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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734534/elbow-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-surgical-anatomy-and-technique
#1
Zvi Steinberger, Heng Xu, Nikolas H Kazmers, Stephanie Thibaudeau, Russel G Huffman, L Scott Levin
BACKGROUND: Elbow reconstruction with vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) may hold promise in treating end-stage arthritis as no current treatment is both functional and durable. We describe the vascular and gross anatomy of the elbow in the context of VCA procurement and propose a step-by-step surgical technique for human elbow VCA. METHODS: We injected latex in the arterial tree of 16 fresh adult cadaveric upper extremities. We identified and measured arteries and nerves and their branch points relative to the medial epicondyle...
August 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734032/characterization-of-the-axon-initial-segment-of-mice-substantia-nigra-dopaminergic-neurons
#2
Cristian González-Cabrera, Rodrigo Meza, Lorena Ulloa, Paulina Merino-Sepúlveda, Valentina Luco, Ana Sanhueza, Alejandro Oñate-Ponce, J Paul Bolam, Pablo Henny
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of initiation of action potentials and also influences action potential waveform, firing pattern and rate. In view of the fundamental aspects of motor function and behavior that depend on the firing of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons, we identified and characterized their AIS in the mouse. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), sodium channels (Nav ) and ankyrin-G (Ank-G) was used to visualize the AIS of dopaminergic neurons. Reconstructions of sampled AIS of dopaminergic neurons revealed variable lengths (12 - 60 μm) and diameters (0...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733764/cardiac-sympathetic-neuronal-damage-precedes-myocardial-fibrosis-in-patients-with-anderson-fabry-disease
#3
Massimo Imbriaco, Teresa Pellegrino, Valentina Piscopo, Mario Petretta, Andrea Ponsiglione, Carmela Nappi, Marta Puglia, Serena Dell'Aversana, Eleonora Riccio, Letizia Spinelli, Antonio Pisani, Alberto Cuocolo
PURPOSE: Cardiac sympathetic denervation may be detectable in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD), suggesting its usefulness for early detection of the disease. However, the relationship between sympathetic neuronal damage measured by (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging with myocardial fibrosis on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is still unclear. METHODS: Cardiac sympathetic innervation was assessed by (123)I-MIBG single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 25 patients with genetically proved AFD...
July 22, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732009/effects-of-local-cardiac-denervation-on-cardiac-innervation-and-ventricular-arrhythmia-after-chronic-myocardial-infarction
#4
Xudong Liu, Lin Sun, Jugang Chen, Yingying Jin, Qing Liu, Zhongnan Xia, Liang Wang, Jingjie Li
BACKGROUND: Modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has already been demonstrated to display antiarrhythmic effects in patients and animals with MI. In this study, we investigated whether local cardiac denervation has any beneficial effects on ventricular electrical stability and cardiac function in the chronic phase of MI. METHODS: Twenty-one anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned into the sham-operated, MI and MI-ablation groups, respectively. Four weeks after local cardiac denervation, LSG stimulation was used to induce VPCs and VAs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731661/-melkersson-rosenthal-syndrome-report-of-two-pediatric-cases
#5
Lucas Bordino, Mariana L Juchli, Marcelo Fernández, María de Los Ángeles Fitz Maurice, Andrea Martins, Zaida E Ramírez, Roxana Spini
Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome is a very infrequent disease of unknown etiology, chronic and progressive course, with neurocutaneous disease that affects the orofacial innervation and mucocutaneous tissues with non-caseating granulomatous infiltration. Clinically, it is characterized by the diagnostic triad: recurrent edema of lips and/or face; recurrent and alternating acute peripheral facial paralysis and scrotal or geographic tongue. The condition generally presents as oligosymptomatic or monosymptomatic form...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730123/iprgcs-possible-causation-accounts-for-the-higher-prevalence-of-sleep-disorders-in-glaucoma-patients
#6
Zhen-Zhen Guo, Shan-Ming Jiang, Li-Ping Zeng, Li Tang, Ni Li, Zhu-Ping Xu, Xin Wei
Sleep accounts for a third of one's lifetime, partial or complete deprivation of sleep could elicit sever disorders of body function. Previous studies have reported the higher prevalence of sleep disorders in glaucoma patients, but the definite mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown. On the other hand, it is well known by us that the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) serve additional ocular functions, called non-image-forming (NIF) functions, in the regulation of circadian rhythm, melatonin secretion, sleep, mood and others...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729214/milk-fat-globule-membrane-supplementation-with-voluntary-running-exercise-attenuates-age-related-motor-dysfunction-by-suppressing-neuromuscular-junction-abnormalities-in-mice
#7
Michiko Yano, Yoshihiko Minegishi, Satoshi Sugita, Noriyasu Ota
Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function attenuates physical performance, and maintaining fine muscle innervation is known to play an important role in its prevention. We had previously shown that consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) with habitual exercise improves the muscle mass and motor function in humans and mice. Improvement of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MFGM intake combined with voluntary running (MFGM-VR) on morphological changes of NMJ and motor function in aging mice...
July 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728251/-progress-of-dopamine-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome
#8
Z Y Song, H L Yi
The etiology and pathogenesis of sleep obstructive apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is not yet definitive, evidence shows that the dysfunction of pharyngeal nerve and the atonia of the muscle innervated by these nerve could play an important role in the progress of OSAHS. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system which significantly affects the sleep-awake regulation. So far mounting evidence shows that dopamine has a potential role in the modulation of hypoglossal nucleus. The progress of dopamine in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome is reviewed in this article...
July 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727975/appendicular-biopsy-in-total-colonic-aganglionosis-a-histologically-challenging-and-inadvisable-practice
#9
Suravi Mohanty, Usha Kini, Kanishka Das, Divya Puttegowda, Lokendra Yadav, Manjally Kunjipapu Babu, Kiran Mahadevappa, Prasanna Kumar, Shubha Attibele Mahadevaiah, Mainak Deb
Background The reliability of intraoperative evaluation of ganglion cells in the appendix as a guide to a diagnosis of total colonic aganglionosis is unclear. Objective To evaluate the diagnostic utility of appendicular innervation in colonic Hirschsprung disease (HD) and TCA. Methods Prospective, systematic study of ganglion cells and the neural plexii in appendices from cases (HD and TCA) and age matched controls with frozen and paraffin sections, rapid acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and immunohistochemistry...
July 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727480/pilot-study-of-propranolol-premedication-to-reduce-fdg-uptake-in-brown-adipose-tissue-on-pet-scans-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-oncology-patients
#10
Anil George, Partha Sinha, Gary Conrad, Aum A Memon, Emily V Dressler, Lars M Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Physiologic uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in brown adipose tissue (adipose tissue) of cancer patients may confound interpretation of positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Uptake in adipose tissue occurs in up to half of pediatric oncology patients undergoing PET scans, and is especially common in adolescents. adipose tissue is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and beta blockers such as propranolol have shown efficacy in reducing adipose tissue uptake on PET scans done in older adult oncology patients...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726252/central-amygdala-relaxin-3-rxfp3-signalling-modulates-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#11
Leigh C Walker, Hanna E Kastman, Elena Krstew, Andrew L Gundlach, Andrew J Lawrence
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alcohol use disorders are a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and stress is a major trigger of relapse. The neuropeptide relaxin-3 and its cognate receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3), modulate stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking in rats and while the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis has been implicated in this regard, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) also receives a relaxin-3 innervation and CeA neurons densely express RXFP3 mRNA...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725918/a-comprehensive-review-of-motor-innervation-of-the-hand-variations-and-clinical-significance
#12
REVIEW
Sacha Wynter, Lakal Dissabandara
PURPOSE: The objective of the present review is to assemble the recognized anatomical variations, classifications, and clinical evidence with regard to innervation of the hand and discuss the clinical significance of these variations. METHODS: The material for this review was obtained by exploring PubMed and Google Scholar (search terms: hand innervation, variations of ulnar nerve, variations of median nerve, variations of radial nerve) as well as from standard anatomy texts...
July 19, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724969/pathways-to-clinical-clarity-volumetric-analysis-of-irregular-soft-and-heterogeneous-tissues-in-development-and-disease
#13
Brian Hsueh, Vanessa M Burns, Philip Pauerstein, Katherine Holzem, Li Ye, Kristin Engberg, Ai-Chi Wang, Xueying Gu, Harini Chakravarthy, H Efsun Arda, Gregory Charville, Hannes Vogel, Igor R Efimov, Seung Kim, Karl Deisseroth
Three-dimensional tissue-structural relationships are not well captured by typical thin-section histology, posing challenges for the study of tissue physiology and pathology. Moreover, while recent progress has been made with intact methods for clearing, labeling, and imaging whole organs such as the mature brain, these approaches are generally unsuitable for soft, irregular, and heterogeneous tissues that account for the vast majority of clinical samples and biopsies. Here we develop a biphasic hydrogel methodology, which along with automated analysis, provides for high-throughput quantitative volumetric interrogation of spatially-irregular and friable tissue structures...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722281/collagen-organization-regulates-stretch-initiated-pain-related-neuronal-signals-in-vitro-implications-for-structure-function-relationships-in-innervated-ligaments
#14
Sijia Zhang, Sagar Singh, Beth A Winkelstein
Injury to the spinal facet capsule, an innervated ligament with heterogeneous collagen organization, produces pain. Although mechanical facet joint trauma activates embedded afferents, it is unclear if, and how, the varied extracellular microstructure of its ligament affects sensory transduction for pain from mechanical inputs. To investigate the effects of macroscopic deformations on afferents in collagen matrices with different organizations, an in vitro neuron-collagen construct (NCC) model was used. NCCs with either randomly organized or parallel aligned collagen fibers were used to mimic the varied microstructure in the facet capsular ligament...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722246/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-decreases-masticatory-muscle-sensitization-in-female-rats-through-peripheral-cannabinoid-receptor-activation
#15
H Wong, S Hossain, B E Cairns
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether intramuscular injection of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), by acting on peripheral cannabinoid (CB) receptors, could decrease nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced sensitization in female rat masseter muscle; a model which mimics the symptoms of myofascial temporomandibular disorders. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to explore the peripheral expression of cannabinoid receptors in the masseter muscle while behavioural and electrophysiology experiments were employed to assess the functional effects of intramuscular injection of THC...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722015/trpv1-regulates-excitatory-innervation-of-olm-neurons-in-the-hippocampus
#16
Joaquin I Hurtado-Zavala, Binu Ramachandran, Saheeb Ahmed, Rashi Halder, Christiane Bolleyer, Ankit Awasthi, Markus A Stahlberg, Robin J Wagener, Kristin Anderson, Ryan M Drenan, Henry A Lester, Julie M Miwa, Jochen F Staiger, Andre Fischer, Camin Dean
TRPV1 is an ion channel activated by heat and pungent agents including capsaicin, and has been extensively studied in nociception of sensory neurons. However, the location and function of TRPV1 in the hippocampus is debated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in oriens-lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) interneurons in the hippocampus, and promotes excitatory innervation. TRPV1 knockout mice have reduced glutamatergic innervation of OLM neurons. When activated by capsaicin, TRPV1 recruits more glutamatergic, but not GABAergic, terminals to OLM neurons in vitro...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721206/a-bipedal-mammalian-model-for-spinal-cord-injury-research-the-tammar-wallaby
#17
Norman R Saunders, Katarzyna M Dziegielewska, Sophie C Whish, Lyn A Hinds, Benjamin J Wheaton, Yifan Huang, Steve Henry, Mark D Habgood
Background: Most animal studies of spinal cord injury are conducted in quadrupeds, usually rodents. It is unclear to what extent functional results from such studies can be translated to bipedal species such as humans because bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion involve very different patterns of spinal control of muscle coordination. Bipedalism requires upright trunk stability and coordinated postural muscle control; it has been suggested that peripheral sensory input is less important in humans than quadrupeds for recovery of locomotion following spinal injury...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717028/the-norepinephrine-metabolite-3-4-dihydroxymandelic-acid-is-produced-by-the-commensal-microbiota-and-promotes-chemotaxis-and-virulence-gene-expression-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli
#18
Nitesh Sule, Sasi Pasupuleti, Nandita Kohli, Rani Menon, Lawrence J Dangott, Michael D Manson, Arul Jayaraman
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a commonly occuring foodborne pathogen responsible for numerous multistate outbreaks in the US. It is known to infect the host gastrointestinal tract, specifically in locations associated with lymphoid tissue. These niches serve as sources of enteric neurotransmitters such as epinephrine and norepinephrine that are known to increase virulence in several pathogens, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli The mechanisms that allow pathogens to target these niches are poorly understood...
July 17, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716800/relationship-between-vascular-resistance-and-sympathetic-nerve-fiber-density-in-arterial-vessels-in-children-with-sleep-disordered-breathing
#19
Anna Kontos, Kurt Lushington, James Martin, Quenten Schwarz, Ryan Green, David Wabnitz, Xiangjun Xu, Elke M Sokoya, Scott Willoughby, Mathias Baumert, Antonio Ferrante, Melissa La Forgia, Declan Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Sleep disordered breathing in children is associated with increased blood flow velocity and sympathetic overactivity. Sympathetic overactivity results in peripheral vasoconstriction and reduced systemic vascular compliance, which increases blood flow velocity during systole. Augmented blood flow velocity is recognized to promote vascular remodeling. Importantly, increased vascular sympathetic nerve fiber density and innervation in early life plays a key role in the development of early-onset hypertension in animal models...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716694/-isolated-long-thoracic-nerve-palsy-more-than-meets-the-eye
#20
Andrés A Maldonado, Scott L Zuckerman, B Matthew Howe, Michelle L Mauermann, Robert J Spinner
INTRODUCTION: Two main hypotheses have been proposed for the pathophysiology of long thoracic nerve (LTN) palsy: nerve compression and nerve inflammation. We hypothesized that critical reinterpretation of electrodiagnostic (EDX) studies and MRIs of patients with a diagnosis of non-traumatic isolated LTN palsy could provide insight into the pathophysiology and, potentially, the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all patients with a diagnosis of non-traumatic isolated LTN palsy and an EDX and brachial plexus or shoulder MRI studies performed at our institution...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
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