenter-provided narratives of negative income shock has been previously demonstrated to increase impulsivity, as measured by discounting of delayed rewards. We hypothesized that writing these narratives would potentiate their effects of negative income shock on decision-making more than simply reading them. In the current study, 193 cigarette-smoking individuals from Amazon Mechanical Turk were assigned to either read an experimenter-provided narrative or self-generate a narrative describing either the negative income shock of job loss or a neutral condition of job transfer...
January 15, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329148/self-reported-health-status-differs-for-amazon-s-mechanical-turk-respondents-compared-with-nationally-representative-surveys
#3
Karoline Mortensen, Manuel G Alcalá, Michael T French, Tianyan Hu
BACKGROUND: Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) platform has become a data source for peer-reviewed academic research publications, with over 24,000 Google Scholar search results. Although well-developed and supportive in other disciplines, the literature in health and medicine comparing results from samples generated on MTurk to gold standard, nationally representative health and medical surveys is beginning to emerge. OBJECTIVE: To compare the demographic, socioeconomic, and self-reported health status variables in an MTurk sample to those from 2 prominent national probability surveys, including the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)...
January 11, 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325140/optimism-for-the-future-in-younger-and-older-adults
#4
Kelly A Durbin, Sarah J Barber, Maddalena Brown, Mara Mather
Objectives: Research has suggested that older adults are less optimistic about their future than younger adults; however, a limitation of prior studies is that younger and older adults were forecasting to different ages and stages of life. To address this, we investigated whether there are age differences in future optimism when people project to the exact same age. We also tested whether optimism differs when projecting one's own future versus another person's future. Method: Participants were 285 younger and 292 older adults recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk...
January 9, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323513/the-five-factor-borderline-inventory-behavioral-outcomes-across-time
#5
Ashley C Helle, Hilary L DeShong, Amanda N Baraldi, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt
The Five-Factor Borderline Inventory Short Form (FFBI-SF) is a 48-item dimensional measure of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that was developed from the Five-factor model (FFM). Previous research has examined the relationships of the FFBI-SF to the FFM and BPD. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship of FFBI-SF scales with behavioral outcomes, such as self-injury, physical fights, panic symptoms, promiscuous sex, theft, attempted suicide, reckless driving, and binge eating...
January 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302882/comparing-amazon-s-mechanical-turk-platform-to-conventional-data-collection-methods-in-the-health-and-medical-research-literature
#6
Karoline Mortensen, Taylor L Hughes
BACKGROUND: The goal of this article is to conduct an assessment of the peer-reviewed primary literature with study objectives to analyze Amazon.com 's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) as a research tool in a health services research and medical context. METHODS: Searches of Google Scholar and PubMed databases were conducted in February 2017. We screened article titles and abstracts to identify relevant articles that compare data from MTurk samples in a health and medical context to another sample, expert opinion, or other gold standard...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297734/is-technology-mediated-parental-monitoring-related-to-adolescent-substance-use
#7
Jessie Rudi, Jodi Dworkin
BACKGROUND: Prevention researchers have identified parental monitoring leading to parental knowledge to be a protective factor against adolescent substance use. In today's digital society, parental monitoring can occur using technology-mediated communication methods, such as text messaging, email, and social networking sites. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to identify patterns, or clusters, of in-person and technology-mediated monitoring behaviors, and examine differences between the patterns (clusters) in adolescent substance use...
January 3, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249640/vessel-ligation-fundamentals-a-comparison-of-technical-evaluations-by-crowdsourced-nonclinical-personnel-and-surgical-faculty
#8
Yinin Hu, Boxiang Jiang, Helen Kim, Anneke T Schroen, Philip W Smith, Sara K Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of fundamental surgical skills is invaluable to the training of medical students and junior residents. This study assessed the effectiveness of crowdsourcing nonmedical personnel to evaluate technical proficiency at simulated vessel ligation. STUDY DESIGN: Fifteen videos were captured of participants performing vessel ligation using a low-fidelity model (5 attending surgeons and 5 medical students before and after training). These videos were evaluated by nonmedical personnel recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk, as well as by 3 experienced surgical faculty...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248864/examination-of-approach-and-avoidance-inclinations-on-the-reinforcing-value-of-alcohol
#9
Emily T Noyes, Robert C Schlauch
Although behavioral economics tends to focus on environmental factors (i.e., price, availability) that act to influence valuation of alcohol, recent research has begun to address how motivational and cognitive factors influence an individual's demand for alcohol. Motivational states, including craving, are one possible mechanism underlying the value based decision making that demand represents. Using a multidimensional model of craving (Ambivalence Model of Craving), the current study examined the relationships between indices of alcohol demand (i...
December 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242819/effects-of-e-cigarette-advertising-messages-and-cues-on-cessation-outcomes
#10
Catherine L Jo, Shelley D Golden, Seth M Noar, Christine Rini, Kurt M Ribisl
Objectives: We examined effects of e-cigarette ad messages and visual cues on outcomes related to combustible cigarette smoking cessation: smoking cessation intention, smoking urges, and immediate smoking behavior. Methods: US adult smokers (N = 3293) were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk and randomized to condition in a 3 (message: e-cigarette use anywhere, harm reduction, control) × 2 (e-cigarette cue presence or absence) between-subjects experiment. Stimuli were print ads for cigarette-like e-cigarettes ("cigalikes") that were manipulated for the experimental conditions...
January 1, 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230080/cancer-victim-identity-for-individuals-with-histories-of-cancer-and-childhood-sexual-abuse
#11
Glynnis A McDonnell, Madalina Sucala, Rachel E Goldsmith, Guy H Montgomery, Julie B Schnur
Identifying as a 'cancer victim' has been linked to adverse psychosocial sequelae in individuals who have been diagnosed with cancer. Being a childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivor may predispose individuals towards a "victim" identity in general. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of identifying as a 'cancer victim' among CSA survivors who were diagnosed with cancer as adults, and to explore psychological factors associated with identification as a cancer victim. 105 adults reporting both a history of CSA and of having been diagnosed with cancer as an adult were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk...
December 2017: Journal of Rational-emotive and Cognitive-behavior Therapy: RET
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229586/predictors-of-playing-augmented-reality-mobile-games-while-walking-based-on-the-theory-of-planned-behavior-web-based-survey
#12
Hyeseung Elizabeth Koh, Jeeyun Oh, Michael Mackert
BACKGROUND: There has been a sharp increase in the number of pedestrians injured while using a mobile phone, but little research has been conducted to explain how and why people use mobile devices while walking. Therefore, we conducted a survey study to explicate the motivations of mobile phone use while walking. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the critical predictors of behavioral intention to play a popular mobile game, Pokemon Go, while walking, based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB)...
December 11, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220631/economic-myths-regarding-gay-men-and-lesbians
#13
Wayne W Wilkinson
Based on Badgett (2001), the present research was aimed at developing a measure of economic myths regarding the gay community. Using undergraduate (N = 332) and Amazon Mechanical Turk (N = 212) samples, Study 1 resulted in a 6-item unidimensional and reliable measure, the Economic Myths regarding Gays Scale (EMGS), that was minimally related to other measures of sexual orientation attitudes. Study 2 (N = 210 undergraduates) found that endorsement of economic myths was associated with system justification beliefs that economic inequalities were natural and due to individual merit; however, general attitudes toward gays showed no such relationships...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208483/initial-validation-of-the-nine-item-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-screen-nias-a-measure-of-three-restrictive-eating-patterns
#14
Hana F Zickgraf, Jordan M Ellis
Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is an eating or feeding disorder characterized by inadequate nutritional or caloric intake leading to weight loss, nutritional deficiency, supplement dependence, and/or significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 lists three different eating patterns that can lead to symptoms of ARFID: avoidance of foods due to their sensory properties (e.g., picky eating), poor appetite or limited interest in eating, or fear of negative consequences from eating. Research on the prevalence and psychopathology of ARFID is limited by the lack of validated instruments to measure these eating behaviors...
December 2, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191161/using-mechanical-turk-to-recruit-participants-for-internet-intervention-research-experience-from-recruitment-for-four-trials-targeting-hazardous-alcohol-consumption
#15
John A Cunningham, Alexandra Godinho, Vladyslav Kushnir
BACKGROUND: Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is an online portal operated by Amazon where 'requesters' (individuals or businesses) can submit jobs for 'workers.' MTurk is used extensively by academics as a quick and cheap means of collecting questionnaire data, including information on alcohol consumption, from a diverse sample of participants. We tested the feasibility of recruiting for alcohol Internet intervention trials through MTurk. METHODS: Participants, 18 years or older, who drank at least weekly were recruited for four intervention trials (combined sample size, N = 11,107)...
December 1, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169121/perceptions-of-firearms-and-suicide-the-role-of-misinformation-in-storage-practices-and-openness-to-means-safety-measures
#16
Michael D Anestis, Sarah E Butterworth, Claire Houtsma
BACKGROUND: Firearm ownership and unsafe storage increase risk for suicide. Little is known regarding factors that influence storage practices and willingness to engage in means safety. METHODS: Utilizing Amazon's Mechanical Turk program, we recruited an online sample of 300 adults living in the US who own at least one firearm. Firearm storage practices and openness to means safety measures were assessed using items designed for this study. Data were collected and analyzed in 2017...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164998/chronic-and-daily-stressors-along-with-negative-affect-interact-to-predict-daily-tiredness
#17
Elizabeth N Hartsell, Shevaun D Neupert
The present study examines the within-person relationship of daily stressors and tiredness and whether this depends on daily negative affect and individual differences in chronic stress. One hundred sixteen older adult participants were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk for a 9-day daily diary study. Daily tiredness, daily stressors, and negative affect were measured each day, and chronic stress was measured at baseline. Daily stressors, daily negative affect, and chronic stress interacted to predict daily tiredness...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130029/turking-overtime-how-participant-characteristics-and-behavior-vary-over-time-and-day-on-amazon-mechanical-turk
#18
Antonio A Arechar, Gordon Kraft-Todd, David G Rand
Online experiments allow researchers to collect datasets at times not typical of laboratory studies. We recruit 2,336 participants from Amazon Mechanical Turk to examine if participant characteristics and behaviors differ depending on whether the experiment is conducted during the day versus night, and on weekdays versus weekends. Participants make incentivized decisions involving prosociality, punishment, and discounting, and complete a demographic and personality survey. We find no time or day differences in behavior, but do find that participants at nights and on weekends are less experienced with online studies; on weekends are less reflective; and at night are less conscientious and more neurotic...
July 2017: Journal of the Economic Science Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125514/crowdsourcing-utility-estimation-for-spina-bifida-in-the-general-population
#19
Ruiyang Jiang, Brian M Inouye, Hsin-Hsiao S Wang, Rohit Tejwani, Jonathan C Routh
INTRODUCTION: Cost-utility analyses (CUA) are useful when the treatment conditions depend on patient preferences that are in turn dependent on health state utility value. Spina bifida (SB) is an example of such a preference-sensitive condition. Historically, the SB utility value for CUA has been gathered via a traditional face-to-face interview. However, due to funding and time constrains, utility estimation via online crowdsourcing has recently gained popularity. Our aim was to estimate the utility value for a generic SB health state using a validated online tool...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124752/extending-the-seductive-allure-of-neuroscience-explanations-effect-to-popular-articles-about-educational-topics
#20
Soo-Hyun Im, Keisha Varma, Sashank Varma
BACKGROUND: The seductive allure of neuroscience explanations (SANE) is the finding that people overweight psychological arguments when framed in terms of neuroscience findings. AIM: This study extended this finding to arguments concerning the application of psychological findings to educational topics. SAMPLE: Participants (n = 320) were recruited from the general public, specifically among English-speaking Amazon Mechanical Turk workers residing in the United States...
December 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
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