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Ryoma Morigaki, Satoshi Goto
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat encoding an abnormally long polyglutamine tract (PolyQ) in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. In HD, striking neuropathological changes occur in the striatum, including loss of medium spiny neurons and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons accompanied by neurodegeneration of the striosome and matrix compartments, leading to progressive impairment of reasoning, walking and speaking abilities...
June 7, 2017: Brain Sciences
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Raymond Rosales, Aloysius Domingo, Lillian Lee, Arlene Ng, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau
Cognitive control is relevant when distracting information induces behavioral conflicts. Such conflicts can be produced consciously and by subliminally processed information. Interestingly, both sources of conflict interact suggesting that they share neural mechanisms. Here, we ask whether conjoint effects between different sources of conflict are modulated by microstructural basal ganglia dysfunction. To this end, we carried out an electroencephalography study and examined event-related potentials (ERPs) including source localization using a combined flanker-subliminal priming task in patients with X-linked dystonia Parkinsonism (XDP) and a group of healthy controls...
May 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Jessica Grigoletto, Katharina Pukaß, Ayelet Gamliel, Dana Davidi, Rachel Katz-Brull, Christiane Richter-Landsberg, Ronit Sharon
α-Synuclein is a protein involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We investigated the role of neuronal α-Syn in myelin composition and abnormalities. The phospholipid content of purified myelin was determined by (31)P NMR in two mouse lines modeling PD, PrP-A53T α-Syn and Thy-1 wt-α-Syn. Significantly higher levels of phospholipids were detected in myelin purified from brains of these α-Syn transgenic mouse models than in control mice...
May 8, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Raymond Rosales, Aloysius Domingo, Lillian Lee, Arlene Ng, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau
An important brain function is to predict upcoming events on the basis of extracted regularities of previous inputs. These predictive coding processes can disturb performance in concurrent perceptual decision-making and are known to depend on fronto-striatal circuits. However, it is unknown whether, and if so, to what extent striatal microstructural properties modulate these processes. We addressed this question in a human disease model of striosomal dysfunction, i.e. X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP), using high-density EEG recordings and source localization...
May 2, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Jill R Crittenden, Carolyn J Lacey, Feng-Ju Weng, Catherine E Garrison, Daniel J Gibson, Yingxi Lin, Ann M Graybiel
The striatum is key for action-selection and the motivation to move. Dopamine and acetylcholine release sites are enriched in the striatum and are cross-regulated, possibly to achieve optimal behavior. Drugs of abuse, which promote abnormally high dopamine release, disrupt normal action-selection and drive restricted, repetitive behaviors (stereotypies). Stereotypies occur in a variety of disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, schizophrenia and Huntington's disease, as well as in addictive states...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Raymond Rosales, Aloysius Domingo, Lillian Lee, Arlene Ng, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau
BACKGROUND: Executive functions including behavioral adaptation and impulse control are commonly impaired in movement disorders caused by striatal pathology. However, as yet it is unclear what aspects of behavioral abnormalities are related to pathology in which striatal subcomponent, that is, the matrix and the striosomes. We therefore studied cognitive control in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, a model disease of striosomal degeneration, using behavioral paradigms and EEG. METHODS: We studied genetically confirmed X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism patients (N = 21) in their early disease stages and healthy matched controls...
April 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Katherine R Brimblecombe, Stephanie J Cragg
The striatum is a heterogeneous structure with a diverse range of neuron types and neuromodulators. Three decades of anatomical and biochemical studies have established that the neurochemical organization of striatum is not uniformly heterogeneous, but rather, can be differentiated into neurochemically discrete compartments known as striosomes (also known as patches) and matrix. These compartments are well understood to differ in their expression of neurochemical markers, with some differences in afferent and efferent connectivity and have also been suggested to have different involvement in a range of neurological diseases...
December 15, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Alexandria M H Lesicko, Teodora S Hristova, Kathleen C Maigler, Daniel A Llano
The lateral cortex of the inferior colliculus receives information from both auditory and somatosensory structures and is thought to play a role in multisensory integration. Previous studies in the rat have shown that this nucleus contains a series of distinct anatomical modules that stain for GAD-67 as well as other neurochemical markers. In the present study, we sought to better characterize these modules in the mouse inferior colliculus and determine whether the connectivity of other neural structures with the lateral cortex is spatially related to the distribution of these neurochemical modules...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jill R Crittenden, Paul W Tillberg, Michael H Riad, Yasuyuki Shima, Charles R Gerfen, Jeffrey Curry, David E Housman, Sacha B Nelson, Edward S Boyden, Ann M Graybiel
The dopamine systems of the brain powerfully influence movement and motivation. We demonstrate that striatonigral fibers originating in striosomes form highly unusual bouquet-like arborizations that target bundles of ventrally extending dopamine-containing dendrites and clusters of their parent nigral cell bodies. Retrograde tracing showed that these clustered cell bodies in turn project to the striatum as part of the classic nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, these striosome-dendron formations, here termed "striosome-dendron bouquets," likely represent subsystems with the nigro-striato-nigral loop that are affected in human disorders including Parkinson's disease...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kazuya Hagimoto, Saki Takami, Fujio Murakami, Yasuto Tanabe
The striatum, the largest nucleus of the basal ganglia controlling motor and cognitive functions, can be characterized by a labyrinthine mosaic organization of striosome/matrix compartments. It is unclear how striosome/matrix mosaic formation is spatially and temporally controlled at the cellular level during striatal development. Here, by combining in vivo electroporation and brain slice cultures, we set up a prospective experimental system in which we differentially labeled striosome and matrix cells from the time of birth and followed their distributions and migratory behaviors...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Stewart Shipp
Unidirectional connections from the cortex to the matrix of the corpus striatum initiate the cortico-basal ganglia (BG)-thalamocortical loop, thought to be important in momentary action selection and in longer-term fine tuning of behavioural repertoire; a discrete set of striatal compartments, striosomes, has the complementary role of registering or anticipating reward that shapes corticostriatal plasticity. Re-entrant signals traversing the cortico-BG loop impact predominantly frontal cortices, conveyed through topographically ordered output channels; by contrast, striatal input signals originate from a far broader span of cortex, and are far more divergent in their termination...
March 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Fumino Fujiyama
Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to dopamine signals, via dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of reward prediction error and conducts reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained...
July 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Alicia Rivera, Belén Gago, Diana Suárez-Boomgaard, Takashi Yoshitake, Ruth Roales-Buján, Alejandra Valderrama-Carvajal, Ainhoa Bilbao, José Medina-Luque, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Kathleen Van Craenenbroeck, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Jan Kehr, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Luis Santín, Adelaida de la Calle, Kjell Fuxe
Morphine is one of the most effective drugs used for pain management, but it is also highly addictive. Morphine elicits acute and long-term adaptive changes at cellular and molecular level in the brain, which play a critical role in the development of tolerance, dependence and addiction. Previous studies indicated that the dopamine D4 receptor (D4 R) activation counteracts morphine-induced adaptive changes of the μ opioid receptor (MOR) signaling in the striosomes of the caudate putamen (CPu), as well as the induction of several Fos family transcription factors...
May 22, 2016: Addiction Biology
Ryoma Morigaki, Satoshi Goto
Among the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, the putamen plays a critical role in the "motor" circuits that control voluntary movements and motor learning. The human neostriatum comprises two functional subdivisions known as the striosome (patch) and matrix compartments. Accumulating evidence suggests that compartment-specific dysregulations of dopamine activity might be involved in the disease-specific pathology and symptoms of human striatal diseases including movement disorders. This study was undertaken to examine whether or how striatal dopaminergic innervations are organized into the compartmentalized architecture found in the putamen of adult human brains...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Armando G Salinas, Margaret I Davis, David M Lovinger, Yolanda Mateo
The striatum is typically classified according to its major output pathways, which consist of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons. The striatum is also divided into striosome and matrix compartments, based on the differential expression of a number of proteins, including the mu opioid receptor, dopamine transporter (DAT), and Nr4a1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1). Numerous functional differences between the striosome and matrix compartments are implicated in dopamine-related neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease and addiction...
September 2016: Neuropharmacology
Ritsuko Inoue, Takeo Suzuki, Kinya Nishimura, Masami Miura
The striatum consists of two neurochemically distinct compartments: the striosomes (or patches) and the extrastriosomal matrix. Although striatal neurons are strongly innervated by intrinsic cholinergic interneurons, acetylcholinesterase is expressed more abundantly in the matrix than in the striosomes. At present, little is known about the different cholinergic functions of the striatal compartments. In this study, we examined gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) inputs to cholinergic interneurons in both compartments...
June 2016: Neuropharmacology
Ryoma Morigaki, Satoshi Goto
The human neostriatum consists of two functional subdivisions referred to as the striosome (patch) and matrix compartments. The striosome-matrix dopamine systems play a central role in cortico-thalamo-basal ganglia circuits, and their involvement is thought to underlie the genesis of multiple movement and behavioral disorders, and of drug addiction. Human neuropathology also has shown that striosomes and matrix have differential vulnerability patterns in several striatal neurodegenerative diseases. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), also known as disks large homolog 4, is a major scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic densities of dendritic spines...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Monika Rataj-Baniowska, Anna Niewiadomska-Cimicka, Marie Paschaki, Monika Szyszka-Niagolov, Laura Carramolino, Miguel Torres, Pascal Dollé, Wojciech Krężel
The mammalian striatum controls sensorimotor and psychoaffective functions through coordinated activities of its two striatonigral and striatopallidal output pathways. Here we show that retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) controls development of a subpopulation of GABAergic, Gad65-positive striatonigral projection neurons. In Rarb(-/-) knock-out mice, concomitant reduction of Gad65, dopamine receptor D1 (Drd1), and substance P expression at different phases of prenatal development was associated with reduced number of Drd1-positive cells at birth, in contrast to normal numbers of striatopallidal projection neurons expressing dopamine receptor D2...
October 28, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ryan C Murray, Mary C Logan, Kristen A Horner
Stereotypy can be characterized as inflexible, repetitive behaviors that occur following repeated exposure to psychostimulants, such as cocaine (COC). Stereotypy may be related to preferential activation of the patch (striosome) compartment of striatum, as enhanced relative activation of the patch compartment has been shown to positively correlate with the emergence of stereotypy following repeated psychostimulant treatment. However, the specific contribution of the patch compartment to COC-induced stereotypy following repeated exposure is unknown...
August 27, 2015: Brain Research
Katherine R Brimblecombe, Stephanie J Cragg
The mammalian striatum has a topographical organization of input-output connectivity, but a complex internal, nonlaminar neuronal architecture comprising projection neurons of two types interspersed among multiple interneuron types and potential local neuromodulators. From this cellular melange arises a biochemical compartmentalization of areas termed striosomes and extrastriosomal matrix. The functions of these compartments are poorly understood but might confer distinct features to striatal signal processing and be discretely governed...
June 17, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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