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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330707/structure-based-feeding-strategies-a-key-component-of-child-nutrition
#1
Maija B Taylor, Elizabeth Emley, Mercedes Pratt, Dara R Musher-Eizenman
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between structure, autonomy promotion, and control feeding strategies and parent-reported child diet. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N = 497) were parents of children ages 2.5 to 7.5 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk. This sample was a Caucasian (79%), educated sample (61% college graduates) with most reports from mothers (76%). METHODS AND MEASURES: Online survey including measures of parent feeding strategies and child dietary intake...
March 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319525/crowdsourcing-to-evaluate-fundus-photographs-for-the-presence-of-glaucoma
#2
Xueyang Wang, Lucy I Mudie, Mani Baskaran, Ching-Yu Cheng, Wallace L Alward, David S Friedman, Christopher J Brady
PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of crowdsourcing for grading optic nerve images for glaucoma using Amazon Mechanical Turk before and after training modules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images (n=60) from 2 large population studies were graded for glaucoma status and vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR). In the baseline trial, users on Amazon Mechanical Turk (Turkers) graded fundus photos for glaucoma and VCDR after reviewing annotated example images. In 2 additional trials, Turkers viewed a 26-slide PowerPoint training or a 10-minute video training and passed a quiz before being permitted to grade the same 60 images...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296556/beliefs-about-the-direct-comparison-of-e-cigarettes-and-cigarettes
#3
Alexandra R Hershberger, Kenny A Karyadi, J Davis VanderVeen, Melissa A Cyders
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggests that positive beliefs about electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) use can lead to later e-cig use. Considering that many advertisements claim that e-cigs are superior to cigarettes, individuals' likelihood to view e-cigs more favorably than cigarettes can also influence subsequent e-cig use; however, no studies have directly assessed such a comparison. OBJECTIVES: The present study created and validated the Comparing E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes questionnaire (CEAC), which asks individuals to directly compare e-cigs and cigarettes on a number of dimensions, in two independent samples...
March 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278732/longitudinal-evaluation-of-anhedonia-as-a-mediator-of-fear-of-positive-evaluation-and-other-depressive-symptoms
#4
D Gage Jordan, E Samuel Winer, Taban Salem, Jenna Kilgore
Fear of positive evaluation (FPE) is experiencing dread during real or potential praise. FPE is associated with social anxiety, but its relation to depressive symptoms is unclear. Anhedonia is a core symptom of depression related to symptoms of anxiety in cross-sectional research. The current study investigated the indirect effect of FPE on depressive symptoms via anhedonia over time. One-hundred ninety-six participants completed three waves of questionnaires over a total timespan of approximately four months via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, including measures of FPE, depressive symptoms, and anticipatory and consummatory anhedonia...
March 6, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254738/readability-formulas-and-user-perceptions-of-electronic-health-records-difficulty-a-corpus-study
#5
Jiaping Zheng, Hong Yu
BACKGROUND: Electronic health records (EHRs) are a rich resource for developing applications to engage patients and foster patient activation, thus holding a strong potential to enhance patient-centered care. Studies have shown that providing patients with access to their own EHR notes may improve the understanding of their own clinical conditions and treatments, leading to improved health care outcomes. However, the highly technical language in EHR notes impedes patients' comprehension...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251868/unboxing-cluster-heatmaps
#6
Sophie Engle, Sean Whalen, Alark Joshi, Katherine S Pollard
BACKGROUND: Cluster heatmaps are commonly used in biology and related fields to reveal hierarchical clusters in data matrices. This visualization technique has high data density and reveal clusters better than unordered heatmaps alone. However, cluster heatmaps have known issues making them both time consuming to use and prone to error. We hypothesize that visualization techniques without the rigid grid constraint of cluster heatmaps will perform better at clustering-related tasks. RESULTS: We developed an approach to "unbox" the heatmap values and embed them directly in the hierarchical clustering results, allowing us to use standard hierarchical visualization techniques as alternatives to cluster heatmaps...
February 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248987/why-do-people-use-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-electronic-cigarettes-a-content-analysis-of-twitter-2012-2015
#7
John W Ayers, Eric C Leas, Jon-Patrick Allem, Adrian Benton, Mark Dredze, Benjamin M Althouse, Tess B Cruz, Jennifer B Unger
The reasons for using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are poorly understood and are primarily documented by expensive cross-sectional surveys that use preconceived close-ended response options rather than allowing respondents to use their own words. We passively identify the reasons for using ENDS longitudinally from a content analysis of public postings on Twitter. All English language public tweets including several ENDS terms (e.g., "e-cigarette" or "vape") were captured from the Twitter data stream during 2012 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240924/time-constraints-in-the-alcohol-purchase-task
#8
Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed, James G Murphy, Amy J Henley, Florence D DiGennaro Reed, Peter G Roma, Steven R Hursh
Hypothetical purchase tasks have advanced behavioral economic evaluations of demand by circumventing practical and ethical restrictions associated with delivering drug reinforcers to participants. Numerous studies examining the reliability and validity of purchase task methodology suggest that it is a valuable method for assessing demand that warrants continued use and evaluation. Within the literature examining purchase tasks, the alcohol purchase task (APT) has received the most investigation, and currently represents the most experimentally validated variant...
February 27, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229624/do-step-and-biological-grandparents-show-differences-in-investment-and-emotional-closeness-with-their-grandchildren
#9
Peter B Gray, Elizabeth Brogdon
Human children are raised by a variety of caregivers including grandparents. A few studies have assessed potential differences in direct caregiving, financial expenditures, and emotional closeness between biological and step-grandparents. Drawing upon kin selection theory, we hypothesized that step-grandparents would provide less care and be less emotionally close to grandchildren than would biological grandparents. A sample of 341 heterosexual U.S. adults 25-35 years of age in a long-term partnership and with a biological child 5 years of age or younger were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206793/do-positive-spontaneous-thoughts-function-as-incentive-salience
#10
Elise L Rice, Barbara L Fredrickson
The present work explores the theoretical relationship between positive spontaneous thoughts and incentive salience-a psychological property thought to energize wanting and approach motivation by rendering cues that are associated with enjoyment more likely to stand out to the individual when subsequently encountered in the environment (Berridge, 2007). We reasoned that positive spontaneous thoughts may at least be concomitants of incentive salience, and as such, they might likewise mediate the effect of liking on wanting...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196693/public-perceptions-of-overlapping-surgery
#11
Michael Kent, Richard Whyte, Aaron Fleishman, David Tomich, Lachlan Forrow, James Rodrigue
BACKGROUND: Overlapping surgery is highly contentious, both in terms of the safety of the practice and the degree to which patients should be informed. However, no study has surveyed attitudes of the general public toward overlapping surgery and willingness to consent to such a procedure. STUDY DESIGN: A survey on overlapping surgery was completed by participants using Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online crowd-sourcing worksite. Responders completed a 51-question survey on their knowledge of overlapping surgery, expectations on disclosure during the informed consent process, and their willingness to participate in such a procedure...
February 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127682/evaluating-amazon-s-mechanical-turk-for-psychological-research-on-the-symbolic-control-of-attention
#12
Joseph R Pauszek, Pedro Sztybel, Bradley S Gibson
The use of online crowdsourcing services like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) as a method of collecting behavioral data online has become increasingly popular in recent years. A growing body of contemporary research has empirically validated the use of AMT as a tool in psychological research by replicating a wide range of well-established effects that have been previously reported in controlled laboratory studies. However, the potential for AMT to be used to conduct spatial cuing experiments has yet to be investigated in depth...
January 26, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109422/improving-the-nutritional-impact-of-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-perspectives-from-the-participants
#13
Cindy W Leung, Aviva A Musicus, Walter C Willett, Eric B Rimm
INTRODUCTION: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal food assistance program designed to alleviate food insecurity and improve dietary intake. This study assessed the opinions of SNAP participants and food-insufficient nonparticipants on their perceptions of the program and strategies to improve its nutritional impact. METHODS: This study surveyed 387 individuals via Amazon Mechanical Turk, of whom 118 were SNAP participants and 269 were food insufficient but not enrolled in SNAP (nonparticipants)...
February 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104578/a-web-disseminated-self-help-and-peer-support-program-could-fill-gaps-in-mental-health-care-lessons-from-a-consumer-survey
#14
Samantha L Bernecker, Kaitlin Banschback, Gennarina D Santorelli, Michael J Constantino
BACKGROUND: Self-guided mental health interventions that are disseminated via the Web have the potential to circumvent barriers to treatment and improve public mental health. However, self-guided interventions often fail to attract consumers and suffer from user nonadherence. Uptake of novel interventions could be improved by consulting consumers from the beginning of the development process in order to assess their interest and their preferences. Interventions can then be tailored using this feedback to optimize appeal...
January 19, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101922/a-second-type-of-magnitude-effect-reinforcer-magnitude-differentiates-delay-discounting-between-substance-users-and-controls
#15
Alexandra M Mellis, Alina E Woodford, Jeffrey S Stein, Warren K Bickel
Basic research on delay discounting, examining preference for smaller-sooner or larger-later reinforcers, has demonstrated a variety of findings of considerable generality. One of these, the magnitude effect, is the observation that individuals tend to exhibit greater preference for the immediate with smaller magnitude reinforcers. Delay discounting has also proved to be a useful marker of addiction, as demonstrated by the highly replicated finding of greater discounting rates in substance users compared to controls...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099478/small-is-big-interactive-trumps-passive-information-in-breaking-information-barriers-and-impacting-behavioral-antecedents
#16
Ariane L Beck, Kiran Lakkaraju, Varun Rai
The wealth of information available on seemingly every topic creates a considerable challenge both for information providers trying to rise above the noise and discerning individuals trying to find relevant, trustworthy information. We approach this information problem by investigating how passive versus interactive information interventions can impact the antecedents of behavior change using the context of solar energy adoption, where persistent information gaps are known to reduce market potential. We use two experiments to investigate the impact of both passive and interactive approaches to information delivery on the antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in the Theory of Planned Behavior) of intentions and behavior, as well as their effect on intentions and behavior directly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088051/online-recruitment-and-testing-of-infants-with-mechanical-turk
#17
Michelle Tran, Laura Cabral, Ronak Patel, Rhodri Cusack
Testing infants in the laboratory is expensive in time and money; consequently, many studies are underpowered, reducing their reproducibility. We investigated whether the online platform, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), could be used as a resource to more easily recruit and measure the behavior of infant populations. Using a looking time paradigm, with users' webcams we recorded how long infants aged 5 to 8months attended while viewing children's television programs. We found that infants (N=57) were more reliably engaged by some movies than by others and that the most engaging movies could maintain attention for approximately 70% of a 10- to 13-min period...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080149/positive-preferences-the-emotional-valence-of-what-an-avatar-says-matters
#18
Jennifer Wu, Philipp Kraemer
This study examined preferences and ascriptions of human control for avatars associated with positive and negative language. An avatar is a graphical representation of an individual user in a virtual world. Users form judgments of other virtual world users based on the appearance and behavior of their avatars in the absence of physical cues. In particular, users have previously displayed sensitivity toward anthropomorphism and verbal behavior of avatars they encounter within virtual environments. Thus far, investigations of language in online and virtual spaces have been limited to specific contexts...
January 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080109/the-dynamic-range-of-response-set-activation-during-action-sequencing
#19
Lawrence P Behmer, Matthew J C Crump
We show that theories of response scheduling for sequential action can be discriminated on the basis of their predictions for the dynamic range of response set activation during sequencing, which refers to the momentary span of activation states for completed and to-be-completed actions in a response set. In particular, theories allow that future actions in a plan are partially activated, but differ with respect to the width of the range, which refers to the number of future actions that are partially activated...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068131/development-and-evaluation-of-the-internalized-racism-in-asian-americans-scale-iraas
#20
Andrew Young Choi, Tania Israel, Hotaka Maeda
This article presents the development and psychometric evaluation of the Internalized Racism in Asian Americans Scale (IRAAS), which was designed to measure the degree to which Asian Americans internalized hostile attitudes and negative messages targeted toward their racial identity. Items were developed on basis of prior literature, vetted through expert feedback and cognitive interviews, and administered to 655 Asian American participants through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Exploratory factor analysis with a random subsample (n = 324) yielded a psychometrically robust preliminary measurement model consisting of 3 factors: Self-Negativity, Weakness Stereotypes, and Appearance Bias...
January 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
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