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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529765/signals-of-vagal-circuits-engaging-with-akt1-in-%C3%AE-7-nachr-cd11b-cells-lessen-e-coli-and-lps-induced-acute-inflammatory-injury
#1
Caiqi Zhao, Xi Yang, Emily M Su, Yuanyuan Huang, Ling Li, Michael A Matthay, Xiao Su
Vagal circuits-α7 nAChR (α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, coded by Chrna7) signaling utilizes spleen as a hub to dampen systemic inflammatory responses. Vagal innervations also extend to the distal airways and alveoli. Vagotomy and deficiency of α7 nAChR deteriorate E. coli and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung inflammatory responses; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we hypothesized that vagal circuits would limit splenic release and lung recruitment of α7 nAChR(+)CD11b(+) cells (CD11b is coded by Itgam, a surface marker of monocytes and neutrophils) via phosphorylation of AKT1 and that this process would define the severity of lung injury...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528745/measurement-of-electrochemical-conductance-of-penile-skin-using-sudoscan-%C3%A2-a-new-tool-to-assess-neurogenic-impotence
#2
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) measurement at penile level using Sudoscan(®) for the diagnosis of neurogenic impotence in diabetics. METHODS: The following neurophysiological parameters were assessed in 25 male diabetics who complained of impotence and 25 age-matched normal male subjects without erectile dysfunction (age range: 29-70 years): ESC, sympathetic skin responses (SSR), warm detection thresholds (WDT), and cold detection thresholds (CDT) for the penis and the feet, vibration detection thresholds (VDT) for the penis, and sensory nerve conduction study of the dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP) with sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) recording...
May 18, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528491/high-resolution-manometry-evaluation-of-pressures-at-the-pharyngo-upper-esophageal-area-in-patients-with-oropharyngeal-dysphagia-due-to-vagal-paralysis
#3
Bruno Rezende Pinna, Fernando A M Herbella, Noemi de Biase, Thays C G Vaiano, Marco G Patti
The motility of the pharynx, upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and proximal esophagus in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia is still not entirely understood. High-resolution manometry (HRM) was recently added to the armamentarium for the study of this area. This study aims to describe HRM findings in patients with vagal paralysis. Sixteen patients (mean age 54 years, 69% females) with oropharyngeal dysphagia due to unilateral vagal paralysis were prospectively studied. All patients underwent HRM. Motility of the UES and at the topography of the velopharynx and epiglottis were recorded...
May 20, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528379/collateralization-of-projections-from-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-to-the-nucleus-accumbens-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-and-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala
#4
Xinwen Dong, Sa Li, Gilbert J Kirouac
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is a midline thalamic nucleus with dense projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsolateral region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTDL) and the lateral/capsular region of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL/CeC). Recent experimental evidence indicates that the PVT is involved in both appetitive and aversive behaviors. However, it is unknown if subgroups of neurons in the PVT innervate different subcortical targets or if the same neurons issue collaterals to multiple areas...
May 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528377/correlation-between-corneal-innervation-and-inflammation-evaluated-with-confocal-microscopy-and-symptomatology-in-patients-with-dry-eye-syndromes-a-preliminary-study
#5
Tudor C Tepelus, Gloria B Chiu, Jianyan Huang, Ping Huang, SriniVas R Sadda, John Irvine, Olivia L Lee
PURPOSE: To evaluate corneal innervation and inflammatory cell infiltration using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and to correlate these findings with subjective symptoms of dry eye, as measured by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) in patients with non-Sjögren's (NSDE) and Sjögren's syndrome dry eyes (SSDE). METHODS: Central corneal images were prospectively captured from 10 age-matched healthy control eyes, 24 eyes with clinically diagnosed NSDE and 44 eyes with clinically diagnosed SSDE, using IVCM (HRT III RCM)...
May 20, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527715/influence-of-netrin-1-on-reinnervation-of-laryngeal-muscles-following-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-injury
#6
Ignacio Hernandez-Morato, Shira Koss, Sansar Sharma, Michael J Pitman
Following recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury, recovery results in poor functional restitution of the paralyzed vocal fold. Netrin-1 has been found to be upregulated in the rat posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) during nerve regeneration, We evaluated the effect of ectopic Netrin-1 in the PCA during RLN reinnervation. The right RLN was transected and Netrin-1 was injected into the PCA (2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20μg/ml). At 7 days post injury fluorescent retrograde tracer was injected into PCA and Thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#7
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522971/altered-functional-connectivity-of-the-basal-nucleus-of-meynert-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#8
Hui Li, Xiuqin Jia, Zhigang Qi, Xiang Fan, Tian Ma, Hong Ni, Chiang-Shan R Li, Kuncheng Li
Background: Cholinergic dysfunction plays an important role in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM) provides the main source of cortical cholinergic innervation. Previous studies have characterized structural changes of the cholinergic basal forebrain in individuals at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether and how functional connectivity of the BNM (BNM-FC) is altered in MCI remains unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify alterations in BNM-FC in individuals with MCI as compared to healthy controls (HCs), and to examine the relationship between these alterations with neuropsychological measures in individuals with MCI...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521269/a-new-technique-for-dorsal-sural-nerve-conduction-study-with-surface-strip-electrodes
#9
Shoji Hemmi, Katsumi Kurokawa, Taiji Nagai, Ryutaro Kushida, Toshio Okamoto, Tatsufumi Murakami, Yoshihide Sunada
OBJECTIVE: To obtain higher amplitude of dorsal sural sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs), we used a new method for dorsal sural nerve conduction study with surface strip electrodes (SSEs). METHODS: Dorsal sural SNAPs were recorded orthodromically. The recording electrodes were placed behind the lateral malleolus. SSEs were attached to the laterodorsal aspect of the foot for stimulation of the dorsal sural nerve (DSN). We also used a conventional method with a standard bipolar stimulator and compared the findings...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521141/indirect-pathway-of-caudal-basal-ganglia-for-rejection-of-valueless-visual-objects
#10
Hyoung F Kim, Hidetoshi Amita, Okihide Hikosaka
The striatum controls behavior in two ways: facilitation and suppression through the direct and indirect pathways, respectively. However, it is still unclear what information is processed in these pathways. To address this question, we studied two pathways originating from the primate caudate tail (CDt). We found that the CDt innervated the caudal-dorsal-lateral part of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (cdlSNr), directly or indirectly through the caudal-ventral part of the globus pallidus externus (cvGPe)...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521136/dopamine-depletion-impairs-bilateral-sensory-processing-in-the-striatum-in-a-pathway-dependent-manner
#11
M Ketzef, G Spigolon, Y Johansson, A Bonito-Oliva, G Fisone, G Silberberg
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic innervation, particularly to the striatum. PD patients often exhibit sensory impairments, yet the underlying network mechanisms are unknown. Here we examined how dopamine (DA) depletion affects sensory processing in the mouse striatum. We used the optopatcher for online identification of direct and indirect pathway projection neurons (MSNs) during in vivo whole-cell recordings. In control mice, MSNs encoded the laterality of sensory inputs with larger and earlier responses to contralateral than ipsilateral whisker deflection...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520722/altered-detrusor-contractility-in-mptp-treated-common-marmosets-with-bladder-hyperreflexia
#12
Sara Pritchard, Michael J Jackson, Atsuko Hikima, Lisa Lione, Christopher D Benham, K Ray Chaudhuri, Sarah Rose, Peter Jenner, Mahmoud M Iravani
Bladder hyperreflexia is a common non-motor feature of Parkinson's disease. We now report on the contractility of the isolated primate detrusor strips devoid of nerve input and show that following MPTP, the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contraction was increased. These responses were unaffected by dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists A77636 and ropinirole respectively. Contractions by exogenous carbachol, histamine or ATP were similar and no differences in the magnitude of noradrenaline-induced relaxation were seen in detrusor strip obtained from normal and MPTP-treated common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518071/nerve-sparing-mid-urethral-obstruction-nemo-in-female-small-rodents
#13
Martin Sidler, Karen J Aitken, Jia Xin Jiang, Darius J Bägli
Partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO) has a high prevalence, causes significant patient burden, and immense health care costs. The most common animal model to investigate bladder remodeling in pBOO are female rodents undergoing partial obstruction at the proximal urethra. Variability in the degree of obstruction and animal mortality are major concerns with proximal obstruction. Furthermore, dissecting around the proximal urethra and bladder neck jeopardizes bladder innervation. We developed a nerve-sparing mid-urethral obstruction (NeMO) model for pBOO avoiding the disadvantages of the traditional model...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516487/the-petrosal-and-bony-labyrinth-of-diplobune-minor-an-enigmatic-artiodactyla-from-the-oligocene-of-western-europe
#14
Maeva J Orliac, Ricardo Araújo, Fabrice Lihoreau
Anoplotheriinae are Paleogene European artiodactyls that present a unique postcranial morphology with a tridactyl autopodium and uncommon limb orientation. This peculiar morphology led to various hypotheses regarding anoplotheriine locomotion from semiaquatic to partly arboreal or partly bipedal. The petrosal bone, housing the organs of balance, and hearing, offers complementary information to postcranial morphology on the ecology of this uncommon artiodactyl. Here, we investigate the middle ear and bony labyrinth of the small anoplotheriine Diplobune minor based on four specimens from the Early Oligocene locality of Itardies (Quercy, France)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516219/decreased-sensory-nerve-excitation-and-bone-pain-associated-with-mouse-lewis-lung-cancer-in-trpv1-deficient-mice
#15
Hiroki Wakabayashi, Satoshi Wakisaka, Toru Hiraga, Kenji Hata, Riko Nishimura, Makoto Tominaga, Toshiyuki Yoneda
Bone pain is one of the most common and life-limiting complications of cancer metastasis to bone. Although the mechanism of bone pain still remains poorly understood, bone pain is evoked as a consequence of sensitization and excitation of sensory nerves (SNs) innervating bone by noxious stimuli produced in the microenvironment of bone metastases. We showed that bone is innervated by calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP)(+) SNs extending from dorsal root ganglia (DRG), the cell body of SNs, in mice. Mice intratibially injected with Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells showed progressive bone pain evaluated by mechanical allodynia and flinching with increased CGRP(+) SNs in bone and augmented SN excitation in DRG as indicated by elevated numbers of pERK- and pCREB-immunoreactive neurons...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516212/anatomical-visualization-of-neural-course-and-distribution-of-anterior-ascending-aortic-plexus
#16
Tomokazu Kawashima, Fumi Sato
The aim of this study was to document the detailed anatomy of neural course and distribution on the anterior ascending aorta, to identify the high and low density areas of the anterior ascending aortic plexus for further understandings in cardiovascular surgery. The embalmed hearts of 42 elderly individuals were submacroscopically and microscopically examined, after excluding any that were macroscopically abnormal. With its origins in the anterior ascending aortic plexus, the right coronary plexus substantially innervated the right coronary artery, the right atrium and ventricle, and the sinus node...
May 17, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514515/detailed-anatomy-of-the-abducens-nerve-in-the-lateral-rectus-muscle
#17
Yong Seok Nam, In-Beom Kim, Sun Young Shin
INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus muscle (LRM) and the intramuscular innervation pattern using Sihler staining. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cohort study, 32 eyes of 16 cadavers were assessed. Dissection was performed from the LRM origin to its insertion. The following distances were measured: from LRM insertion to the bifurcation point of the abducens nerve, from LRM insertion to the entry site of the superior branch or inferior branch, from the upper border of the LRM to the entry site of the superior branch, from the lower border of LRM to the entry site of inferior branch, and the widths of the main trunk and superior and inferior branches...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506780/a-novel-approach-for-regional-anaesthesia-of-the-auricular-region-in-horses-an-anatomic-and-imaging-study
#18
Ilaria Cerasoli, Pieter Cornillie, Frank Gasthuys, Ingrid Gielen, Stijn Schauvliege
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anatomy of the ear innervation in horses and develop a new approach for the block of the internal and external pinna and acoustic meatus. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive, cadaveric study. ANIMALS: A total of 25 heads and necks from horse cadavers. METHODS: Phase I: anatomical dissection and dye deposition on 19 heads. With the head positioned in lateral recumbency, 10 mL methylene blue (1:1 sterile water) for the internal auricular and 2 mL for the great auricular nerve block were injected in 21 ears (seven left, 10 right and two bilaterally)...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506501/sympathetic-control-of-the-brain-circulation-appreciating-the-complexities-to-better-understand-the-controversy
#19
Patrice Brassard, Michael M Tymko, Philip N Ainslie
Although the human cerebral circulation is richly innervated with sympathetic nerve fibers, the role of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) on the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains debated. Several issues may be responsible for the conflicting conclusions reported in the animal vs. human literature in regards to the sympathetic control of the brain circulation. Furthermore, due to the physiological consequences associated with SNA blockade (e.g. changes in blood pressure and cardiac output), and differences in methodology (e...
May 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502972/distribution-innervation-and-cellular-organization-of-taste-buds-in-the-sea-catfish-plotosus-japonicus
#20
Tatsufumi Nakamura, Naoki Matsuyama, Masato Kirino, Masanori Kasai, Sadao Kiyohara, Takanori Ikenaga
The gustatory system of the sea catfish Plotosus japonicus, like that of other catfishes, is highly developed. To clarify the details of the morphology of the peripheral gustatory system of Plotosus, we used whole-mount immunohistochemistry to investigate the distribution and innervation of the taste buds within multiple organs including the barbels, oropharyngeal cavity, fins (pectoral, dorsal, and caudal), and trunk. Labeled taste buds could be observed in all the organs examined. The density of the taste buds was higher along the leading edges of the barbels and fins; this likely increases the chance of detecting food...
May 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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