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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104604/hiv-infection-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-mice
#1
Patrick Geraghty, Eran Hadas, Boe-Hyun Kim, Abdoulaye J Dabo, David J Volsky, Robert Foronjy
Cigarette smoke usage is prevalent in HIV+ patients and, despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), these individuals develop an accelerated form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Studies investigating the mechanisms of COPD development in HIV have been limited by the lack of suitable mouse models. Here we describe a model of HIV induced COPD in wild type mice using EcoHIV, a chimeric HIV capable of establishing chronic infection in immunocompetent mice. A/J mice were infected with EcoHIV and subjected to whole body cigarette smoke exposure...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100849/the-role-genes-encoding-of-killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptors-kirs-and-their-ligands-in-susceptibility-to-and-progression-of-hiv-infection
#2
Olga Błachowicz, Katarzyna Zwolińska
NK cells are a part of the innate antiviral response. Their activity is regulated by signals from the surface receptors. Some of them, known as killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), determine the quality and intensity of the immunological response, together with their ligands (HLA class I). KIR genes are very polymorphic, and this is reflected in the NK activity modulation. The stimulation of NK cells, especially in the early stages of the infection, can reduce the transmission of HIV or slow down the progression of infection...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100808/correction-for-lund-et-al-hiv-1-neutralizing-iga-detected-in-genital-secretions-of-highly-hiv-1-exposed-seronegative-women-on-oral-preexposure-prophylaxis
#3
Jennifer M Lund, Kristina Broliden, Maria N Pyra, Katherine K Thomas, Deborah Donnell, Elizabeth Irungu, Timothy R Muwonge, Nelly Mugo, Madhuri Manohar, Marianne Jansson, Romel Mackelprang, Mark A Marzinke, Jared M Baeten, Jairam R Lingappa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099432/an-analysis-of-the-last-clinical-encounter-before-outpatient-mortality-among-children-with-hiv-infection-and-exposure-in-lilongwe-malawi
#4
Chris A Rees, Robert J Flick, David Sullivan, Menard Bvumbwe, Joseph Mhango, Mina C Hosseinipour, Peter N Kazembe
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contributes to nearly 20% of all deaths in children under five years of age in Malawi. Expanded coverage of antiretroviral therapy has allowed children to access treatment on an outpatient basis. Little is known about characteristics of the final outpatient encounter prior to mortality in the outpatient setting. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study assessed clinical factors associated with mortality among HIV-exposed infants and HIV-infected children less than 18 years of age at the Baylor College of Medicine Abbott Fund Children's Center of Excellence in Lilongwe, Malawi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095904/evaluation-of-the-tsima-community-mobilization-intervention-to-improve-engagement-in-hiv-testing-and-care-in-south-africa-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#5
Sheri A Lippman, Audrey Pettifor, Dumisani Rebombo, Aimée Julien, Ryan G Wagner, Mi-Suk Kang Dufour, Chodziwadziwa Whiteson Kabudula, Torsten B Neilands, Rhian Twine, Ann Gottert, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen M Tollman, Ian Sanne, Dean Peacock, Kathleen Kahn
BACKGROUND: HIV transmission can be decreased substantially by reducing the burden of undiagnosed HIV infection and expanding early and consistent use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Treatment as prevention (TasP) has been proposed as key to ending the HIV epidemic. To activate TasP in high prevalence countries, like South Africa, communities must be motivated to know their status, engage in care, and remain in care. Community mobilization (CM) has the potential to significantly increase uptake testing, linkage to and retention in care by addressing the primary social barriers to engagement with HIV care-including poor understanding of HIV care; fear and stigma associated with infection, clinic attendance and disclosure; lack of social support; and gender norms that deter men from accessing care...
January 17, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093483/treatment-simplification-to-atazanavir-ritonavir%C3%A2-%C3%A2-lamivudine-versus-maintenance-of-atazanavir-ritonavir%C3%A2-%C3%A2-two-nrtis-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-patients-48-week-results-from-a-randomized-trial-atlas-m
#6
Simona Di Giambenedetto, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Eugenia Quiros Roldan, Alessandra Latini, Gabriella D'Ettorre, Andrea Antinori, Antonella Castagna, Giancarlo Orofino, Daniela Francisci, Pierangelo Chinello, Giordano Madeddu, Pierfrancesco Grima, Stefano Rusconi, Massimo Di Pietro, Annalisa Mondi, Nicoletta Ciccarelli, Alberto Borghetti, Emanuele Focà, Manuela Colafigli, Andrea De Luca, Roberto Cauda
BACKGROUND: Combination ART (cART)-related toxicities and costs have prompted the need for treatment simplification. The ATLAS-M trial explored 48 week non-inferior efficacy of simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir  +  lamivudine versus maintaining three-drug atazanavir/ritonavir-based cART in virologically suppressed patients. METHODS: We performed an open-label, multicentre, randomized, non-inferiority study, enrolling HIV-infected adults on atazanavir/ritonavir + two NRTIs, with stable HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL and CD4 + >200 cells/mm(3) Main exclusion criteria were hepatitis B virus coinfection, past virological failure on or resistance to study drugs, recent AIDS and pregnancy...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088884/dual-raltegravir-etravirine-combination-as-maintenance-regimen-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-patients
#7
Leonardo Calza, Eleonora Magistrelli, Vincenzo Colangeli, Roberto Manfredi, Marco Borderi, Nicolò Rossi, Matteo Conti, Rita Mancini, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)- and protease inhibitor (PI)-sparing antiretroviral regimens may be useful in selected HIV-infected patients with resistance or intolerance to these drug classes. METHODS: This was an observational prospective study of patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy containing two NRTIs plus one ritonavir-boosted PI who switched to a dual regimen containing raltegravir plus etravirine. Patients were required not to have prior virological failure to raltegravir and to have efficacy of etravirine showed through the genotypic resistance assay in case of prior non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) virological failure...
January 15, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088692/evaluation-of-motor-and-cognitive-development-among-infants-exposed-to-hiv
#8
Kaitiana Martins da Silva, Cristina Dos Santos Cardoso de Sá, Raquel Carvalho
This study of a prospective and cross-sectional nature compared the motor and cognitive development of HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in their first 18months of age. 40 infants exposed to HIV and antiretroviral therapy (Experimental Group - EG) and 40 unexposed infants (Control Group - CG) participated in the study. They were divided into four age groups of 4, 8, 12 and 18months old, with 10 infants from EG and 10 from CG in each group. The infants were evaluated once on motor and cognitive development by the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development...
January 12, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081048/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-common-childhood-infections-in-south-african-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-hiv-unexposed-infants
#9
Amy L Slogrove, Monika M Esser, Mark F Cotton, David P Speert, Tobias R Kollmann, Joel Singer, Julie A Bettinger
BACKGROUND: Much evidence of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant infectious morbidity predates availability of maternal combination antiretroviral therapy and does not control for universal risk factors (preterm birth, low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding and poverty). METHODS: This prospective cohort study identified HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their newborns from South African community midwife unit. The primary outcome, infectious cause hospitalization or death before 6 months of age, was compared between HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU) infants and classified for type and severity using validated study-specific case definitions...
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079828/vaccination-with-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-infants-according-to-hiv-status
#10
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Lisa Jose, Nadia van Niekerk, Peter V Adrian, Clare Cutland, Nancy François, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Juan-Pablo Yarzabal, Marta Moreira, Dorota Borys, Lode Schuerman
BACKGROUND: Phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00829010) to evaluate immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children. METHODS: Children stratified by HIV status received PHiD-CV primary vaccination (age 6/10/14 weeks; coadministered with routine childhood vaccines) and booster dose (age 9-10 months)...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077589/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-prophylaxis-during-live-malaria-sporozoite-immunization-induces-long-lived-homologous-and-heterologous-protective-immunity-against-sporozoite-challenge
#11
Charlotte V Hobbs, Charles Anderson, Jillian Neal, Tejram Sahu, Solomon Conteh, Tatiana Voza, Jean Langhorne, William Borkowsky, Patrick E Duffy
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is widely used in malaria-endemic areas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and HIV-uninfected, HIV-exposed children as opportunistic infection prophylaxis. Despite the known effects that TMP-SMX has in reducing clinical malaria, its impact on development of malaria-specific immunity in these children remains poorly understood. Using rodent malaria models, we previously showed that TMP-SMX, at prophylactic doses, can arrest liver stage development of malaria parasites and speculated that TMP-SMX prophylaxis during repeated malaria exposures would induce protective long-lived sterile immunity targeting pre-erythrocytic stage parasites in mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076637/a-five-year-review-of-vertical-hiv-transmission-in-a-specialized-service-cross-sectional-study
#12
Izabel Cristina Hoffmann, Wendel Mombaque Dos Santos, Stela Maris de Mello Padoin, Sonia Maria Oliveira de Barros
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Healthcare professionals need to instill the process of prevention, control and treatment of people infected with HIV into care practice. Through maintaining preventive treatment among HIV-infected pregnant women, it has been demonstrated that prophylactic antiretroviral therapy, scheduled cesarean section and the prohibition of breastfeeding significantly reduce vertical HIV transmission. This study aimed to assess the rates of vertical HIV transmission in a specialized service and identify the factors associated with it...
November 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076415/structure-and-recognition-of-a-novel-hiv-1-gp120-gp41-interface-antibody-that-caused-mper-exposure-through-viral-escape
#13
Constantinos Kurt Wibmer, Jason Gorman, Gabriel Ozorowski, Jinal N Bhiman, Daniel J Sheward, Debra H Elliott, Julie Rouelle, Ashley Smira, M Gordon Joyce, Nonkululeko Ndabambi, Aliaksandr Druz, Mangai Asokan, Dennis R Burton, Mark Connors, Salim S Abdool Karim, John R Mascola, James E Robinson, Andrew B Ward, Carolyn Williamson, Peter D Kwong, Lynn Morris, Penny L Moore
A comprehensive understanding of the regions on HIV-1 envelope trimers targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies may contribute to rational design of an HIV-1 vaccine. We previously identified a participant in the CAPRISA cohort, CAP248, who developed trimer-specific antibodies capable of neutralizing 60% of heterologous viruses at three years post-infection. Here, we report the isolation by B cell culture of monoclonal antibody CAP248-2B, which targets a novel membrane proximal epitope including elements of gp120 and gp41...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060886/point-of-care-p24-infant-testing-for-hiv-may-increase-patient-identification-despite-low-sensitivity
#14
Bindiya Meggi, Timothy Bollinger, Nédio Mabunda, Adolfo Vubil, Ocean Tobaiwa, Jorge I Quevedo, Osvaldo Loquiha, Lara Vojnov, Trevor F Peter, Ilesh V Jani
The long delay in returning test results during early infant diagnosis of HIV (EID) often causes loss-to-follow-up prior to antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation in resource-limited settings. A point-of-care (POC) test may help overcome these challenges. We evaluated the performance of the LYNX p24 Antigen POC test in Mozambique. 879 HIV-exposed infants under 18 months of age were enrolled consecutively at three primary healthcare clinics (PHC). Lancet heel-drawn blood was tested on-site by nurses using a prototype POC test for HIV Gag p24 antigen detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060016/excess-respiratory-viral-infections-and-low-antibody-responses-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#15
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana Amaral, Jorge Pinto, Maria L B Teixeira, Regina C M Succi, Laura Freimanis, Jennifer S Read, George Siberry
OBJECTIVE: HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) have frequent severe infection, hospitalization and death. We performed a serologic investigation to determine the role of common childhood respiratory pathogens in the excess incidence of infections in HEUs. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs. METHODS: Among 247 HEUs and 88 HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infant-mother pairs, we measured maternal antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and pneumococcus (PNC 1, 5, 6B, 14); infant antibodies to RSV, influenza A (Flu), parainfluenza viruses (PIV 1, 2, 3), and PNC 1, 5, 6B and 14 were measured at 0 and 6 months, and anti-tetanus antibodies at 6 months...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057474/hiv-1-tat-disrupts-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-increases-phagocytic-perivascular-macrophages-and-microglia-in-the-dorsal-striatum-of-transgenic-mice
#16
Crystal R Leibrand, Jason J Paris, M Said Ghandour, Pamela E Knapp, Woong-Ki Kim, Kurt F Hauser, MaryPeace McRae
HIV-1 infection results in blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which acts as a rate-limiting step for HIV-1 entry into the CNS and for subsequent neuroinflammatory/neurotoxic actions. One mechanism by which HIV may destabilize the BBB involves actions of the HIV-1 regulatory protein, trans-activator of transcription (Tat). We utilized a conditional, Tat-expressing transgenic murine model to examine the influence of Tat1-86 expression on BBB integrity and to assess the relative numbers of phagocytic perivascular macrophages and microglia within the CNS in vivo...
January 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056726/community-mapping-of-sex-work-criminalization-and-violence-impacts-on-hiv-treatment-interruptions-among-marginalized-women-living-with-hiv-in-vancouver-canada
#17
Shira M Goldenberg, Kathleen Deering, Ofer Amram, Silvia Guillemi, Paul Nguyen, Julio Montaner, Kate Shannon
Despite the high HIV burden faced by sex workers, data on access and retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited. Using an innovative spatial epidemiological approach, we explored how the social geography of sex work criminalization and violence impacts HIV treatment interruptions among sex workers living with HIV in Vancouver over a 3.5-year period. Drawing upon data from a community-based cohort (AESHA, 2010-2013) and linked external administrative data on ART dispensation, GIS mapping and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to prospectively examine the effects of spatial criminalization and violence near women's places of residence on 2-day ART interruptions...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050723/computational-identification-of-novel-entry-inhibitor-scaffolds-mimicking-primary-receptor-cd4-of-hiv-1-gp120
#18
Alexander M Andrianov, Ivan A Kashyn, Alexander V Tuzikov
Virtual screening of novel entry inhibitor scaffolds mimicking primary receptor CD4 of HIV-1 gp120 was carried out in conjunction with evaluation of their potential inhibitory activity by molecular modeling. To do this, pharmacophore models presenting different sets of the hotspots of cellular receptor CD4 for its interaction with gp120 were generated. These models were used as the templates for identification of CD4-mimetic candidates by the pepMMsMIMIC screening platform. Complexes of these candidates with gp120 were built by high-throughput ligand docking and their stability was estimated by molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy calculations...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050688/high-prevalences-and-a-wide-genetic-diversity-of-simian-retroviruses-in-non-human-primate-bushmeat-in-rural-areas-of-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#19
Ahuka-Mundeke Steve, Ayouba Ahidjo, Mbala-Kingebeni Placide, Foncelle Caroline, Mubonga Mukulumanya, Ndimbo-Kumugo Simon-Pierre, Lunguya-Metila Octavie, Mbenzo-Abokome Valentin, Muyembe-Tamfum Jean-Jacques, Delaporte Eric, Peeters Martine
Like the majority of emerging infectious diseases, HIV and HTLV are of zoonotic origin. Here we assess the risk of cross-species transmissions of their simian counterparts, SIV and STLV, from non-human primates (NHP) to humans in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). A total of 331 samples, derived from NHP bushmeat, were collected as dried blood spots (DBS, n = 283) or as tissue samples (n = 36) at remote forest sites mainly in northern and eastern DRC. SIV antibody prevalences in DBS were estimated with a novel high throughput immunoassay with antigens representing the actual known diversity of HIV/SIV lineages...
January 3, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049455/effectiveness-of-isoniazid-preventative-therapy-in-reducing-incidence-of-active-tuberculosis-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-public-health-facilities-of-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-historical-cohort-study
#20
Mahlet Semu, Teferi Gedif Fenta, Girmay Medhin, Dawit Assefa
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic has exacerbated tuberculosis disease especially in Sub-Saharan African countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have recommended Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) for HIV infected patients to reduce the burden of tuberculosis (TB). Ethiopia has been implementing IPT since 2007. However, effectiveness of IPT in averting occurrence of active tuberculosis among HIV infected patients has not been assessed...
January 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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