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Amazon Mechanical Turk

Warren K Bickel, Lara N Moody, Mikhail Koffarnus, J Graham Thomas, Rena Wing
Long-term weight loss maintenance is likely to require strong self-control in order to sustain changes in behavior patterns. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that those who have successfully maintained weight loss may have superior self-control compared to control participants. Self-control was assessed using a delay discounting task through a webbased assessment of members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR: N = 757; non-obese = 605; obese = 152) and control participants (Control N = 443; nonobese = 236; obese = 207) from Amazon's Mechanical Turk...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Perrine Créquit, Ghizlène Mansouri, Mehdi Benchoufi, Alexandre Vivot, Philippe Ravaud
BACKGROUND: Crowdsourcing involves obtaining ideas, needed services, or content by soliciting Web-based contributions from a crowd. The 4 types of crowdsourced tasks (problem solving, data processing, surveillance or monitoring, and surveying) can be applied in the 3 categories of health (promotion, research, and care). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to map the different applications of crowdsourcing in health to assess the fields of health that are using crowdsourcing and the crowdsourced tasks used...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Bruce S Liese, Erik M Benau, Paul Atchley, Derek Reed, Amel Becirevic, Brent Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Some have suggested that text messaging is an addictive behavior. However, this characterization is uncertain, partly due to lack of well-validated measures of text messaging attitudes and behaviors. One standard instrument for measuring text messaging attitudes and behaviors is the Self-perception of Text-message Dependency Scale (STDS), though the psychometric properties of this scale have only been examined with a sample of Japanese youth. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the STDS in the United States to determine its utility as a measure of text messaging dependence...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Katrina J Speed, Christopher W Drapeau, Michael R Nadorff
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Although nightmares have been associated with suicidal behavior beyond well-known risk factors, the association between nightmares and multiple suicide attempts remains largely unexplored. This study addressed this gap in the literature by examining whether nightmares differentiated between individuals who reported single versus multiple suicide attempts. The individual contributions of nightmare frequency, distress/severity, and chronicity were also investigated to determine which variable contributed the most variance...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Catherine Rochefort, Austin S Baldwin, Michael Chmielewski
Experiential avoidance (also referred to as acceptance or psychological flexibility) is a core construct of third-wave behavior therapies. It is the tendency to avoid uncomfortable thoughts or feelings, even when doing so has negative long-term consequences. In order for developments in experiential avoidance and third-wave behavior therapies to continue, it is imperative to examine the construct validity of the most widely used measures of this construct, the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) and the Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ)...
May 2018: Behavior Therapy
John P Lalor, Hao Wu, Li Chen, Kathleen M Mazor, Hong Yu
BACKGROUND: Patient portals are widely adopted in the United States and allow millions of patients access to their electronic health records (EHRs), including their EHR clinical notes. A patient's ability to understand the information in the EHR is dependent on their overall health literacy. Although many tests of health literacy exist, none specifically focuses on EHR note comprehension. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to develop an instrument to assess patients' EHR note comprehension...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Lori A J Scott-Sheldon, Laura R Stroud
OBJECTIVE: We assessed preferences, perceptions, and intentions to use flavored waterpipe (hookah) tobacco (HT) among women of reproductive age in the United States. METHODS: A convenience sample of women 18-44 years of age (N = 238; mean age = 28; 74% white) were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to complete a survey assessing preferences, perceptions, and intentions to use flavored HT. RESULTS: Of the women who had ever used hookah (62%), most (82%) used hookah sweetened with fruit flavors...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
Gideon P Naudé, Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed, Amy J Henley, Florence D DiGennaro Reed
Recent research suggests that presenting time intervals as units (e.g., days) or as specific dates, can modulate the degree to which humans discount delayed outcomes. Another framing effect involves explicitly stating that choosing a smaller-sooner reward is mutually exclusive to receiving a larger-later reward, thus presenting choices as an extended sequence. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 201) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire in a 2 (delay framing) by 2 (zero framing) design...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Amira Osman, Sarah D Kowitt, Paschal Sheeran, Kristen L Jarman, Leah M Ranney, Adam O Goldstein
While the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has had regulatory authority over tobacco products since 2009, public awareness of this authority remains limited. This research examines several broad types of information about FDA tobacco regulatory mission that may improve the perceptions of FDA as a tobacco regulator. Using Amazon Mechanical Turk, 1766 adults, smokers and non-smokers, were randomly assigned to view a statement about FDA regulatory authority that varied three information types in a 2 × 2 × 2 between subjects experimental design: (1) FDA's roles in regulating tobacco (yes/no); (2) The scientific basis of regulations (yes/no); and (3) A potential protective function of regulations (yes/no)...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jose Luis Ibarra, Jessica Marie Agas, Melissa Lee, Julia Lily Pan, Alison Meredith Buttenheim
BACKGROUND: Recruiting hard-to-reach populations for health research is challenging. Web-based platforms offer one way to recruit specific samples for research purposes, but little is known about the feasibility of online recruitment and the representativeness and comparability of samples recruited through different Web-based platforms. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of recruiting a hard-to-reach population (pregnant smokers) using 4 different Web-based platforms and to compare participants recruited through each platform...
April 16, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Jared F Benge, Kara L Dinh, Erin Logue, Richard Phenis, Michelle N Dasse, Michael K Scullin
Smartphones have potential as cognitive aids for adults with cognitive impairments. However, little is known about how patients and their care partners utilise smartphones in their day-to-day lives. We collected self-reported smartphone utilisation data from patients referred for neuropsychological evaluations (N = 53), their care partners (N = 44), and an Amazon Mechanical Turk control sample (N = 204). Patient participants were less likely to own a smartphone than controls, with increasing age associated with less utilisation of smartphone features in all groups...
April 16, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Hyoun S Kim, Alexandra Shifrin, Travis Sztainert, Michael J A Wohl
Background and aims We examined the potential role religious beliefs may play in disordered gambling. Specifically, we tested the idea that religiosity primes people to place their faith in good fortune or a higher power. In the context of gambling, however, this may lead to gambling fallacies (e.g., erroneous beliefs that one has control over a random outcome). People who are high in religiosity may be more at risk of developing gambling fallacies, as they may believe that a higher power can influence a game of chance...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Kelly E Dunn, Frederick S Barrett, George E Bigelow
BACKGROUND: Opioid-related overdose has increased 137% in the past decade. Training nonmedical bystanders to administer naloxone (Narcan™) is a widely-researched intervention that has been associated with decreases in overdose rates in the communities in which it has been implemented. A recent review advocated for noninjectable formulations of naloxone, however patient preference for naloxone formulations has not yet been examined (Strang et al., 2016). METHODS: Two cohorts of respondents (N1  = 501, N2  = 172) who reported currently being prescribed an opioid for pain management were recruited through the crowd-sourcing program Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to assess their preference for naloxone formulations...
March 28, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Rachael M Porter, Avnika B Amin, Robert A Bednarczyk, Saad B Omer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vaccination with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is recommended for 11-12 years-old, but uptake is suboptimal. Current messaging focuses on HPV infection transmission and prevention. Parents and providers are often uncomfortable discussing sexual practices of adolescents, contributing to the delay/refusal of vaccine. We created a cervical cancer-salient message encouraging HPV vaccination, emphasizing disease salience and disease threat, while promoting self-efficacy...
March 26, 2018: Vaccine
Niam Yaraghi, Weiguang Wang, Guodong Gordon Gao, Ritu Agarwal
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the information environment for patients to learn about physician quality is being rapidly changed by Web-based ratings from both commercial and government efforts. However, little is known about how various types of Web-based ratings affect individuals' choice of physicians. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to measure the relative importance of Web-based quality ratings from governmental and commercial agencies on individuals' choice of primary care physicians...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Ashley N Dowd, Courtney A Motschman, Stephen T Tiffany
Introduction: Craving may represent core motivational processes in tobacco dependence, but there is no psychometrically evaluated measure of craving for e-cigarettes (vaping craving). This research developed and validated a brief measure of vaping craving. Methods: The measure was evaluated in two studies. In Study 1, a 42-item questionnaire assessing a wide range of vaping craving content was administered to 209 current e-cigarette users. In Study 2, a 10-item questionnaire derived from Study 1 results was administered to 224 current e-cigarette users...
March 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Erin M Buchanan, John E Scofield
Web-based data collection methods such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) are an appealing option to recruit participants quickly and cheaply for psychological research. While concerns regarding data quality have emerged with AMT, several studies have exhibited that data collected via AMT are as reliable as traditional college samples and are often more diverse and representative of noncollege populations. The development of methods to screen for low quality data, however, has been less explored. Omitting participants based on simple screening methods in isolation, such as response time or attention checks may not be adequate identification methods, with an inability to delineate between high or low effort participants...
March 14, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Carmina G Valle, Tara L Queen, Barbara A Martin, Kurt M Ribisl, Deborah K Mayer, Deborah F Tate
BACKGROUND: Health risk assessments with tailored feedback plus health education have been shown to be effective for promoting health behavior change. However, there is limited evidence to guide the development and delivery of online automated tailored feedback. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to optimize tailored feedback messages for an online health risk assessment to promote enhanced user engagement, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions for engaging in healthy behaviors...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Morgan N McCredie, Leslie C Morey
As online data collection services such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) gain popularity, the quality and representativeness of such data sources have gained research attention. To date, the majority of existing studies have compared MTurk workers with undergraduate samples, localized community samples, or other Internet-based samples, and thus, there remains little known about the personality and mental health constructs of MTurk workers relative to a national representative sample. The present study addresses these limitations and broadens the scope of existing research through the use of the Personality Assessment Inventory, a multiscale, self-report questionnaire which provides information regarding data validity and personality and psychopathology features standardized against a national U...
February 1, 2018: Assessment
Andrew S Huhn, Albert Perez Garcia-Romeu, Kelly E Dunn
Background: Opioid overdose (OD) rates in the United States have reached unprecedented levels. Current OD prevention strategies largely consist of distribution of naloxone and in-person trainings, which face obstacles to expedient, widespread dissemination. Web-based interventions have increased opioid-OD response knowledge in patients with opioid-use disorders; however, these interventions have not been tested in the larger population of individuals that are prescribed opioid analgesics...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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