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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474269/finding-hidden-hiv-clusters-to-support-geographic-oriented-hiv-interventions-in-kenya
#1
Anthony Waruru, Thomas N O Achia, James L Tobias, James Ng'ang'a, Mary Mwangi, Joyce Wamicwe, Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez, Tom Oluoch, Evelyn Muthama, Thorkild Tylleskär
BACKGROUND: In a spatially well-known and dispersed HIV epidemic, identifying geographic clusters with significantly higher HIV-prevalence is important for focusing interventions for people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHODS: We used Kulldorff spatial-scan Poisson model to identify clusters with high numbers of HIV-infected persons 15-64 years old. We classified PLHIV as belonging to either higher or lower prevalence (HP/LP) clusters, then assessed distributions of socio-demographic and bio-behavioral HIV risk factors and associations with clustering...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474268/twenty-five-years-of-lamivudine-current-and-future-use-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection
#2
Romina Quercia, Carlo-Federico Perno, Justin Koteff, Katy Moore, Cynthia McCoig, Marty St Clair, Daniel Kuritzkes
Innovation in medicine is a dynamic, complex, and continuous process that cannot be isolated to a single moment in time. Anniversaries offer opportunities to commemorate crucial discoveries of modern medicine, such as penicillin (1928), polio vaccination (inactivated, 1955; oral, 1961), the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (1967), monoclonal antibodies (1975), and the first HIV antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, 1987). The advent of antiretroviral drugs has had a profound effect on the progress of the epidemiology of HIV infection, transforming a terminal, irreversible disease that caused a global health crisis into a treatable but chronic disease...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468493/facilitators-and-barriers-to-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-use-among-black-individuals-in-the-united-states-results-from-the-national-survey-on-hiv-in-the-black-community-nshbc
#3
Bisola O Ojikutu, Laura M Bogart, Molly Higgins-Biddle, Sannisha K Dale, Wanda Allen, Tiffany Dominique, Kenneth H Mayer
This study explores willingness to use PrEP among Black individuals in the US. From February to April 2016, an online survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of Black individuals. 855 individuals who were HIV negative by self-report participated [mean age: 33.6 (SD 9.2); 45.5% male]. Among all respondents, 14.5% were aware of, and 26.0% would be willing to use PrEP. Among high-risk individuals (N = 327), 19.8% knew about and 35.1% would be willing to use PrEP. The most common reason for lack of willingness among high-risk individuals was low self-perceived risk (65...
February 21, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467119/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-youtube-videos-content-evaluation
#4
Aleksandar Kecojevic, Corey Basch, Charles Basch, William Kernan
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral (ARV) medicines reduce the risk of transmitting the HIV virus and are recommended as daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in combination with safer sex practices for HIV-negative individuals at a high risk for infection, but are underused in HIV prevention. Previous literature suggests that YouTube is extensively used to share health information. While pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a novel and promising approach to HIV prevention, there is limited understanding of YouTube videos as a source of information on PrEP...
February 16, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467098/retention-engagement-and-adherence-to-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-in-prep-brasil-48-week-results-of-a-demonstration-study
#5
Beatriz Grinsztejn, Brenda Hoagland, Ronaldo I Moreira, Esper G Kallas, Jose V Madruga, Silvia Goulart, Iuri C Leite, Lucilene Freitas, Luana M S Martins, Thiago S Torres, Ricardo Vasconcelos, Raquel B De Boni, Peter L Anderson, Albert Liu, Paula M Luz, Valdiléa G Veloso
BACKGROUND: PrEP Brasil was a demonstration study to assess feasibility of daily oral tenofovir diphosphate disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine provided at no cost to men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women at high risk for HIV within the Brazilian public health system. We report week 48 pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) retention, engagement, and adherence, trends in sexual behaviour, and incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in this study cohort. METHODS: PrEP Brasil was a 48 week, open-label, demonstration study that assessed PrEP delivery at three referral centres for HIV prevention and care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), and São Paulo, Brazil (Universidade de São Paulo and Centro de Referência e Treinamento em DST e AIDS)...
February 16, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466919/what-qualities-in-a-potential-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-service-are-valued-by-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-london-a-qualitative-acceptability-study
#6
T Charles Witzel, Will Nutland, Adam Bourne
Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) have higher HIV incidence and prevalence when compared to other MSM, despite similar levels of condom use and testing. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could be a useful intervention to reduce these inequalities. This research therefore aims to understand the dimensions of acceptability of a potential PrEP service for BMSM aged 18-45 years in London. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 PrEP-eligible BMSM between April and August 2016. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, then subject to a thematic framework analysis, informed by intersectionality theory...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466365/cross-reactive-microbial-peptides-can-modulate-hiv-specific-cd8-t-cell-responses
#7
Christopher W Pohlmeyer, Sarah B Laskey, Sarah E Beck, Daniel C Xu, Adam A Capoferri, Caroline C Garliss, Megan E May, Alison Livingston, Walt Lichmira, Richard D Moore, M Sue Leffell, Nicholas J Butler, Jennifer E Thorne, John A Flynn, Robert F Siliciano, Joel N Blankson
Heterologous immunity is an important aspect of the adaptive immune response. We hypothesized that this process could modulate the HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell response, which has been shown to play an important role in HIV-1 immunity and control. We found that stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-1-positive subjects with microbial peptides that were cross-reactive with immunodominant HIV-1 epitopes resulted in dramatic expansion of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, the TCR repertoire of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells generated by ex vivo stimulation of PBMCs using HIV-1 peptide was different from that of cells stimulated with cross-reactive microbial peptides in some HIV-1-positive subjects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466279/examination-of-behavioral-social-and-environmental-contextual-influences-on-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-at-risk-urban-adolescents-and-young-adults
#8
Cherrie B Boyer, Olga J Santiago Rivera, Danielle M Chiaramonte, Jonathan M Ellen
BACKGROUND: Despite the large body of extant literature on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in adolescents and young adults (AYAs), more research on social and environmental contextual factors is needed. Also, further examination of STI indicators by gender remains a critical area of research focus. METHODS: Anonymous survey data were collected using ACASIs in community venues in urban, low-income, STI prevalent, U.S. neighborhoods to reach AYAs, aged 12-24 years...
February 21, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465703/an-exploration-of-factors-impacting-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-eligibility-and-access-among-syringe-exchange-users
#9
A M Roth, B Aumaier, M Felsher, S L Welles, A P Donate-Martinez, M Chavis, B Van Der Pol
BACKGROUND: In 2015 approximately 50,000 new HIV infections occurred in the United States, 2,400 of which were attributable to injection drug use in. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to curb HIV acquisition, however, uptake remains low among persons who inject drugs (PWID). The purpose of the study is to describe PrEP eligibility, willingness to use PrEP, and ability to access PrEP among PWID recruited from a pilot program that paired screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections with mobile syringe exchange program (SEP) services...
October 4, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465664/knowledge-practices-and-barriers-to-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-prescribing-among-washington-state-medical-providers
#10
Brian R Wood, Vanessa M McMahan, Kelly Naismith, Jonathan B Stockton, Lori A Delaney, Joanne D Stekler
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and prescribing practices among Washington State medical providers from diverse professional disciplines and practice types. METHODS: In May 2016, we administered an anonymous online survey to licensed medical practitioners who provide primary, longitudinal, walk-in, emergency, obstetric, gynecologic, sexually transmitted infection (STI), or family planning care. RESULTS: Of 735 eligible providers, 64...
January 4, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465635/u-s-guidelines-that-empower-women-to-prevent-hiv-with-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-women-and-prep-guidelines
#11
Julia Raifman, Susan G Sherman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465634/prescription-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-to-msm-diagnosed-and-reported-with-gonorrhea-std-surveillance-network-2016
#12
Viani Ramirez, Emily Han, Julie Stoltey, Trang Q Nguyen, Preeti Pathela, Laura Tourdot, Jaime Walters, Teal Bell, Elizabeth Torrone, Mark Stenger
Using a representative sample of gonorrhea cases in select jurisdictions, we estimated the proportion of eligible men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting being prescribed pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection. In 2016, half (51.3%) of the estimated 33,165 eligible MSM reported being prescribed PrEP by their healthcare provider.
February 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458681/broad-neutralization-response-in-a-subset-of-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-viraemic-non-progressors-from-southern-india
#13
Paneerselvam Nandagopal, Jayanta Bhattacharya, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Rajat Goyal, Chinnambedu Ravichandran Swathirajan, Shilpa Patil, Shanmugam Saravanan, Suprit Deshpande, Ramachandran Vignesh, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Nikhil Singla, Joyeeta Mukherjee, Kailapuri G Murugavel
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been considered to be potent therapeutic tools and potential vaccine candidates to enable protection against various clades of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The generation of bnAbs has been associated with enhanced exposure to antigen, high viral load and low CD4+ T cell counts, among other factors. However, only limited data are available on the generation of bnAbs in viraemic non-progressors that demonstrate moderate to high viraemia. Further, since HIV-1 subtype C viruses account for more than 50 % of global HIV infections, the identification of bnAbs with novel specificities is crucial to enable the development of potent tools to aid in HIV therapy and prevention...
February 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455572/safer-conception-among-hiv-1-serodiscordant-couples-in-east-africa-understanding-knowledge-attitudes-and-experiences
#14
Kerry Hancuch, Jared Baeten, Kenneth Ngure, Connie Celum, Nelly Mugo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Renee Heffron
For HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, HIV-1 exposure and risk of transmission is heightened during pregnancy attempts, but safer conception strategies can reduce risk. As safer conception programs are scaled up, understanding couples' preferences and experiences can be useful for programmatic recommendations. We followed 1013 high-risk, heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from Kenya and Uganda for two years in an open-label delivery study of integrated pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART), the Partners Demonstration Project...
February 17, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455571/genetic-variation-of-the-kinases-that-phosphorylate-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#15
Dominique Figueroa, Erin Madeen, Joseph Tillotson, Paul Richardson, Leslie Cottle, Marybeth McCauley, Raphael Landovitz, Adriana Andrade, Craig W Hendrix, Kenneth H Mayer, T J Wilkin, Roy Gulick, Namandjé N Bumpus
Tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (FTC) are used in combination for HIV treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a prodrug that undergoes diester hydrolysis to TFV. FTC and TFV are nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors that upon phosphorylation to nucleotide triphosphate analogs competitively inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase. We previously demonstrated that adenylate kinase 2, pyruvate kinase, muscle and pyruvate kinase, liver and red blood cell phosphorylate TFV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
February 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454927/syndemics-among-individuals-enrolled-in-the-prep-brasil-study
#16
Raquel B De Boni, Iona K Machado, Mauricio T L De Vasconcellos, Brenda Hoagland, Esper G Kallas, José Valdez Madruga, Nilo M Fernandes, Natalia B Cerqueira, Ronaldo I Moreira, Silvia P Goulart, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Paula M Luz
BACKGROUND: Concurrent psychosocial problems may synergistically increase the risk of HIV infection (syndemics), representing a challenge for prevention. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of syndemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) enrolled in the Brazilian pre-exposure prophylaxis demonstration study (PrEP Brasil Study). METHODS: Secondary cross-sectional analysis of the PrEP Brasil Study was performed...
February 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453687/impact-of-boosted-antiretroviral-therapy-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-efficacy-of-clopidogrel-and-prasugrel-active-metabolites
#17
Niloufar Marsousi, Youssef Daali, Pierre Fontana, Jean-Luc Reny, Virginie Ancrenaz-Sirot, Alexandra Calmy, Serge Rudaz, Jules Alexandre Desmeules, Caroline Flora Samer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prasugrel and clopidogrel are inhibitors of the ADP-P 2 Y 12 platelet receptor used in acute coronary syndrome patients. They require bioactivation via isoenzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2B6. Ritonavir and cobicistat are potent CYP3A inhibitors, prescribed as pharmacokinetic (PK) enhancers in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: In this study, the impact of boosted antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) on the PK of clopidogrel and prasugrel active metabolites (AMs), and on the efficacy of prasugrel and clopidogrel, were evaluated in a randomized crossover clinical trial...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451894/trade-off-between-synergy-and-efficacy-in-combinations-of-hiv-1-latency-reversing-agents
#18
Vipul Gupta, Narendra M Dixit
Eradicating HIV-1 infection is difficult because of the reservoir of latently infected cells that gets established soon after infection, remains hidden from antiretroviral drugs and host immune responses, and retains the capacity to reignite infection following the cessation of treatment. Drugs called latency-reversing agents (LRAs) are being developed to reactivate latently infected cells and render them susceptible to viral cytopathicity or immune killing. Whereas individual LRAs have failed to induce adequate reactivation, pairs of LRAs have been identified recently that act synergistically and hugely increase reactivation levels compared to individual LRAs...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448948/occupational-exposure-to-hiv-in-a-developing-country-assessing-knowledge-and-attitude-of-healthcare-professional-before-and-after-an-awareness-symposium
#19
Samina Ismail, Safia Awan, Rubaba Naeem, Sarfraz Siddiqui, Badar Afzal, Bushra Jamil, Uzma Rahim Khan
OBJECTIVE: Health care providers (HCPs) are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV infection. In developing world these exposure occur due to general lack of awareness, education and structured training of HCPs. The objective of the study was to asses if continuing medical education symposium can be used as an effective educational tool to improve attitude, awareness and knowledge regarding occupational exposure to HIV infection. This quasi-experimental study was conducted among HCPs from Karachi, Pakistan...
February 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444348/cerebrospinal-fluid-abacavir-concentrations-in-hiv-positive-patients-following-once-daily-administration
#20
A Calcagno, C Pinnetti, A De Nicolò, E Scarvaglieri, M Gisslen, M Tempestilli, A D'Avolio A, V Fedele, G Di Perri, A Antinori, S Bonora
Abacavir is a widely used nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exposure has been previously assessed in twice-daily recipients. We studied abacavir CSF concentrations in 61 and 9 HIV-positive once-daily and twice-daily abacavir intakers. Patients on once-daily abacavir had higher plasma and CSF concentrations (96 vs. 22 ng/mL, p=0.038 and 123 vs. 49 ng/mL, p=0.038) but similar CSF-to-plasma ratios (0.8 vs. 0.5, p=0.500). CSF abacavir concentrations were adequate in once-daily receiving patients...
February 14, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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