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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333488/dopamine-development-in-the-mouse-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-is-protracted-and-sensitive-to-amphetamine-in-adolescence
#1
Daniel Hoops, Lauren M Reynolds, Jose-Maria Restrepo-Lozano, Cecilia Flores
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is divided into subregions, including the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices. Dopamine connectivity in the medial PFC (mPFC) continues to be established throughout adolescence as the result of the continuous growth of axons that innervated the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) prior to adolescence. During this period, dopamine axons remain vulnerable to environmental influences, such as drugs used recreationally by humans. The developmental trajectory of the orbital prefrontal dopamine innervation remains almost completely unstudied...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330935/takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-in-a-young-adult-with-transplanted-heart-what-happened-to-denervation
#2
Marcello Chinali, Roberto Formigari, Giorgia Grutter
This manuscript describes the first report of takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a young heart transplant recipient following angry debate. Our patient is a 21-year-old woman with cardiac transplant performed owing to right ventricular failure in congenital heart disease. Positive echocardiography with typical asymmetry of regional function, positive enzymes, and negative biopsy and angiography met the criteria for the diagnosis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Patient was discharged after 1 week in good clinical conditions and fully recovered cardiac function...
January 13, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329976/therapeutic-potential-of-spinal-glp-1-receptor-signaling
#3
REVIEW
Dongao Zhang, Gang Lv
GLP-1 signaling pathway has been well studied for its role in regulating glucose homeostasis, as well as its beneficial effects in energy and nutrient metabolism. A number of drugs based on GLP-1 have been used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1R is expressed in multiple organs and numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that GLP-1 signaling pathway exhibits pro-survival functions in various disorders. In the central nervous system, stimulation of GLP-1R produces neuroprotective effects in specific neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
January 9, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329908/anatomical-evidence-for-lateral-hypothalamic-innervation-of-the-pontine-a7-catecholamine-cell-group-in-rat
#4
Janean E Holden, Monica A Wagner, Brady L Reeves
Substantial behavioral evidence exists to support the idea that the lateral hypothalamus (LH) makes axonal connection with spinally-projecting noradrenergic neurons of the A7 catecholamine cell group in the pons. Through this putative projection, the LH modulates nociception via α1- and α2-adrenoceptors in the dorsal horn. We used double-label immunocytochemistry to demonstrate that axons from the LH labeled with the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) appose tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neuron profiles in the A7 area...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329303/efficacy-of-lateral-versus-medial-approach-hip-joint-capsule-denervation-as-surgical-treatments-of-the-hip-joint-pain-a-neuronal-tract-tracing-study-in-the-sheep
#5
Waldemar Sienkiewicz, Agnieszka Dudek, Krzysztof Czaja, Maciej Janeczek, Aleksander Chrószcz, Jerzy Kaleczyc
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy of denervation of the of the hip joint capsule (HJC), as a treatment of hip joint pain. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that HJC denervation will significantly reduce the number of sensory neurons innervating the capsule. STUDY DESIGN: Denervation of the HJC from a medial or lateral approach was followed by retrograde tracing of sensory neurons innervating the capsule. ANIMALS: Twenty adult male sheep (30-40 kg of body weight; Polish merino breed) were used in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327309/ischemia-reperfusion-injury-of-sciatic-nerve-in-rats-protective-role-of-combination-of-vitamin-c-with-e-and-tissue-plasminogen-activator
#6
Katerina Apostolopoulou, Dimitris Konstantinou, Rodoula Alataki, Ioannis Papapostolou, Dimitrios Zisimopoulos, Electra Kalaitzopoulou, Vasiliki Bravou, Ioannis Lilis, Fevronia Angelatou, Helen Papadaki, Christos D Georgiou, Elisabeth Chroni
An ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat's sciatic nerve was experimentally developed. In this model, we measured the in vivo production of superoxide radical, as a marker of oxidative stress and the occludin expression as an indicator of blood-nerve barrier function and we examined potential protective innervations against these abnormalities. Right sciatic nerves of the animals underwent 3 h of ischemia followed by 7 days of reperfusion and were divided into three groups: ischemic, pretreated with vitamin C in conjunction with vitamin E and treated with tissue plasminogen activator...
January 11, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326172/diversity-and-connectivity-of-layer-5-somatostatin-expressing-interneurons-in-the-mouse-barrel-cortex
#7
Nigro Maximiliano José, Yoshiko Hashikawa, Bernardo Rudy
Inhibitory interneurons represent 10-15% of the neurons in the somatosensory cortex, and their activity powerfully shapes sensory processing. Three major groups of GABAergic interneurons have been defined according to developmental, molecular, morphological, electrophysiological, and synaptic features. Dendritic-targeting somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SST-INs) have been shown to display diverse morphological, electrophysiological and molecular properties and activity patterns in vivo. However, the correlation between these properties and SST-IN subtype is unclear...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325907/corrigendum-to-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-inverse-agonist-mj08-stimulates-glucose-production-via-hepatic-sympathetic-innervation-in-rats-european-journal-of-pharmacology-814-2017-232-239
#8
Wei Chen, Hongying Liu, Hua Guan, Nina Xue, Lili Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325855/gating-of-long-term-potentiation-ltp-in-the-thalamocortical-auditory-system-of-rats-by-serotonergic-5-ht-receptors
#9
Karen K Y Lee, Chloe N Soutar, Hans C Dringenberg
The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in controlling the induction threshold and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the visual cortex and hippocampus of rodents. Serotonergic fibers also innervate the rodent primary auditory cortex (A1), but the regulation of A1 plasticity by 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs) is largely uncharted. Thus, we examined the role of several, predominant 5-HT receptor classes (5-HT1ARs, 5-HT2Rs, and 5-HT3Rs) in gating in vivo LTP induction at A1 synapses of adult, urethane-anesthetized rats...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323053/roles-of-neural-stem-cells-in-the-repair-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#10
REVIEW
Chong Wang, Chang-Feng Lu, Jiang Peng, Cheng-Dong Hu, Yu Wang
Currently, researchers are using neural stem cell transplantation to promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, as neural stem cells play an important role in peripheral nerve injury repair. This article reviews recent research progress of the role of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Neural stem cells can not only differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but can also differentiate into Schwann-like cells, which promote neurite outgrowth around the injury...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322603/the-nerve-supply-of-zygomaticus-major-variability-and-distinguishing-zygomatic-from-buccal-facial-nerve-branches
#11
A Kehrer, S Engelmann, R Bauer, C Taeger, S Grechenig, M Kehrer, L Prantl, E Tamm, Rlaw Bleys, V Mandlik
INTRODUCTION The zygomaticus major (ZM) is important for the human smile. There are conflicting data about whether the zygomatic or buccal branches of the facial nerve are responsible for its motor innervation. The literature provides no precise distinction of the transition zone between these two branch systems. In this study, a definition to distinguish the facial nerve branches at the level of the body of the zygoma is proposed. In the light of this definition, we conducted an anatomical study to determine how the source of innervation of the ZM was distributed...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322238/development-of-inhibitory-synaptic-inputs-on-layer-2-3-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Mari A Virtanen, Claudia Marvine Lacoh, Hubert Fiumelli, Markus Kosel, Shiva Tyagarajan, Mathias de Roo, Laszlo Vutskits
Inhibitory control of pyramidal neurons plays a major role in governing the excitability in the brain. While spatial mapping of inhibitory inputs onto pyramidal neurons would provide important structural data on neuronal signaling, studying their distribution at the single cell level is difficult due to the lack of easily identifiable anatomical proxies. Here, we describe an approach where in utero electroporation of a plasmid encoding for fluorescently tagged gephyrin into the precursors of pyramidal cells along with ionotophoretic injection of Lucifer Yellow can reliably and specifically detect GABAergic synapses on the dendritic arbour of single pyramidal neurons...
January 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321949/piercing-of-the-lumbocostal-ligament-by-the-subcostal-nerve-a-previously-unreported-case
#13
Marc Vetter, Joe Iwanaga, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
As lateral approaches gain popularity in lumbar spine surgery, detailed discussions regarding anatomical variations in the innervation of the thoracolumbar region are of increasing importance. Damage to intercostal or subcostal nerves can lead to post-operative complications including regional loss of sensitivity, motor function, or abdominal wall hernias. More specifically, the subcostal nerve has been identified in the literature as one of the more vulnerable structures during such procedures. A clear understanding of the position of the subcostal nerve relative to nearby anatomical structures is therefore important for medical professionals...
November 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321592/amyloid-%C3%AE-causes-excitation-inhibition-imbalance-through-dopamine-receptor-1-dependent-disruption-of-fast-spiking-gabaergic-input-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#14
Si-Qiang Ren, Wen Yao, Jing-Zhi Yan, Chunhui Jin, Jia-Jun Yin, Jianmin Yuan, Shui Yu, Zaohuo Cheng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. At the early stages of AD development, the soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) induces synaptic dysfunction, perturbs the excitation/inhibition balance of neural circuitries, and in turn alters the normal neural network activity leading to cognitive decline, but the underlying mechanisms are not well established. Here by using whole-cell recordings in acute mouse brain slices, we found that 50 nM Aβ induces hyperexcitability of excitatory pyramidal cells in the cingulate cortex, one of the most vulnerable areas in AD, via depressing inhibitory synaptic transmission...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320703/three-dimensional-adipose-tissue-imaging-reveals-regional-variation-in-beige-fat-biogenesis-and-prdm16-dependent-sympathetic-neurite-density
#15
Jingyi Chi, Zhuhao Wu, Chan Hee J Choi, Lily Nguyen, Saba Tegegne, Sarah E Ackerman, Audrey Crane, François Marchildon, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Paul Cohen
While the cell-intrinsic pathways governing beige adipocyte development and phenotype have been increasingly delineated, comparatively little is known about how beige adipocytes interact with other cell types in fat. Here, we introduce a whole-tissue clearing method for adipose that permits immunolabeling and three-dimensional profiling of structures including thermogenic adipocytes and sympathetic innervation. We found that tissue architecture and sympathetic innervation differ significantly between subcutaneous and visceral depots...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318457/decreased-intracellular-granule-movement-and-glucagon-secretion-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-attached-to-superior-cervical-ganglion-neurites
#16
Kiyoto Watabe, Satoru Yokawa, Yoshikazu Inoh, Takahiro Suzuki, Tadahide Furuno
Autonomic neurons innervate pancreatic islets of Langerhans and participate in the maintenance of blood glucose concentrations by controlling hormone levels through attachment with islet cells. We previously found that stimulated superior cervical ganglia (SCG) could induce Ca2+ oscillation in α cells via neuropeptide substance P using an in vitro co-culture model. In this study, we studied the effect of SCG neurite adhesion on intracellular secretory granule movement and glucagon secretion in α cells stimulated by low glucose concentration...
January 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318091/nerve-blocks-in-the-geriatric-patient-with-hip-fracture-a-review-of-the-current-literature-and-relevant-neuroanatomy
#17
REVIEW
Nirav H Amin, Jacob A West, Travis Farmer, Hrayr G Basmajian
Introduction: Hip fracture is a common occurrence in the elderly population with high morbidity and mortality due to postoperative pain and opioid use. The goal of this article is to review the current literature on the neuroanatomy of the hip and the use of localized nerve block in controlling hip fracture pain. Methods: A thorough search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was conducted using the search terms "hip fracture" and "fascia iliaca block (FICB)...
December 2017: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317225/anatomical-recovery-of-the-gabaergic-system-after-a-complete-spinal-cord-injury-in-lampreys
#18
D Romaus-Sanjurjo, S M Valle-Maroto, A Barreiro-Iglesias, B Fernández-López, M C Rodicio
Lampreys recover locomotion spontaneously several weeks after a complete spinal cord injury. Dysfunction of the GABAergic system following SCI has been reported in mammalian models. So, it is of great interest to understand how the GABAergic system of lampreys adapts to the post-injury situation and how this relates to spontaneous recovery. The spinal cord of lampreys contains 3 populations of GABAergic neurons and most of the GABAergic innervation of the spinal cord comes from these local cells. GABAB receptors are expressed in the spinal cord of lampreys and they play important roles in the control of locomotion...
January 6, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317063/trigeminal-long-term-potentiation-as-a-cellular-substrate-for-migraine
#19
Dong-Ho Youn
Most previous studies suggest that the subnucleus caudalis (Vc) of spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vsp) plays a key role in the generation and maintenance of migraine, a type of primary headache, by participating in the trigeminovascular system. Furthermore, the excitability of the Vc with the stimulation of the peripheral nociceptive fibers innervating the intracranial vessels or dura matter is regarded as a main cellular substrate for migraine. Here, a revised hypothesis is introduced, reinforcing the previous hypothesis and complementing it...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315828/a-collagen-coated-pga-conduit-for-interpositional-jump-graft-with-end-to-side-neurorrhaphy-for-treating-facial-nerve-paralysis-in-rat
#20
Yosuke Niimi, Hajime Matsumine, Yuichi Takeuchi, Hironobu Osaki, Satoshi Tsunoda, Mariko Miyata, Masayuki Yamato, Hiroyuki Sakurai
PURPOSE: This study investigated the potential of collagen-coated polyglycolic acid (PGA) tube with interpositional jump graft (IPJG) in rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 16 Lewis rats were used in this study. Facial nerve paralysis was created by ligating facial nerve trunk with a ligature clip. The rats were divided into 3 groups. Nerve conduit group (n = 6) were treated by IPJG with collagen-coated PGA tubes between the facial nerve trunks and the hypoglossal nerves...
January 8, 2018: Microsurgery
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