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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229624/do-step-and-biological-grandparents-show-differences-in-investment-and-emotional-closeness-with-their-grandchildren
#1
Peter B Gray, Elizabeth Brogdon
Human children are raised by a variety of caregivers including grandparents. A few studies have assessed potential differences in direct caregiving, financial expenditures, and emotional closeness between biological and step-grandparents. Drawing upon kin selection theory, we hypothesized that step-grandparents would provide less care and be less emotionally close to grandchildren than would biological grandparents. A sample of 341 heterosexual U.S. adults 25-35 years of age in a long-term partnership and with a biological child 5 years of age or younger were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206793/do-positive-spontaneous-thoughts-function-as-incentive-salience
#2
Elise L Rice, Barbara L Fredrickson
The present work explores the theoretical relationship between positive spontaneous thoughts and incentive salience-a psychological property thought to energize wanting and approach motivation by rendering cues that are associated with enjoyment more likely to stand out to the individual when subsequently encountered in the environment (Berridge, 2007). We reasoned that positive spontaneous thoughts may at least be concomitants of incentive salience, and as such, they might likewise mediate the effect of liking on wanting...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196693/public-perceptions-of-overlapping-surgery
#3
Michael Kent, Richard Whyte, Aaron Fleishman, David Tomich, Lachlan Forrow, James Rodrigue
BACKGROUND: Overlapping surgery is highly contentious, both in regards to the safety of the practice and the degree to which patients should be informed. However, no study has surveyed attitudes of the general public in regards to overlapping surgery, and willingness to consent to such a procedure. STUDY DESIGN: A survey regarding overlapping surgery was completed by participants using Amazon Mechanical Turk (mTurk), an online crowd-sourcing worksite. Responders completed a 51-question survey regarding their knowledge of overlapping surgery, expectations regarding disclosure during the informed consent process, and their willingness to participate in such a procedure...
February 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127682/evaluating-amazon-s-mechanical-turk-for-psychological-research-on-the-symbolic-control-of-attention
#4
Joseph R Pauszek, Pedro Sztybel, Bradley S Gibson
The use of online crowdsourcing services like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) as a method of collecting behavioral data online has become increasingly popular in recent years. A growing body of contemporary research has empirically validated the use of AMT as a tool in psychological research by replicating a wide range of well-established effects that have been previously reported in controlled laboratory studies. However, the potential for AMT to be used to conduct spatial cuing experiments has yet to be investigated in depth...
January 26, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109422/improving-the-nutritional-impact-of-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-perspectives-from-the-participants
#5
Cindy W Leung, Aviva A Musicus, Walter C Willett, Eric B Rimm
INTRODUCTION: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal food assistance program designed to alleviate food insecurity and improve dietary intake. This study assessed the opinions of SNAP participants and food-insufficient nonparticipants on their perceptions of the program and strategies to improve its nutritional impact. METHODS: This study surveyed 387 individuals via Amazon Mechanical Turk, of whom 118 were SNAP participants and 269 were food insufficient but not enrolled in SNAP (nonparticipants)...
February 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104578/a-web-disseminated-self-help-and-peer-support-program-could-fill-gaps-in-mental-health-care-lessons-from-a-consumer-survey
#6
Samantha L Bernecker, Kaitlin Banschback, Gennarina D Santorelli, Michael J Constantino
BACKGROUND: Self-guided mental health interventions that are disseminated via the Web have the potential to circumvent barriers to treatment and improve public mental health. However, self-guided interventions often fail to attract consumers and suffer from user nonadherence. Uptake of novel interventions could be improved by consulting consumers from the beginning of the development process in order to assess their interest and their preferences. Interventions can then be tailored using this feedback to optimize appeal...
January 19, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101922/a-second-type-of-magnitude-effect-reinforcer-magnitude-differentiates-delay-discounting-between-substance-users-and-controls
#7
Alexandra M Mellis, Alina E Woodford, Jeffrey S Stein, Warren K Bickel
Basic research on delay discounting, examining preference for smaller-sooner or larger-later reinforcers, has demonstrated a variety of findings of considerable generality. One of these, the magnitude effect, is the observation that individuals tend to exhibit greater preference for the immediate with smaller magnitude reinforcers. Delay discounting has also proved to be a useful marker of addiction, as demonstrated by the highly replicated finding of greater discounting rates in substance users compared to controls...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099478/small-is-big-interactive-trumps-passive-information-in-breaking-information-barriers-and-impacting-behavioral-antecedents
#8
Ariane L Beck, Kiran Lakkaraju, Varun Rai
The wealth of information available on seemingly every topic creates a considerable challenge both for information providers trying to rise above the noise and discerning individuals trying to find relevant, trustworthy information. We approach this information problem by investigating how passive versus interactive information interventions can impact the antecedents of behavior change using the context of solar energy adoption, where persistent information gaps are known to reduce market potential. We use two experiments to investigate the impact of both passive and interactive approaches to information delivery on the antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in the Theory of Planned Behavior) of intentions and behavior, as well as their effect on intentions and behavior directly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088051/online-recruitment-and-testing-of-infants-with-mechanical-turk
#9
Michelle Tran, Laura Cabral, Ronak Patel, Rhodri Cusack
Testing infants in the laboratory is expensive in time and money; consequently, many studies are underpowered, reducing their reproducibility. We investigated whether the online platform, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), could be used as a resource to more easily recruit and measure the behavior of infant populations. Using a looking time paradigm, with users' webcams we recorded how long infants aged 5 to 8months attended while viewing children's television programs. We found that infants (N=57) were more reliably engaged by some movies than by others and that the most engaging movies could maintain attention for approximately 70% of a 10- to 13-min period...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080149/positive-preferences-the-emotional-valence-of-what-an-avatar-says-matters
#10
Jennifer Wu, Philipp Kraemer
This study examined preferences and ascriptions of human control for avatars associated with positive and negative language. An avatar is a graphical representation of an individual user in a virtual world. Users form judgments of other virtual world users based on the appearance and behavior of their avatars in the absence of physical cues. In particular, users have previously displayed sensitivity toward anthropomorphism and verbal behavior of avatars they encounter within virtual environments. Thus far, investigations of language in online and virtual spaces have been limited to specific contexts...
January 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080109/the-dynamic-range-of-response-set-activation-during-action-sequencing
#11
Lawrence P Behmer, Matthew J C Crump
We show that theories of response scheduling for sequential action can be discriminated on the basis of their predictions for the dynamic range of response set activation during sequencing, which refers to the momentary span of activation states for completed and to-be-completed actions in a response set. In particular, theories allow that future actions in a plan are partially activated, but differ with respect to the width of the range, which refers to the number of future actions that are partially activated...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068131/development-and-evaluation-of-the-internalized-racism-in-asian-americans-scale-iraas
#12
Andrew Young Choi, Tania Israel, Hotaka Maeda
This article presents the development and psychometric evaluation of the Internalized Racism in Asian Americans Scale (IRAAS), which was designed to measure the degree to which Asian Americans internalized hostile attitudes and negative messages targeted toward their racial identity. Items were developed on basis of prior literature, vetted through expert feedback and cognitive interviews, and administered to 655 Asian American participants through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Exploratory factor analysis with a random subsample (n = 324) yielded a psychometrically robust preliminary measurement model consisting of 3 factors: Self-Negativity, Weakness Stereotypes, and Appearance Bias...
January 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063326/mindful-feeding-and-child-dietary-health
#13
Elizabeth A Emley, Maija B Taylor, Dara R Musher-Eizenman
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between mindful feeding as a novel construct and parent-reported child dietary intake. METHODS: Participants (N=497) were parents of children ages 2.9 to 7.5 recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Parents were primarily non-Hispanic white (79%) and female (76%). Simple and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between parental mindful feeding (i.e., parent mental and emotional presence while feeding a child) and their children's dietary intake...
December 21, 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058518/father-participation-in-child-psychopathology-research
#14
Justin Parent, Rex Forehand, Hayley Pomerantz, Virginia Peisch, Martin Seehuus
The purpose of the current study was two-fold: (1) To examine time trends of the inclusion of fathers in child psychopathology research from 2005 to 2015; and (2) to examine online crowdsourcing as a method to recruit and study fathers. In study 1, findings indicated that, relative to two earlier reviews of father participation from 1984 to 1991 and 1992-2004, there has been limited progress in the inclusion of fathers in child psychopathology research over the last decade. In study 2, without explicit efforts to recruit fathers, almost 40% of a sample of 564 parents recruited from online crowdsourcing (Amazon's Mechanical Turk) were fathers...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045305/using-online-crowdsourcing-platforms-for-data-collection-in-personality-disorder-research-the-example-of-amazon-s-mechanical-turk
#15
Joshua D Miller, Michael Crowe, Brandon Weiss, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Donald R Lynam
The use of crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) for data collection in the behavioral sciences has increased substantially in the past several years due in large part to (a) the ability to recruit large samples, (b) the inexpensiveness of data collection, (c) the speed of data collection, and (d) evidence that the data collected are, for the most part, of equal or better quality to that collected in undergraduate research pools. In this review, we first evaluate the strengths and potential limitations of this approach to data collection...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035671/unique-associations-between-big-five-personality-aspects-and-multiple-dimensions-of-well-being
#16
Jessie Sun, Scott Barry Kaufman, Luke D Smillie
OBJECTIVE: Personality traits are associated with well-being, but the precise correlates vary across well-being dimensions and within each Big Five domain. This study is the first to examine the unique associations between the Big Five aspects (rather than facets) and multiple well-being dimensions. METHOD: Two samples of U.S. participants (Total N = 706, Mage = 36.17, 54% female) recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk completed measures of the Big Five aspects and subjective, psychological, and PERMA well-being...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003509/the-importance-of-relevant-emotional-arousal-in-the-efficacy-of-pictorial-health-warnings-for-cigarettes
#17
Zhenhao Shi, An-Li Wang, Lydia F Emery, Kaitlin M Sheerin, Daniel Romer
INTRODUCTION: Warning labels for cigarettes proposed by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were rejected by the courts partly because they were thought to be emotionally evocative but have no educational value. To address this issue, we compared three types of smoking warnings: (1) FDA-proposed warnings with pictures illustrating the smoking hazards; (2) warnings with the same text information paired with equally aversive but smoking-irrelevant images; and (3) text-only warnings. METHODS: Smokers recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions...
December 21, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001492/effects-of-temporal-framing-on-response-to-antismoking-messages-the-mediating-role-of-perceived-relevance
#18
Xiaoquan Zhao, Emily Peterson
This study tested the effect of temporal framing on young adult smokers' response to antismoking communication messages. In two studies using largely identical designs, young adult smokers recruited from a large university (n = 52) and Amazon Mechanical Turk (n = 210) were exposed to either no messages or messages featuring different temporal frames. Analysis of the combined data (N = 262) showed that framing the health consequences of smoking in a proximal (vs. distal) time frame led to greater perceived message relevance, less use of heuristic processing, greater use of systematic processing, greater positive affect, and more intense fear...
January 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987314/risk-benefit-and-cost-thresholds-for-emergency-department-testing-a-cross-sectional-scenario-based-study
#19
Arjun Prasad Meka, Jonathan Douglas Porath, Rahul Iyengar, Chelsea Morrow, Angela Fagerlin, William J Meurer
INTRODUCTION: While diagnostic testing is common in the emergency department, the value of some testing is questionable. The purpose of this study was to assess how varying levels of benefit, risk, and costs influenced an individual's desire to have diagnostic testing. METHODS: A survey through Amazon Mechanical Turk presented hypothetical clinical situations: low risk chest pain and minor traumatic brain injury. Each scenario included three given variables (benefit, risk, and cost), that was independently randomly varied over four possible values (0...
December 17, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979792/the-mobile-phone-affinity-scale-enhancement-and-refinement
#20
Beth C Bock, Ryan Lantini, Herpreet Thind, Kristen Walaska, Rochelle K Rosen, Joseph L Fava, Nancy P Barnett, Lori Aj Scott-Sheldon
BACKGROUND: Existing instruments that assess individuals' relationships with mobile phones tend to focus on negative constructs such as addiction or dependence, and appear to assume that high mobile phone use reflects pathology. Mobile phones can be beneficial for health behavior change, disease management, work productivity, and social connections, so there is a need for an instrument that provides a more balanced assessment of the various aspects of individuals' relationships with mobile phones...
December 15, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
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