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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893213/reliability-and-validity-of-data-obtained-from-alcohol-cannabis-and-gambling-populations-on-amazon-s-mechanical-turk
#1
Hyoun S Kim, David C Hodgins
Researchers recently have begun using Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online crowdsourcing platform, to recruit addiction populations. However, whether the data obtained from substance users and gamblers on MTurk are reliable and valid is unknown. Herein, we assessed the internal and retest reliability of and concurrent and convergent validity of data obtained from addiction populations on MTurk. Current drinkers (N = 208), cannabis users (N = 200), and gamblers (N = 200) residing in the United States completed measures of alcohol, cannabis, and gambling severity, psychological constructs (e...
November 28, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853533/no-evidence-that-a-range-of-artificial-monitoring-cues-influence-online-donations-to-charity-in-an-mturk-sample
#2
Timothy J Saunders, Alex H Taylor, Quentin D Atkinson
Monitoring cues, such as an image of a face or pair of eyes, have been found to increase prosocial behaviour in several studies. However, other studies have found little or no support for this effect. Here, we examined whether monitoring cues affect online donations to charity while manipulating the emotion displayed, the number of watchers and the cue type. We also include as statistical controls a range of likely covariates of prosocial behaviour. Using the crowdsourcing Internet marketplace, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), 1535 participants completed our survey and were given the opportunity to donate to charity while being shown an image prime...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816711/an-examination-of-the-role-of-intolerance-of-distress-and-uncertainty-in-hoarding-symptoms
#3
Brittany M Mathes, Mary E Oglesby, Nicole A Short, Amberly K Portero, Amanda M Raines, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Hoarding disorder (HD) is a common and debilitating disorder characterized by an accumulation of and failure to discard one's possessions. The identification and examination of underlying factors that may contribute to hoarding symptoms are needed to elucidate the nature of the disorder and refine existing treatments. Two transdiagnostic vulnerability factors that have been associated with hoarding symptoms are distress intolerance (DI) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU)...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811475/participation-in-genetic-research-amazon-s-mechanical-turk-workforce-in-the-united-states-and-india
#4
Susan W Groth, Ann Dozier, Margaret Demment, Dongmei Li, I Diana Fernandez, Jack Chang, Timothy Dye
BACKGROUND: Genomic research has innumerable benefits. However, if people are unwilling to participate in genomic research, application of knowledge will be limited. This study examined the likelihood of respondents from a high- and a low- to middle-income country to participate in genetic research. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected using Amazon's Mechanical Turk workforce to ascertain attitudes toward participation in genetic research. Registered country of residence was either the US (n = 505) or India (n = 505)...
November 4, 2016: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800160/adult-picky-eaters-with-symptoms-of-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-comparable-distress-and-comorbidity-but-different-eating-behaviors-compared-to-those-with-disordered-eating-symptoms
#5
Hana F Zickgraf, Martin E Franklin, Paul Rozin
BACKGROUND: One presentation of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is characterized by picky eating, i.e., selective eating based on the sensory properties of food. The present study has two aims. The first is to describe distress and impairment in individuals with ARFID secondary to picky eating. The second is to determine whether eating behaviors hypothesized to be specific to picky eating can differentiate picky eaters with and without ARFID from typical eaters (e.g...
2016: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792909/knowledge-about-nicotine-among-hiv-positive-smokers-implications-for-tobacco-regulatory-science-policy
#6
Lauren R Pacek, Olga Rass, Matthew W Johnson
The present paper describes the general knowledge of smoking and nicotine among a sample of current smokers living with HIV (n=271) who were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Descriptive statistics were used to report sociodemographic and smoking characteristics, as well as knowledge about smoking and nicotine. The sample was comprised of relatively light smokers, both in terms of cigarettes per day (M=8.1, SD=9.7) and dependence (67.5% had low dependence according to the Heaviness of Smoking Index). The majority of participants correctly identified smoking as being a potential cause of various smoking-related conditions and correctly identified constituents in cigarette smoke...
February 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788299/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-an-educational-intervention-using-an-online-risk-calculator-for-knee-osteoarthritis-effect-on-risk-perception
#7
Elena Losina, Griffin L Michl, Karen C Smith, Jeffrey N Katz
OBJECTIVE: Young adults, in general, are not aware of their risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Understanding risk and risk factors is critical to knee OA prevention. We tested the efficacy of a personalized risk calculator on accuracy of knee OA risk perception and willingness to change behaviors associated with knee OA risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 375 subjects recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Subjects were randomized to either a) use a personalized risk calculator based on demographic and risk factor information (intervention) or b) view general OA risk information (control)...
October 27, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770232/the-parenting-anxious-kids-ratings-scale-parent-report-pakrs-pr-initial-scale-development-and-psychometric-properties
#8
Christopher A Flessner, Yolanda E Murphy, Elle Brennan, Alexandra D'Auria
Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study...
October 21, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765734/current-public-knowledge-pertaining-to-traumatic-brain-injury-influence-of-demographic-factors-social-trends-and-sport-concussion-experience-on-the-understanding-of-traumatic-brain-injury-sequelae
#9
Zachary C Merz, Ryan Van Patten, John Lace
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to assess current broad traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related knowledge in the general public, as well as understanding regarding specific TBI-related conditions including post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). METHODS: Data were collected from 307 domestic and 73 international individuals via online researcher-developed survey instrumentation utilizing the Amazon Mechanical Turk marketplace, a recently developed website that allows for a streamlined process of survey-based participant recruitment and data collection...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760403/body-dysmorphic-disorder-symptoms-and-risk-for-suicide-the-role-of-depression
#10
A M Shaw, K A Arditte Hall, E Rosenfield, K R Timpano
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is associated with elevated suicidality. Little is known about why BDD patients are at increased risk. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) could clarify suicidality in BDD, and theorizes that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness lead to suicidal desire, while an acquired capability for suicide is necessary to attempt suicide. No study has investigated how BDD symptoms relate to IPTS constructs or mediators of the relationship between BDD and suicidality...
December 2016: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757371/sunk-costs-psychological-symptomology-and-help-seeking
#11
David P Jarmolowicz, Warren K Bickel, Michael J Sofis, Laura E Hatz, E Terry Mueller
Individuals often allow prior investments of time, money or effort to influence their current behavior. A tendency to allow previous investments to impact further investment, referred to as the sunk-cost fallacy, may be related to adverse psychological health. Unfortunately, little is known about the relation between the sunk-cost fallacy and psychological symptoms or help seeking. The current study used a relatively novel approach (i.e., Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing [AMT] service) to examine various aspects of psychological health in internet users (n = 1053) that did and did not commit the sunk-cost fallacy...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752251/direct-to-consumer-drug-advertisements-can-paradoxically-increase-intentions-to-adopt-lifestyle-changes
#12
Maya B Mathur, Michael Gould, Nayer Khazeni
Background: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements are thought to induce "boomerang effects," meaning they reduce the perceived effectiveness of a potential alternative option: non-pharmaceutical treatment via lifestyle change. Past research has observed such effects using artificially created, text-only advertisements that may not adequate capture the complex, conflicting portrayal of lifestyle change in real television advertisements. In other risk domains, individual "problem status" often moderates boomerang effects, such that subjects who currently engage in the risky behavior exhibit the strongest boomerang effects...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746280/utility-estimation-for-pediatric-vesicoureteral-reflux-methodological-considerations-using-an-online-survey-platform
#13
Rohit Tejwani, Hsin-Hsiao S Wang, Jessica C Lloyd, Paul J Kokorowski, Caleb P Nelson, Jonathan C Routh
BACKGROUND: The advent of online task-distribution has opened a new avenue to efficiently gather community perspectives needed for utility estimation. Methodological consensus for estimating pediatric utilities is lacking, with disagreement over whom to sample, what perspective (patient vs. parent), and whether instrument-induced anchoring bias is significant. We sought to determine what methodological factors potentially impact utility estimates for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys using a time-trade-off (TTO) instrument were conducted via Amazon's Mechanical Turk online interface; respondents were randomized to answer questions from child, parent, or dyad perspectives on the utility of a VUR health state and one of three "warm-up" scenarios (paralysis, common cold, none) prior to a VUR scenario...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685187/expectations-for-the-methodology-and-translation-of-animal-research-a-survey-of-the-general-public-medical-students-and-animal-researchers-in-north-america
#14
Ari R Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis
To determine what are considered acceptable standards for animal research (AR) methodology and translation rate to humans, a validated survey was sent to: a) a sample of the general public, via Sampling Survey International (SSI; Canada), Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT; USA), a Canadian city festival (CF) and a Canadian children's hospital (CH); b) a sample of medical students (two first-year classes); and c) a sample of scientists (corresponding authors and academic paediatricians). There were 1379 responses from the general public sample (SSI, n = 557; AMT, n = 590; CF, n = 195; CH, n = 102), 205/330 (62%) medical student responses, and 23/323 (7%, too few to report) scientist responses...
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668130/the-accuracy-and-reliability-of-crowdsource-annotations-of-digital-retinal-images
#15
Danny Mitry, Kris Zutis, Baljean Dhillon, Tunde Peto, Shabina Hayat, Kay-Tee Khaw, James E Morgan, Wendy Moncur, Emanuele Trucco, Paul J Foster
PURPOSE: Crowdsourcing is based on outsourcing computationally intensive tasks to numerous individuals in the online community who have no formal training. Our aim was to develop a novel online tool designed to facilitate large-scale annotation of digital retinal images, and to assess the accuracy of crowdsource grading using this tool, comparing it to expert classification. METHODS: We used 100 retinal fundus photograph images with predetermined disease criteria selected by two experts from a large cohort study...
September 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651401/what-do-our-patients-truly-want-conjoint-analysis-of-an-aesthetic-plastic-surgery-practice-using-internet-crowdsourcing
#16
Cindy Wu, C Scott Hultman, Paul Diegidio, Steven Hermiz, Roja Garimella, Trisha M Crutchfield, Clara N Lee
BACKGROUND: What do patients want when looking for an aesthetic surgeon? When faced with attributes like reputation, years in practice, testimonials, photos, and pricing, which is more valuable? Moreover, are attributes procedure-specific? Currently, inadequate evidence exists on which attributes are most important to patients, and to our knowledge, none on procedure-specific preferences. OBJECTIVES: First, to determine the most important attributes to breast augmentation, combined breast/abdominal surgery, and facelift patients using conjoint analysis...
September 20, 2016: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647548/reaping-the-benefits-of-meaningful-work-the-mediating-versus-moderating-role-of-work-engagement
#17
Matthew J Johnson, Lixin Jiang
This study examined whether meaningful work may improve one's quality of life outside of the workplace (i.e., work-to-life enrichment). More importantly, we proposed and tested competing hypotheses regarding the role of work engagement in the relationship between meaningful work and work-to-life enrichment. Specifically, we investigated whether work engagement served as a mediator of this relationship, as suggested by the job demands-resources model, or instead a moderator, as suggested by conservation of resources theory...
September 20, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631760/stuck-in-time-negative-income-shock-constricts-the-temporal-window-of-valuation-spanning-the-future-and-the-past
#18
Warren K Bickel, A George Wilson, Chen Chen, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Christopher T Franck
Insufficient resources are associated with negative consequences including decreased valuation of future reinforcers. To determine if these effects result from scarcity, we examined the consequences of acute, abrupt changes in resource availability on delay discounting-the subjective devaluation of rewards as delay to receipt increases. In the current study, 599 individuals recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk read a narrative of a sudden change (positive, neutral, or negative) to one's hypothetical future income and completed a delay discounting task examining future and past monetary gains and losses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617512/development-of-the-medical-maximizer-minimizer-scale
#19
Laura D Scherer, Tanner J Caverly, James Burke, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher, Jeffrey T Kullgren, Douglas Steinley, Denis M McCarthy, Meghan Roney, Angela Fagerlin
OBJECTIVE: Medical over- and underutilization are central problems that stand in the way of delivering optimal health care. As a result, one important question is how people decide to take action, versus not, when it comes to their health. The present article proposes and validates a new measure that captures the extent to which individuals are "medical maximizers" who are predisposed to seek health care even for minor problems, versus "medical minimizers" who prefer to avoid medical intervention unless it is necessary...
November 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616773/addressing-inconsistencies-in-the-social-norms-drinking-literature-development-of-the-injunctive-norms-drinking-and-abstaining-behaviors-questionnaire
#20
Samuel N Meisel, Craig R Colder, Jennifer P Read
BACKGROUND: Informed by inconsistent findings regarding the association between injunctive norms (IN) and drinking behaviors, the current study developed a new measure of IN, the Injunctive Norms Drinking and Abstaining Behaviors Questionnaire (IN-DABQ). This measure addressed several psychometric weaknesses of prior assessment of this construct, specifically, reliance on single-item measures, and assessment of a limited range of drinking behaviors. The new measure also assessed norms for reasons for abstaining from drinking as college students often have simultaneous motives to use and inhibit their drug use...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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