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Amazon Mechanical Turk

Christopher A Flessner, Yolanda E Murphy, Elle Brennan, Alexandra D'Auria
Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study...
October 21, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Zachary C Merz, Ryan Van Patten, John Lace
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to assess current broad traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related knowledge in the general public, as well as understanding regarding specific TBI-related conditions including post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). METHODS: Data were collected from 307 domestic and 73 international individuals via online researcher-developed survey instrumentation utilizing the Amazon Mechanical Turk marketplace, a recently developed website that allows for a streamlined process of survey-based participant recruitment and data collection...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
A M Shaw, K A Arditte Hall, E Rosenfield, K R Timpano
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is associated with elevated suicidality. Little is known about why BDD patients are at increased risk. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) could clarify suicidality in BDD, and theorizes that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness lead to suicidal desire, while an acquired capability for suicide is necessary to attempt suicide. No study has investigated how BDD symptoms relate to IPTS constructs or mediators of the relationship between BDD and suicidality...
October 16, 2016: Body Image
David P Jarmolowicz, Warren K Bickel, Michael J Sofis, Laura E Hatz, E Terry Mueller
Individuals often allow prior investments of time, money or effort to influence their current behavior. A tendency to allow previous investments to impact further investment, referred to as the sunk-cost fallacy, may be related to adverse psychological health. Unfortunately, little is known about the relation between the sunk-cost fallacy and psychological symptoms or help seeking. The current study used a relatively novel approach (i.e.,'s Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing [AMT] service) to examine various aspects of psychological health in internet users (n = 1053) that did and did not commit the sunk-cost fallacy...
2016: SpringerPlus
Maya B Mathur, Michael Gould, Nayer Khazeni
Background: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements are thought to induce "boomerang effects," meaning they reduce the perceived effectiveness of a potential alternative option: non-pharmaceutical treatment via lifestyle change. Past research has observed such effects using artificially created, text-only advertisements that may not adequate capture the complex, conflicting portrayal of lifestyle change in real television advertisements. In other risk domains, individual "problem status" often moderates boomerang effects, such that subjects who currently engage in the risky behavior exhibit the strongest boomerang effects...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Rohit Tejwani, Hsin-Hsiao S Wang, Jessica C Lloyd, Paul J Kokorowski, Caleb P Nelson, Jonathan C Routh
BACKGROUND: The advent of online task-distribution has opened a new avenue to efficiently gather community perspectives needed for utility estimation. Methodological consensus for estimating pediatric utilities is lacking, with disagreement over whom to sample, what perspective (patient vs. parent), and whether instrument-induced anchoring bias is significant. We sought to determine what methodological factors potentially impact utility estimates for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys using a time-trade-off (TTO) instrument were conducted via Amazon's Mechanical Turk online interface; respondents were randomized to answer questions from child, parent, or dyad perspectives on the utility of a VUR health state and one of three "warm-up" scenarios (paralysis, common cold, none) prior to a VUR scenario...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Urology
Ari R Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis
To determine what are considered acceptable standards for animal research (AR) methodology and translation rate to humans, a validated survey was sent to: a) a sample of the general public, via Sampling Survey International (SSI; Canada), Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT; USA), a Canadian city festival (CF) and a Canadian children's hospital (CH); b) a sample of medical students (two first-year classes); and c) a sample of scientists (corresponding authors and academic paediatricians). There were 1379 responses from the general public sample (SSI, n = 557; AMT, n = 590; CF, n = 195; CH, n = 102), 205/330 (62%) medical student responses, and 23/323 (7%, too few to report) scientist responses...
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Danny Mitry, Kris Zutis, Baljean Dhillon, Tunde Peto, Shabina Hayat, Kay-Tee Khaw, James E Morgan, Wendy Moncur, Emanuele Trucco, Paul J Foster
PURPOSE: Crowdsourcing is based on outsourcing computationally intensive tasks to numerous individuals in the online community who have no formal training. Our aim was to develop a novel online tool designed to facilitate large-scale annotation of digital retinal images, and to assess the accuracy of crowdsource grading using this tool, comparing it to expert classification. METHODS: We used 100 retinal fundus photograph images with predetermined disease criteria selected by two experts from a large cohort study...
September 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Cindy Wu, C Scott Hultman, Paul Diegidio, Steven Hermiz, Roja Garimella, Trisha M Crutchfield, Clara N Lee
BACKGROUND: What do patients want when looking for an aesthetic surgeon? When faced with attributes like reputation, years in practice, testimonials, photos, and pricing, which is more valuable? Moreover, are attributes procedure-specific? Currently, inadequate evidence exists on which attributes are most important to patients, and to our knowledge, none on procedure-specific preferences. OBJECTIVES: First, to determine the most important attributes to breast augmentation, combined breast/abdominal surgery, and facelift patients using conjoint analysis...
September 20, 2016: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Matthew J Johnson, Lixin Jiang
This study examined whether meaningful work may improve one's quality of life outside of the workplace (i.e., work-to-life enrichment). More importantly, we proposed and tested competing hypotheses regarding the role of work engagement in the relationship between meaningful work and work-to-life enrichment. Specifically, we investigated whether work engagement served as a mediator of this relationship, as suggested by the job demands-resources model, or instead a moderator, as suggested by conservation of resources theory...
September 20, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
Warren K Bickel, A George Wilson, Chen Chen, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Christopher T Franck
Insufficient resources are associated with negative consequences including decreased valuation of future reinforcers. To determine if these effects result from scarcity, we examined the consequences of acute, abrupt changes in resource availability on delay discounting-the subjective devaluation of rewards as delay to receipt increases. In the current study, 599 individuals recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk read a narrative of a sudden change (positive, neutral, or negative) to one's hypothetical future income and completed a delay discounting task examining future and past monetary gains and losses...
2016: PloS One
Laura D Scherer, Tanner J Caverly, James Burke, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher, Jeffrey T Kullgren, Douglas Steinley, Denis M McCarthy, Meghan Roney, Angela Fagerlin
OBJECTIVE: Medical over- and underutilization are central problems that stand in the way of delivering optimal health care. As a result, one important question is how people decide to take action, versus not, when it comes to their health. The present article proposes and validates a new measure that captures the extent to which individuals are "medical maximizers" who are predisposed to seek health care even for minor problems, versus "medical minimizers" who prefer to avoid medical intervention unless it is necessary...
November 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Samuel N Meisel, Craig R Colder, Jennifer P Read
BACKGROUND: Informed by inconsistent findings regarding the association between injunctive norms (IN) and drinking behaviors, the current study developed a new measure of IN, the Injunctive Norms Drinking and Abstaining Behaviors Questionnaire (IN-DABQ). This measure addressed several psychometric weaknesses of prior assessment of this construct, specifically, reliance on single-item measures, and assessment of a limited range of drinking behaviors. The new measure also assessed norms for reasons for abstaining from drinking as college students often have simultaneous motives to use and inhibit their drug use...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Nicholas D Lawson
PURPOSE: This study examined the relationship between estimates of the prevalence of mental disorders and mental health stigma. It also examined whether stigma might be more greatly associated with the terms "mental illness," "mental disorder," or "mental health condition." METHODS: Respondents (N = 302) on Amazon's Mechanical Turk completed an online survey designed to measure social distance, which is one variant of stigma. Half of the respondents were informed at the beginning of the survey that the lifetime morbid risk (LMR) of meeting criteria for at least one mental disorder at some point in life was 70-80 %, while the others were asked to provide their own LMR estimates...
2016: SpringerPlus
Amy J Henley, Florence D DiGennaro Reed, Derek D Reed, Brent A Kaplan
Incentives are a popular method to achieve desired employee performance; however, research on optimal incentive magnitude is lacking. Behavioral economic demand curves model persistence of responding in the face of increasing cost and may be suitable to examine the reinforcing value of incentives on work performance. The present use-inspired basic study integrated an experiential human operant task within a crowdsourcing platform to evaluate the applicability of behavioral economics for quantifying changes in workforce attrition...
September 2016: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Jonah Bardos, Jenna Friedenthal, Jessica Spiegelman, Zev Williams
BACKGROUND: There are many challenges in conducting surveys of study participants, including cost, time, and ability to obtain quality and reproducible work. Cloudsourcing (an arrangement where a cloud provider is paid to carry out services that could be provided in-house) has the potential to provide vastly larger, less expensive, and more generalizable survey pools. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate, using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a cloud-based workforce to assess patients' perspectives of health care...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Min Sun, Ali Farhadi, Tseng-Hung Chen, Steven Seitz
We present a fully automatic system for ranking domain-specific highlights in unconstrained personal videos by analyzing online edited videos. A novel latent linear ranking model is proposed to handle noisy training data harvested online. Specifically, given a targeted domain such as "surfing", our system mines the YouTube database to find pairs of raw and their corresponding edited videos. Leveraging the assumption that an edited video is more likely to contain highlights than the trimmed parts of the raw video, we obtain pair-wise ranking constraints to train our model...
August 17, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Ashley Sanders-Jackson, Andy S L Tan, Cabral A Bigman, Susan Mello, Jeff Niederdeppe
BACKGROUND: Policies designed to restrict marketing, access to, and public use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly under debate in various jurisdictions in the US. Little is known about public perceptions of these policies and factors that predict their support or opposition. METHODS: Using a sample of US adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk in May 2015, this paper identifies beliefs about the benefits and costs of regulating e-cigarettes and identifies which of these beliefs predict support for e-cigarette restricting policies...
2016: PloS One
Ilka H Gleibs
New technologies like large-scale social media sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) and crowdsourcing services (e.g., Amazon Mechanical Turk, Crowdflower, Clickworker) are impacting social science research and providing many new and interesting avenues for research. The use of these new technologies for research has not been without challenges, and a recently published psychological study on Facebook has led to a widespread discussion of the ethics of conducting large-scale experiments online. Surprisingly little has been said about the ethics of conducting research using commercial crowdsourcing marketplaces...
August 11, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Laura L Chivers, Dennis J Hand, Jeff S Priest, Stephen T Higgins
INTRODUCTION: The study aim was to examine impulsivity and other risk factors for e-cigarette use among women of reproductive age comparing current daily cigarette smokers to never cigarette smokers.Women of reproductive age are of special interest because of the additional risk that tobacco and nicotine use represents should they become pregnant. METHOD: Survey data were collected anonymously online using Amazon Mechanical Turk in 2014.Participants were 800 women ages 24-44years from the US...
August 1, 2016: Preventive Medicine
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