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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926626/do-privacy-and-security-regulations-need-a-status-update-perspectives-from-an-intergenerational-survey
#1
Stacey Pereira, Jill Oliver Robinson, Hayley A Peoples, Amanda M Gutierrez, Mary A Majumder, Amy L McGuire, Mark A Rothstein
BACKGROUND: The importance of health privacy protections in the era of the "Facebook Generation" has been called into question. The ease with which younger people share personal information about themselves has led to the assumption that they are less concerned than older generations about the privacy of their information, including health information. We explored whether survey respondents' views toward health privacy suggest that efforts to strengthen privacy protections as health information is moved online are unnecessary...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926569/am-i-who-i-say-i-am-unobtrusive-self-representation-and-personality-recognition-on-facebook
#2
Margeret Hall, Simon Caton
Across social media platforms users (sub)consciously represent themselves in a way which is appropriate for their intended audience. This has unknown impacts on studies with unobtrusive designs based on digital (social) platforms, and studies of contemporary social phenomena in online settings. A lack of appropriate methods to identify, control for, and mitigate the effects of self-representation, the propensity to express socially responding characteristics or self-censorship in digital settings, hinders the ability of researchers to confidently interpret and generalize their findings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890740/public-attitudes-towards-moral-enhancement-evidence-that-means-matter-morally
#3
Jona Specker, Maartje H N Schermer, Peter B Reiner
To gain insight into the reasons that the public may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological moral enhancement for themselves or for others, we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards these issues. Participants (N = 293) from the United States were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk and were randomly assigned to read one of several contrastive vignettes in which a 13-year-old child is described as bullying another student in school and then is offered an empathy-enhancing program...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890192/workplace-availability-risk-group-and-perceived-barriers-predictive-of-2016-17-influenza-vaccine-uptake-in-the-united-states-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Paula M Luz, Riley E Johnson, Heidi E Brown
BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza, though mostly self-limited in the healthy adult, may lead to severe disease and/or complications in subpopulations. Annual influenza vaccination is available in many countries with coverage goals rarely being met. We conducted a cross-sectional study of influenza vaccine uptake and explored socio-demographic, economic, and psychological factors that explained vaccine uptake. METHODS: The survey was administered via Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to United States residents in January 2017, using the Qualtrics platform...
September 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882810/study-of-methods-for-assessing-research-topic-elicitation-and-prioritization-smarter-study-protocol-to-compare-qualitative-research-methods-and-advance-patient-engagement-in-research
#5
Danielle C Lavallee, Bryan Comstock, Mary R Scott, Andrew L Avins, David R Nerenz, Todd C Edwards, Donald L Patrick, Sarah O Lawrence, Zoya Bauer, Anjali R Truitt, Jeffrey G Jarvik
BACKGROUND: Involving patients as partners in research is a defining characteristic of patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). While patients' experiential knowledge of a health condition or treatment may yield research priorities not reflected by researchers and policy makers, the methods for identifying and effectively collaborating with patients are still evolving. Patient registries and crowdsourcing may offer ease of access and convenience to both researchers and patients. Surveys and focus groups, including online modalities, have been described for prioritizing research topics...
September 7, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819986/knowledge-of-palliative-care-among-community-dwelling-adults
#6
Elissa Kozlov, Meghan McDarby, M Carrington Reid, Brian D Carpenter
OBJECTIVE: To identify what laypersons know about palliative care using the Palliative Care Knowledge Scale (PaCKS). A secondary aim was to establish preliminary normative data for the PaCKS. METHODS: A sample of 301 adults were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk database. Participants were administered the PaCKS along with a demographic questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean score on the 13-item PaCKS was 5.25 (standard deviation = 4.77, range: 0-13), the median was 5, and the mode was 0, with a significant proportion of participants selecting "I don't know" for every item...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816465/on-informing-jurors-of-potential-sanctions
#7
Jennifer Teitcher, Nicholas Scurich
Two experiments tested (a) whether jurors make assumptions about the potential punishment that would follow from a guilty verdict, (b) whether those assumptions influence jurors' implicit threshold for reasonable doubt, and (c) whether informing jurors of the potential punishment additionally influences their implicit threshold. Experiment 1 manipulated the alleged crime (grand theft vs. manslaughter) holding all other factors constant, and found that mock jurors (n = 102, recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk) had different expectations about the relative punishments but that these expectations did not affect their implicit threshold for reasonable doubt...
August 17, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813899/the-effects-of-auditory-and-visual-cues-on-timing-synchronicity-for-robotic-rehabilitation
#8
Brittney A English, Ayanna M Howard
In this paper, we explore how the integration of auditory and visual cues can help teach the timing of motor skills for the purpose of motor function rehabilitation. We conducted a study using Amazon's Mechanical Turk in which 106 participants played a virtual therapy game requiring wrist movements. To validate that our results would translate to trends that could also be observed during robotic rehabilitation sessions, we recreated this experiment with 11 participants using a robotic wrist rehabilitation system as means to control the therapy game...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809134/cancer-treatment-experiences-among-survivors-of-childhood-sexual-abuse-a-qualitative-investigation-of-triggers-and-reactions-to-cumulative-trauma
#9
Julie B Schnur, Matthew J Dillon, Rachel E Goldsmith, Guy H Montgomery
OBJECTIVE: Some 25% of women and 8% of men in the United States have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) before the age of 18. For these individuals, healthcare visits and interactions can be retraumatizing due to perceived similarities to past abuse (e.g., pain, undressing, lack of control). However, no prior studies have provided formal qualitative analyses regarding CSA survivors' reactions to cancer treatment. Therefore, our study's objective was to identify key themes pertaining to CSA survivors' cancer treatment experiences...
August 15, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804184/a-comparison-of-three-online-recruitment-strategies-for-engaging-parents
#10
Jodi Dworkin, Heather Hessel, Kate Gliske, Jessie H Rudi
Family scientists can face the challenge of effectively and efficiently recruiting normative samples of parents and families. Utilizing the Internet to recruit parents is a strategic way to find participants where they already are, enabling researchers to overcome many of the barriers to in-person recruitment. The present study was designed to compare three online recruitment strategies for recruiting parents: e-mail Listservs, Facebook, and Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Analyses revealed differences in the effectiveness and efficiency of data collection...
October 2016: Family Relations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760180/tobacco-marketing-e-cigarette-susceptibility-and-perceptions-among-adults
#11
Nicole E Nicksic, L Morgan Snell, Alyssa K Rudy, Caroline O Cobb, Andrew J Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the impact of tobacco marketing on e-cigarette (EC) susceptibility and perceptions is essential to inform efforts to mitigate tobacco product burden on public health. METHODS: Data were collected online in 2016 from 634 conventional cigarette (CC) smokers and 393 non-smokers using a convenience sample from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Logistic regression models, stratified by smoking status and adjusted for socio-demographics, examined the relationship among tobacco advertisements and coupons, EC and CC susceptibility, and EC perceptions...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746883/comparing-undergraduate-and-community-recruited-adult-non-gamblers-motives-for-not-gambling-do-they-differ
#12
Christina L Rash, Hyoun S Kim, David C Hodgins, Daniel S McGrath
The field of gambling studies has extensively focused on isolating risk factors for developing a gambling disorder. Conversely, little attention has been paid to identifying protective factors against gambling disorder among people who choose to not gamble at all. Moreover, the limited number of studies that have focused on non-gamblers have neglected to differentiate current from lifetime non-gamblers. The purpose of the present study was to examine motives for not gambling among a diverse sample of adult lifetime non-gamblers recruited from the community and to compare these motives to an undergraduate student sample of non-gamblers from a previous study...
July 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735642/development-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-multidimensional-schizotypy-scale-a-new-measure-for-assessing-positive-negative-and-disorganized-schizotypy
#13
Thomas R Kwapil, Georgina M Gross, Paul J Silvia, Michael L Raulin, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
This article reports on the development of a new self-report questionnaire measure of schizotypy - the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS). Schizotypy offers a useful and unifying construct for understanding schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. Questionnaire measures have been widely used to assess schizotypy and have greatly informed our understanding of the construct. However, available measures suffer from a number of limitations, including lack of a clear conceptual framework, outdated wording, unclear factor structure, and psychometric shortcomings...
July 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704414/examining-the-use-of-amazon-s-mechanical-turk-for-edge-extraction-of-the-occlusal-surface-of-fossilized-bovid-teeth
#14
Gregory J Matthews, George K Thiruvathukal, Maxwell P Luetkemeier, Juliet K Brophy
In order to reconstruct environments associated with Plio-Pleistocene hominins in southern Africa, researchers frequently rely upon the animals associated with the hominins, in particular, animals in the Family Bovidae. Bovids in southern Africa are typically identified by their teeth. However, identifying the taxon of a bovid tooth is challenging due to various biasing factors. Furthermore, inaccurate identification of fossil bovids can have significant consequences on the reconstructed paleoenvironment. Recent research on the classification of bovid fossil teeth has relied on using elliptical Fourier analysis to summarize the shape of the outline of the occlusal surface of the tooth and the resulting harmonic amplitudes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677867/thwarted-belongingness-in-relation-to-face-to-face-and-online-interactions
#15
Fallon B Ringer, Michael D Anestis
Suicide is ranked as the tenth leading cause of death for all ages in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicide stated thwarted belongingness-the feeling of being alienated from others-and perceived burdensomeness-the feeling of being a liability to others-are the primary proximal factors leading to suicidal desire. The current study focused on thwarted belongingness and examined its relationship to face-to-face interactions and online interactions in both an undergraduate and community sample...
July 5, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677322/an-exploration-of-crowdsourcing-citation-screening-for-systematic-reviews
#16
Michael L Mortensen, Gaelen P Adam, Thomas A Trikalinos, Tim Kraska, Byron C Wallace
Systematic reviews are increasingly used to inform health care decisions, but are expensive to produce. We explore the use of crowdsourcing (distributing tasks to untrained workers via the web) to reduce the cost of screening citations. We used Amazon Mechanical Turk as our platform and 4 previously conducted systematic reviews as examples. For each citation, workers answered 4 or 5 questions that were equivalent to the eligibility criteria. We aggregated responses from multiple workers into an overall decision to include or exclude the citation using 1 of 9 algorithms and compared the performance of these algorithms to the corresponding decisions of trained experts...
September 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645137/-to-take-or-not-to-take-the-association-between-perceived-addiction-risk-expected-analgesic-response-and-likelihood-of-trying-novel-pain-relievers-in-self-identified-chronic-pain-patients
#17
D Andrew Tompkins, Andrew S Huhn, Patrick S Johnson, Michael T Smith, Eric C Strain, Robert R Edwards, Matthew W Johnson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Probability discounting refers to the effect of outcome uncertainty on decision making. Using probability discounting, we examined the degree to which self-identified chronic pain patients (CPP) were likely to try a novel analgesic medication given increasing addiction risk. We postulated that propensity for opioid misuse, trait impulsivity, and previous opioid experience would be positively associated with likelihood of risky medication use. DESIGN: This cross-sectional online study determined state/trait associations with addiction-related medication decisions in CPP...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638330/flat-vs-expressive-storytelling-young-children-s-learning-and-retention-of-a-social-robot-s-narrative
#18
Jacqueline M Kory Westlund, Sooyeon Jeong, Hae W Park, Samuel Ronfard, Aradhana Adhikari, Paul L Harris, David DeSteno, Cynthia L Breazeal
Prior research with preschool children has established that dialogic or active book reading is an effective method for expanding young children's vocabulary. In this exploratory study, we asked whether similar benefits are observed when a robot engages in dialogic reading with preschoolers. Given the established effectiveness of active reading, we also asked whether this effectiveness was critically dependent on the expressive characteristics of the robot. For approximately half the children, the robot's active reading was expressive; the robot's voice included a wide range of intonation and emotion (Expressive)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634154/improving-consensus-scoring-of-crowdsourced-data-using-the-rasch-model-development-and-refinement-of-a-diagnostic-instrument
#19
Christopher John Brady, Lucy Iluka Mudie, Xueyang Wang, Eliseo Guallar, David Steven Friedman
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in working age individuals worldwide. While screening is effective and cost effective, it remains underutilized, and novel methods are needed to increase detection of DR. This clinical validation study compared diagnostic gradings of retinal fundus photographs provided by volunteers on the Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) crowdsourcing marketplace with expert-provided gold-standard grading and explored whether determination of the consensus of crowdsourced classifications could be improved beyond a simple majority vote (MV) using regression methods...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633999/characteristics-of-a-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-sample-recruited-using-amazon-s-mechanical-turk
#20
John Bernstein, Matthew Calamia
BACKGROUND: Several barriers exist in the recruitment of individuals with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The current study is the first to examine whether crowdsourcing, which has been used in other clinical populations, is useful in the recruitment of those with mTBI. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online crowdsourcing platform, is a useful tool in the recruitment of individuals with a history of mTBI and to examine the injury and psychological characteristics of individuals who report a history of mTBI...
June 19, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
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