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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350802/impact-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-exposure-in-hiv-1-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-madrid-spain-during-2000-2014
#1
Patricia Rojas Sánchez, Luis Prieto, Santiago Jiménez De Ory, Elisa Fernández Cooke, Maria Luisa Navarro, José Tomas Ramos, África Holguín
BACKGROUND: The most-used protease-inhibitor in children is Lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r), which provides durable suppression of viral load and increases CD4+T-counts. This study describes the virological outcome of the HIV-1-infected paediatric population exposed to LPV/r during 15 years in Spain. METHODOLOGY: Patients from the Madrid Cohort of HIV-1-infected-children and adolescents exposed to LPV/r as different line therapy during 2000-2014 were selected. The baseline epidemiological-clinical features, viral suppression, changes in CD4+T-CD8+T cell counts and drug susceptibility were recorded before and during LPV/r exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350554/high-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cepheid-xpert%C3%A2-hiv-1-qualitative-point-of-care-test-among-newborns-in-botswana
#2
Maryanne Ibrahim, Sikhulile Moyo, Terence Mohammed, Lucy Mupfumi, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Kenneth Maswabi, Gbolahan Ajibola, Rebecca Gelman, Oganne Batlang, Maureen Sakoi, Chloe Auletta-Young, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, Roger L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: HIV point-of-care (POC) testing allows for early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment, but POC accuracy at birth and in the setting of antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the Cepheid Xpert® HIV-1 Qual POC test against the Roche Taqman HIV-1 PCR platform using dried blood spots from 15 HIV-infected and 75 HIV-exposed uninfected newborns. These infants were screened for HIV at <96 hours of life at 5 hospital maternity wards in Botswana; all infants received post-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis (PEP) and most mothers received 3-drug antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy and at delivery...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346804/hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-people-who-inject-drugs-in-lahore-pakistan
#3
Sana Mansha, Muhammad Imran, Amir Miraj Ul Hussain Shah, Muhsin Jamal, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Muhammmad Saleem, Sher Zaman Safi, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the major cause of the global burden of hepatitis. One of the main routes of transmission for both viruses is through exposure to infected blood, which includes sharing blood-contaminated syringes and needles. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system and results in acquired immune deficiency syndrome and opportunistic infections. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID)...
March 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346077/effects-of-brief-messages-about-antiretroviral-therapy-and-condom-use-benefits-among-black-and-latino-msm-in-three-us-cities
#4
Jeffrey H Herbst, Gordon Mansergh, Nicole Pitts, Damian Denson, Matthew J Mimiaga, Jeremy Holman
This pilot study examined effects of HIV prevention messages about self and partner benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and condom effectiveness on increased intentions for behavior change. Data were from Messages4Men, a study examining prevention messages among 320 HIV-positive and 605 HIV-negative black and Latino MSM. Men completed a computer-based assessment after message exposure, and multivariable models controlled for risky sex and demographics. A majority of HIV-positive men reported increased intentions for ART use; 22% reported partner benefit information was new...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344768/an-end-to-lifetime-blood-donation-ban-in-israel-for-msm-would-be-a-major-step-toward-a-science-based-policy-that-reduces-stigma
#5
EDITORIAL
Sean Cahill, Timothy Wang
In recent years, countries around the world have revised their blood donation policies regarding gay and bisexual men, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). The United States lifted the lifetime ban on MSM from donating blood in 2015, replacing it with a 1 year deferral policy allowing MSM to donate if they abstain from sex for 12 months. Other countries followed suit, while Italy and Spain have implemented deferral policies based on individual risk assessments regardless of sexual orientation. If Israel were to adopt a one year deferral policy for MSM, as recommended by Drs...
2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340570/the-therapeutic-hiv-env-c5-gp41-vaccine-candidate-vacc-c5-induces-specific-t-cell-regulation-in-a-phase-i-ii-clinical-study
#6
Kristin Brekke, Maja Sommerfelt, Mats Ökvist, Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise, Dag Kvale
BACKGROUND: Levels of non-neutralising antibodies (AB) to the C5 domain of HIV Env gp120 are inversely related to progression of HIV infection. In this phase I/II clinical study we investigated safety of Vacc-C5, a peptide-based therapeutic vaccine candidate corresponding to C5/gp41(732-744) as well as the effects on pre-existing AB levels to C5/gp41(732-744), immune activation and T cell responses including exploratory assessments of Vacc-C5-induced T cell regulation. Our hypothesis was that exposure of the C5 peptide motif may have detrimental effects due to several of its HLA-like features and that enhancement of non-neutralising anti-C5 AB by vaccination could reduce C5 exposure and thereby chronic immune activation...
March 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338338/the-strategies-of-heterosexuals-from-large-metropolitan-areas-for-assessing-the-risks-of-exposure-to-hiv-or-other-sexually-transmitted-infections-from-partners-met-online
#7
Karolynn Siegel, Helen-Maria Lekas, Marie Onaga, Rachel Verni, Hamish Gunn
Heterosexuals' use of the Internet for meeting romantic or sexual partners is rapidly increasing, raising concerns about the Internet's potential to facilitate encounters that place individuals at risk for acquiring HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, online sharing of personal information and self-revelations can foster virtual intimacy, promoting a false sense of familiarity that might accelerate progression to unprotected sex. Therefore, it is critical to understand how those who meet sexual partners online attempt to assess the possible risk of acquiring HIV or STIs posed by having unprotected sex with a new partner and decide whether to use a condom...
March 24, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332270/changes-in-elevated-cholesterol-in-the-era-of-tenofovir-in-south-africa-risk-factors-clinical-management-and-outcomes
#8
L Jamieson, D Evans, A T Brennan, F Moyo, D Spencer, K Mahomed, M Maskew, L Long, S Rosen, M P Fox
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with unfavourable lipid profile changes and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). With a growing population on ART in South Africa, there has been concern about the increase in noncommunicable diseases such as CVD. We determined risk factors associated with increased total cholesterol (TC) in a large cohort on ART and describe the clinical management thereof. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study of ART-naïve adults initiating standard first-line ART in a large urban clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa...
March 23, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331088/bst-2-expression-modulates-small-cd4-mimetic-sensitization-of-hiv-1-infected-cells-to-adcc
#9
Jonathan Richard, Jérémie Prévost, Benjamin von Bredow, Shilei Ding, Nathalie Brassard, Halima Medjahed, Mathieu Coutu, Bruno Melillo, Frédéric Bibollet-Ruche, Beatrice H Hahn, Daniel E Kaufmann, Amos B Smith, Joseph Sodroski, Daniel Sauter, Frank Kirchhoff, Katrina Gee, Stuart J Neil, David T Evans, Andrés Finzi
Antibodies recognizing conserved CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes on HIV-1 Env and able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) have been shown to be present in sera from most HIV-1-infected individuals. These antibodies preferentially recognize Env in its CD4-bound conformation. CD4 downregulation by Nef and Vpu dramatically reduces exposure of CD4i HIV-1 Env epitopes and therefore reduce the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by HIV+ sera. Importantly, this mechanism of immune evasion can be circumvented with small-molecule CD4-mimetics (CD4mc) which are able to transition Env into the CD4-bound conformation and sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by HIV+ sera...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329935/-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-receiving-no-methadone-maintenance-treatment-in-hiv-infected-injecting-drug-users-in-dehong-dai-and-jingpo-autonomous-prefecture-yunnan-province
#10
R H Tang, R H Ye, Y C Yang, S T Yao, J B Wang, R M Zhang, L F Luo, Z L Wu, Y C Long, M S Yin, N He, S Duan
Objective: To understand the current status of receiving no methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and influencing factors in HIV infected injecting drug users (IDUs) in Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefectures, Yunnan province. Methods: Data of survival of IDUs with AIDS in Dehong were collected from " Chinese National Comprehensive HIV/AIDS and Care Information System" in December, 2014. Results: There were 987 IDUs who should receive MMT, the majority of them were males (94.6%, 934/987), aged 35-44 years (53...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329334/turquoise-i-part-1b-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-and-dasabuvir-with-ribavirin-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-hiv-1-coinfected-patients-on-darunavir
#11
David Wyles, Michael Saag, Rolando M Viani, Jacob Lalezari, Oluwatoyin Adeyemi, Laveeza Bhatti, Amit Khatri, Jennifer R King, Yiran B Hu, Roger Trinh, Nancy S Shulman, Peter Ruane
Background.: Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir with dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r + DSV) ± ribavirin (RBV) is approved for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 (GT1) treatment in HIV-1 coinfected patients. In healthy controls, coadministration of OBV/PTV/r + DSV + darunavir (DRV) lowered DRV trough concentration (Ctrough) levels. To assess the clinical significance of this change, TURQUOISE-I, Part 1b, evaluated the efficacy and safety of OBV/PTV/r + DSV + RBV in coinfected patients on stable, DRV-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329270/hsv-2-acquisition-among-hiv-1-infected-adults-treated-with-tenofovir-as-part-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-results-from-the-actg-a5175-pearls-study
#12
Connie Celum, Ting Hong, Anne Cent, Deborah Donnell, Rhoda Morrow, Jared M Baeten, Cynthia Firnhaber, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Mina C Hosseinipour, Umesh Lalloo, Mulinda Nyirenda, Cynthia Riviere, Jorge Sanchez, Breno Santos, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo, James Hakim, N Kumarasamy, Thomas B Campbell
Objective: Tenofovir has in vitro activity against HSV-2 and reduced HSV-2 acquisition as pre-exposure prophylaxis. Whether tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces HSV-2 acquisition is unknown. Design: Secondary analysis of ACTG A5175, a randomized, open-label study of three ART regimens among 1,571 participants. Methods: HSV-2 serostatus was assessed at baseline, exit and prior to ART change. Results: Of 365 HSV-2 seronegative persons, 68 acquired HSV-2 with 24 on tenofovir-containing ART and 44 on ART without tenofovir (HSV-2 incidence 6...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329090/antiretrovirals-fractures-and-osteonecrosis-in-a-large-international-hiv-cohort
#13
Álvaro H Borges, Jennifer Hoy, Eric Florence, Dalibor Sedlacek, Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink, Vilma Uzdaviniene, Janez Tomazic, Panagiotis Gargalianos-Kakolyris, Patrick Schmid, Chloe Orkin, Court Pedersen, Clifford Leen, Christian Pradier, Fiona Mulcahy, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Therese Staub, Fernando Maltez, Rainer Weber, Leo Flamholc, Galina Kyselyova, Jens D Lungren, Amanda Mocroft
Background: Antiretrovirals (ARVs) affect bone density and turnover, but their effect on risk of fractures and osteonecrosis of the femoral head is less understood. We investigated if exposure to ARVs increases the risk of both bone outcomes. Methods: EuroSIDA participants were followed to assess fractures and osteonecrosis. Poisson regression identified clinical, laboratory and demographic predictors of either bone outcome. Ever, current and cumulative exposures to ARVs were assessed...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328548/characterization-of-hiv-seroconverters-in-a-tdf-ftc-prep-study-hptn-067-adapt
#14
Mariya V Sivay, Maoji Li, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Yinfeng Zhang, Sarah E Hudelson, Mark A Marzinke, Rivet K Amico, Andrew Redd, Craig W Hendrix, Peter L Anderson, Kevin Bokoch, Linda Gail-Bekker, Frits van Griensven, Sharon Mannheimer, James P Hughes, Robert Grant, Susan H Eshleman
BACKGROUND: HPTN 067/ADAPT evaluated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in women (South Africa) and men who have sex with men (Thailand, US). Participants received once-weekly directly observed TDF/FTC (DOT), and were then randomized to daily, time-driven, or event-driven PrEP. This report describes characterization of 12 HIV seroconversion events in this trial. METHODS: HIV rapid testing was performed at study sites...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325087/physical-activity-correlates-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-a-systematic-review-of-45-studies
#15
Davy Vancampfort, James Mugisha, Justin Richards, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst, Brendon Stubbs
PURPOSE: Understanding barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation in persons living with HIV/AIDS is an essential first step in order to devise effective interventions. The present review provides a systematic quantitative review of the physical activity correlates in people with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: Major electronic databases were searched till August 2016. Keywords included "physical activity" or "exercise" or "sports" and "AIDS" or "HIV". RESULTS: Out of 55 correlates from 45 studies (N = 13,167; mean age range = 30...
March 22, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323756/tdf-associated-renal-tubular-dysfunction-non-invasive-assessment-of-mitochondrial-injury
#16
Ryan Samuels, Carla Roca Bayerri, John A Sayer, D Ashley Price, Brendan Ai Payne
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether TDF-associated renal tubular dysfunction is associated with evidence of mitochondrial injury in urine. DESIGN: Single centre cross-sectional observational study of HIV positive outpatients. METHODS: Biochemistry was performed on paired serum and urine samples. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was studied by real-time PCR and long-range PCR on cellular fractions of urine. RESULTS: 48 subjects were enrolled of whom half were TDF-treated...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323755/cyp2b6-genotype-directed-dosing-is-required-for-optimal-efavirenz-exposure-in-children-3-to-36-months-with-hiv-infection
#17
Carolyn Bolton Moore, Edmund V Capparelli, Pearl Samson, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Patrick Jean-Philippe, Carol Worrell, Barbara Heckman, Lynette Purdue, Stephen A Spector, Alex Benns, William Borkowsky, Amy Loftis, Elizabeth Hawkins, Carole Wallis, Ellen G Chadwick
OBJECTIVES: To determine safety, efficacy and genotypic-specific dose requirements of EFV in children aged 3 - <36 months of age with HIV infection with or without TB co-infection. DESIGN: IMPAACT P1070 was a 24 week prospective cohort trial of EFV (as open capsules) plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in children with HIV infection 3- < 36 months without tuberculosis (Cohort 1). METHODS: CYP2B6 G516T genotype was determined and intensive PK's were performed at week 2...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323751/long-term-nitrite-inhalant-exposure-and-cancer-risk-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Anupriya Dutta, Hajime Uno, Alex Holman, David R Lorenz, Steven M Wolinsky, Dana Gabuzda
OBJECTIVES: Nitrite inhalants (poppers) are commonly used recreational drugs among men who have sex with men (MSM) and were previously associated with elevated rates of high-risk sexual behavior, HIV and HHV-8 seroconversion, and transient immunosuppressive effects in experimental models. Whether long-term popper use is associated with cancer risk among MSM in the HAART era is unclear. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of cancer risk in 3223 HIV-infected and -uninfected MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1996-2010...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322582/man%C3%AE-1-2man-binding-anti-hiv-lectins-enhance-the-exposure-of-v2i-and-v3-crown-neutralization-epitopes-on-the-v1v2-and-v3-hypervariable-loops-of-hiv-1-envelope
#19
Muzafar Jan, Chitra Upadhyay, Aman Sharma, Caterina E Hioe, Sunil K Arora
This study aimed to explore the contribution of high mannose glycans in the masking of conserved GPG and LDI/V containing V3 crown and V2i epitopes on the hypervariable loops of most exposed distal surface of HIV-1 Env. Using lectins specific to Manα1-2Man residue containing Man6-9GlcNAc2 glycans extensively decorating HIV-1 Env, we found that Manα1-2Man binding lectins enhance the exposure of these partially and transiently exposed epitopes and consequentially increase the neutralization strength of these antibodies...
March 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322573/blood-lead-levels-and-neurodevelopmental-function-in-perinatally-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-a-us-based-longitudinal-cohort-study
#20
Katherine Tassiopoulos, Yanling Huo, Joseph Braun, Paige L Williams, Renee Smith, Ann Aschengrau, Sharon Nichols, Rohan Hazra, William A Meyer, Katherine Knapp, Nagamah S Deygoo, George R Seage Iii
BACKGROUND: While children's exposure to environmental lead in the U.S. has decreased, areas of elevated levels remain. Because lead exposure is a risk factor for developmental delays, it should be considered when studying neurodevelopmental effects of in-utero antiretroviral medication (ARV) exposure in the growing population of perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected children (PHEU). We compared blood lead levels (BPb) in PHEU children enrolled in the Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities (SMARTT) Study to U...
March 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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