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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730408/evolution-of-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat-utility-in-assessing-the-progression-of-hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#1
Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Understanding the progression of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a critical need as the prevalence of HIV-1 in older individuals (>50 years) is markedly increasing due to the great success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Longitudinal experimental designs, in comparison to cross-sectional studies, provide an opportunity to establish age-related disease progression in HAND. The HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, which has been promoted for investigating the effect of long-term HIV-1 viral protein exposure, was used to examine two interrelated goals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729520/challenges-and-emerging-opportunities-for-the-hiv-prevention-treatment-and-care-cascade-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-asia-pacific
#2
REVIEW
Frits van Griensven, Thomas E Guadamuz, Jan Willem de Lind van Wijngaarden, Nittaya Phanuphak, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Ying-Ru Lo
In Asia Pacific, most countries have expanded HIV treatment guidelines to include all those with HIV infection and adopted antiretroviral treatment for prevention (TFP) as a blanket strategy for HIV control. Although the overall epidemic development associated with this focus is positive, the HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM) is continuing unperturbed without any signs of decline or reversal. This raises doubt about whether TFP as a blanket HIV prevention policy is the right approach. This paper reviews currently available biomedical HIV prevention strategies, national HIV prevention policies and guidelines from selected countries and published data on the HIV cascade in MSM...
August 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729516/high-hiv-incidence-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-following-an-early-syphilis-diagnosis-is-there-room-for-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-as-a-prevention-strategy
#3
Nicolò Girometti, Angela Gutierrez, Nneka Nwokolo, Alan McOwan, Gary Whitlock
OBJECTIVES: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is becoming a pivotal strategy for HIV prevention. Understanding the impact of risk factors for HIV transmission to identify those at highest risk would favour the implementation of PrEP, currently limited by costs. In this service evaluation, we estimated the incidence of bacterial STIs in men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with early syphilis attending a London sexual health clinic according to their HIV status. In addition, we estimated the incidence of HIV infection in HIV-negative MSM, following a diagnosis of early syphilis...
August 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727818/prep-in-italy-the-time-may-be-ripe-but-who-s-paying-the-bill-a-nationwide-survey-on-physicians-attitudes-towards-using-antiretrovirals-to-prevent-hiv-infection
#4
Antonio Di Biagio, Niccolò Riccardi, Alessio Signori, Renato Maserati, Silvia Nozza, Andrea Gori, Stefano Bonora, Marco Borderi, Diego Ripamonti, Maria Cristina Rossi, Giancarlo Orofino, Tiziana Quirino, Giuseppe Nunnari, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Salvatore Martini, Caterina Sagnelli, Giovanni Mazzola, Pietro Colletti, Dario Bartolozzi, Teresa Bini, Nicoletta Ladisa, Filippo Castelnuovo, Annalisa Saracino, Sergio Lo Caputo
Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir (with or without emtricitabine) on preventing HIV-negative partners of HIV infected patients to become infected through sexual contacts. PrEP is already available in the United States and now is approved by European Medicine Agency. In this setting we would like to gauge physicians' knowledge, acquaintance with and attitude to include PrEP in their clinical practice. A cross sectional survey was conducted among Italian physicians expert on antiretroviral therapy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726043/injection-drug-use-unemployment-and-severe-food-insecurity-among-hiv-hcv-co-infected-individuals-a-mediation-analysis
#5
Taylor McLinden, Erica E M Moodie, Anne-Marie Hamelin, Sam Harper, Sharon L Walmsley, Gilles Paradis, Wusiman Aibibula, Marina B Klein, Joseph Cox
Severe food insecurity (FI), which indicates reduced food intake, is common among HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected individuals. Given the importance of unemployment as a proximal risk factor for FI, this mediation analysis examines a potential mechanism through which injection drug use (IDU) is associated with severe FI. We used biannual data from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort (N = 429 with 3 study visits, 2012-2015). IDU in the past 6 months (exposure) and current unemployment (mediator) were self-reported...
July 19, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725978/strategies-and-methods-for-the-detection-and-identification-of-viral-vectors
#6
REVIEW
Thorsten Stellberger, Nina Koehler, Anna Dinkelmeier, Johannes Draxler, Maren Haase, Jessica Hellinckx, Melanie Pavlovic, Ulrich Busch, Armin Baiker
The production and application of viral vectors are frequently performed genetic engineering operations. HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors, AAV2-based, and adenoviral vectors are amongst the most abundant viral vectors utilized for gene delivery. They are generally classified into risk group 1 or 2 (according to EU directive 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work).
July 19, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723709/delivering-prep-to-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-in-sub-saharan-africa-the-implementation-science-frontier
#7
Dvora L Joseph Davey, Linda-Gail Bekker, Pamina Gorbach, Thomas Coates, Landon Myer
: HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum periods remains high despite increased access to and initiation of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, maternal seroconversion during pregnancy and breastfeeding remains a source of significant paediatric HIV infection in the region. In order to curb vertical HIV transmission, HIV acquisition during pregnancy and lactation must significantly decline. Biological and behavioural factors contribute to high HIV incidence, including hormonal changes that alter genital mucosal surfaces, and frequent condomless sex with HIV-infected partners or partners of unknown serostatus...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722244/risk-of-liver-decompensation-with-cumulative-use-of-mitochondrial-toxic-nucleoside-analogues-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-coinfection
#8
Vincent Lo Re Rd, Bret Zeldow, Michael J Kallan, Janet P Tate, Dena M Carbonari, Sean Hennessy, Jay R Kostman, Joseph K Lim, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Robert Gross, Amy C Justice, Jason A Roy
PURPOSE: Among patients dually infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing mitochondrial toxic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (mtNRTIs) might induce chronic hepatic injury, which could accelerate HCV-associated liver fibrosis and increase the risk of hepatic decompensation and death. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study among 1747 HIV/HCV patients initiating NRTI-containing ART within the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (2002-2009) to determine if cumulative mtNRTI use increased the risk of hepatic decompensation and death among HIV-/HCV-coinfected patients...
July 19, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720021/ricky-and-lucy-gender-stereotyping-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-us-deep-south-and-the-implications-for-hiv-risk-in-a-severely-affected-population
#9
Bronwen Lichtenstein, Emma Sophia Kay, Ian Klinger, Matt G Mutchler
HIV disproportionately affects young Black men who have sex with men in the USA, with especially high rates in the Deep South. In this Alabama study, we interviewed 24 pairs of young Black men who have sex with men aged 19-24 and their close friends (n = 48) about sexual scripts, dating men and condom use. Three main themes emerged from the study: the power dynamics of 'top' and 'bottom' sexual positions for condom use; gender stereotyping in the iconic style of the 'I Love Lucy' show of the 1950s; and the sexual dominance of 'trade' men...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719229/experiences-using-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-safer-conception-among-hiv-serodiscordant-heterosexual-couples-in-the-united-states
#10
Angela R Bazzi, Ashley A Leech, Dea L Biancarelli, Meg Sullivan, Mari-Lynn Drainoni
Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising HIV prevention strategy for HIV serodiscordant couples (HIV-infected male, uninfected female) seeking safer conception. However, most research on PrEP for safer conception has focused on couples in sub-Saharan Africa; little is known about the perspectives or experiences of heterosexual couples in the United States. We conducted qualitative interviews with six couples (six women and five of their male partners) receiving PrEP for conception services at an urban safety net hospital in the US Northeast...
July 18, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718498/assessing-hiv-acquisition-risks-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states-of-america
#11
Ram K Shrestha, Stephanie L Sansom, David W Purcell
Men who have sex with men (MSM) can reduce their risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by using various prevention strategies and by understanding the effectiveness of each option over the short- and long-term. Strategies examined were: circumcision; insertive anal sex only; consistent, 100% self-reported condom use; and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PrEP efficacy was based on three levels of adherence. The cumulative HIV acquisition risk among MSM over periods of 1 year and 10 years were estimated with and without single and combinations of prevention strategies...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718492/-hiv-and-syphilis-coinfection-in-pregnancy-and-vertical-hiv-transmission-a-study-based-on-epidemiological-surveillance-data
#12
Lisiane M W Acosta, Tonantzin Ribeiro Gonçalves, Nêmora Tregnago Barcellos
Objective: To estimate the rate of HIV and syphilis coinfection among pregnant women living in Porto Alegre, Brazil, as well as the association of coinfection with vertical HIV transmission and socioeconomic variables. Method: This analytical retrospective cross-sectional study employed data from the regular epidemiological surveillance system for the period from 2010 to 2013. Data were obtained regarding pregnant women with HIV and exposed children, syphilis in pregnancy, and congenital syphilis...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716964/a-glun2b-selective-nmdar-antagonist-reverses-synapse-loss-and-cognitive-impairment-produced-by-the-hiv-1-protein-tat
#13
Jonathan D Raybuck, Nicholas J Hargus, Stanley A Thayer
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects approximately half of HIV-infected patients. Loss of synaptic connections is a hallmark of many neurocognitive disorders, including HAND. The HIV-1 protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) disrupts synaptic connections both in vitro and in vivo and has been linked to impaired neurocognitive function in humans. In vitro studies have shown that ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for GluN2B-containing NMDARs, reverses synapse loss when applied after Tat...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715159/alcohol-antiretroviral-interactive-toxicity-beliefs-as-a-potential-barrier-to-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#14
Seth C Kalichman, Lisa Eaton
INTRODUCTION: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) offers as much as 90% protection against HIV transmission. However, the effectiveness of PrEP depends on uptake and adherence to even intermittent dosing. Along with intoxication leading to unintentional non-adherence, believing that alcohol mixed with pharmaceuticals is harmful (i.e., interactive toxicity beliefs) may lead to poor uptake and intentional non-adherence. METHODS: HIV-negative sexually active men who have sex with men (N = 272) at a large Gay Pride event in Atlanta, GA, completed anonymous surveys of demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, alcohol use and PrEP-related alcohol interactive toxicity beliefs...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715065/hypertension-dyslipidemia-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-poland
#15
Magdalena Rogalska-Płońska, Paweł Rogalski, Magdalena Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Justyna Stempkowska, Piotr Kocbach, Aldona Kowalczuk-Kot, Małgorzata Janczarek, Anna Grzeszczuk
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in HIV infected patients increases with aging and duration of the disease. Hypertension (HA), high cholesterol level obesity, diabetes, tobacco exposure and use of alcohol are among the traditional risk factors that contribute to CVD. AIM: was to determinate the incidence of HA, lipid disturbances and CVD risk in dependence on clinical, viral and biochemical factors. METHODS: Four hundred and seventeen HIV infected Caucasian adult patients from the four clinical centers in Poland were enrolled and analyzed on the basis of available medical data from the years 2013-2015...
July 17, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714868/interval-dosing-with-the-hdac-inhibitor-vorinostat-effectively-reverses-hiv-latency
#16
Nancie M Archin, Jennifer L Kirchherr, Julia Am Sung, Genevieve Clutton, Katherine Sholtis, Yinyan Xu, Brigitte Allard, Erin Stuelke, Angela D Kashuba, Joann D Kuruc, Joseph Eron, Cynthia L Gay, Nilu Goonetilleke, David M Margolis
BACKGROUND: The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat (VOR) can increase HIV RNA expression in vivo within resting CD4+ T cells of aviremic HIV+ individuals. However, while studies of VOR or other HDAC inhibitors have reported reversal of latency, none has demonstrated clearance of latent infection. We sought to identify the optimal dosing of VOR for effective serial reversal of HIV latency. METHODS: In a study of 16 HIV-infected, aviremic individuals, we measured resting CD4+ T cell-associated HIV RNA ex vivo and in vivo following a single exposure to VOR, and then in vivo after a pair of doses separated by 48 or 72 hours, and finally following a series of 10 doses given at 72-hour intervals...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712360/resisting-and-tolerating-p-falciparum-in-pregnancy-under-different-malaria-transmission-intensities
#17
Nicaise Tuikue Ndam, Emmanuel Mbuba, Raquel González, Pau Cisteró, Simon Kariuki, Esperança Sevene, María Rupérez, Ana Maria Fonseca, Anifa Vala, Sonia Maculuve, Alfons Jiménez, Llorenç Quintó, Peter Ouma, Michael Ramharter, John J Aponte, Arsenio Nhacolo, Achille Massougbodji, Valerie Briand, Peter G Kremsner, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Meghna Desai, Eusebio Macete, Michel Cot, Clara Menéndez, Alfredo Mayor
BACKGROUND: Resistance and tolerance to Plasmodium falciparum can determine the progression of malaria disease. However, quantitative evidence of tolerance is still limited. We investigated variations in the adverse impact of P. falciparum infections among African pregnant women under different intensities of malaria transmission. METHODS: P. falciparum at delivery was assessed by microscopy, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and placental histology in 946 HIV-uninfected and 768 HIV-infected pregnant women from Benin, Gabon, Kenya and Mozambique...
July 17, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710996/the-fourth-generation-alere-tm-hiv-combo-rapid-test-improves-detection-of-acute-infection-in-mtn-003-voice-samples
#18
Edward Livant, Amy Heaps, Cliff Kelly, Rashika Maharaj, Natasha Samsunder, Lindiwe Nhlangulela, Patrick Karugaba, Ravindre Panchia, Jeanne Marrazzo, Zvavahera Mike Chirenje, Urvi M Parikh
BACKGROUND: Early and accurate detection of HIV is crucial when using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention to avoid PrEP initiation in acutely infected individuals and to minimize the risk of drug resistance in individuals with breakthrough infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine if fourth-generation antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) would have detected HIV infection earlier than the third-generation RDT used in MTN-003 (VOICE). STUDY DESIGN: 5029 VOICE participants were evaluated with third-generation Alere Determine™ HIV-1/2, OraQuick ADVANCE(®) Rapid HIV-1/2, Uni-Gold™ Recombigen(®) HIV-1/2 and Bio-Rad GS HIV-1/2+O EIA; and fourth-generation Alere Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo, Conformité Européene (CE)-Marked Alere™ HIV Combo and Bio-Rad HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710710/interventions-for-increasing-hiv-testing-uptake-in-migrants-a-systematic-review-of-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Eithandee Aung, Sarah J Blondell, Jo Durham
Migrants have been identified as being at greater risk for late HIV testing and diagnosis. Late diagnosis is of concern because timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment can both optimise health outcomes and reduce transmission. We reviewed and evaluated interventions that aimed to increase HIV testing uptake in migrant populations. Of 6511 papers retrieved, 10 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Three types of interventions were identified (exposure to HIV prevention messages, HIV education programs, and direct offer of testing)...
July 14, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709753/leveraging-social-media-to-explore-black-women-s-perspectives-on-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#20
Bianca S Hill, Viraj V Patel, Lorlette J Haughton, Oni J Blackstock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
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