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HIV exposed

A L Wilkinson, S H Pedersen, M Urassa, D Michael, A Andreasen, J Todd, S M Kinung'hi, J Changalucha, J M McDermid
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for fetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. METHODS: A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n=44) and HIV-negative (n=70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed...
October 20, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Karidia Diallo, Surbhi Modi, Mackenzie Hurlston, Rachel Suzanne Beard, John N Nkengasong
Early diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children remains a challenge in resource-limited settings, with approximately half of all HIV-exposed infants receiving virological testing for HIV by the recommended age of two months in 2015. In order to reduce morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children and to close the treatment gap for HIV-infected children, there is an urgent need to evaluate existing programmatic and laboratory practices for early infant diagnosis and introduce strategies to improve identification of HIV-exposed infants and ensure access to systematic, early HIV testing with early linkage to treatment for HIV-infected infants...
October 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Abel Kakuru, Paul Natureeba, Mary K Muhindo, Tamara D Clark, Diane V Havlir, Deborah Cohan, Grant Dorsey, Moses R Kamya, Theodore Ruel
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants suffer high morbidity and mortality in the first year of life compared to HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) infants, but accurate data on the contribution of malaria are limited. METHODS: The incidence of febrile illnesses and malaria were evaluated in a birth cohort of HEU infants. Infants were prescribed daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) prophylaxis from 6 weeks of age until exclusion of HIV-infection after cessation of breastfeeding...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Stanzi M le Roux, Jennifer Jao, Kirsty Brittain, Tamsin K Phillips, Seun Olatunbosun, Agnes Ronan, Allison Zerbe, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
OBJECTIVE: Tenofovir (TDF) affects bone health and is widely used in pregnancy but data are limited on the effects of TDF exposure in utero. We examined the association between duration of in utero TDF exposure and linear growth in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of pregnant women initiating TDF-containing regimens at primary care services in Cape Town, South Africa were enrolled and followed with their breastfeeding infants through 12 months postpartum...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Chi-Chi N Udeagu, Sharmila Shah, Magalieta M Toussaint, Leonard Pickett
The New York City Department of Health Disease Intervention Specialists (DIS) routinely contact newly HIV-diagnosed persons via telephone calls and in-person meetings to conduct partner services (PS) interviews in order to elicit the names and contact information of the HIV-exposed partners for notification and HIV-testing, and to assist clients with linkage to care. From October 2013 to December 2015, we offered PS interviews conducted via video-call alongside voice-call and in-person modes in a selected geographic area of NYC...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Kristen M Little, Allan W Taylor, Craig B Borkowf, Maria C B Mendoza, Margaret A Lampe, Paul J Weidle, Steven R Nesheim
OBJECTIVE: Using published, nationally representative estimates, we calculated the total number of perinatally HIV-exposed and -infected infants born during 1978-2010, the number of perinatal HIV cases prevented by interventions designed for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), and the number of infants exposed to antiretroviral drugs during the prenatal and intrapartum periods. DESIGN: We calculated the number of infants exposed to antiretroviral drugs since 1994, and the number of cases of mother-to-child HIV transmission prevented from 1994-2010 using published data...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jennifer Jao, Rohan Hazra, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Elaine J Abrams
INTRODUCTION: The tremendous success of antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a diminishing population of perinatally HIV-infected children on the one hand and a mounting number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children on the other. As the oldest of these HEU children are reaching adolescence, questions have emerged surrounding the implications of HEU status disclosure to these adolescents. This article outlines the arguments for and against disclosure of a child's HEU status. DISCUSSION: Disclosure of a child's HEU status, by definition, requires disclosure of maternal HIV status...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Bahaa Abu-Raya, Tobias R Kollmann, Arnaud Marchant, Duncan M MacGillivray
Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Vanessa M Oddo, Parul Christian, Joanne Katz, Li Liu, Naoko Kozuki, Robert E Black, Robert Ntozini, Jean Humphrey
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, one-third of all births are small for gestational age (SGA), and 4.4 million children are stunted; both conditions increase the risk of child mortality. SGA has also been shown to increase the risk of stunting. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the association between SGA and postneonatal mortality is mediated by stunting. METHODS: We used longitudinal data from children aged 6 wk to 24 mo (n = 12,155) enrolled in the ZVITAMBO (Zimbabwe Vitamin A for Mothers and Babies) trial...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
K J Alcock, Amina Abubakar, Charles R Newton, Penny Holding
BACKGROUND: HIV infection has been associated with impaired language development in prenatally exposed children. Although most of the burden of HIV occurs in sub-Saharan Africa, there have not been any comprehensive studies of HIV exposure on multiple aspects of language development using instruments appropriate for the population. METHODS: We compared language development in children exposed to HIV in utero to community controls (N = 262, 8-30 months) in rural Kenya, using locally adapted and validated communicative development inventories...
October 12, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Pranjali Dalvi, Himanshu Sharma, Mahendran Chinnappan, Miles Sanderson, Julie Allen, Ruoxi Zeng, Augustine Choi, Amy O'Brien-Ladner, Navneet K Dhillon
Intravenous drug use is one of the major risk factors for HIV-infection in HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. We previously demonstrated exaggerated pulmonary vascular remodeling with enhanced apoptosis followed by increased proliferation of pulmonary endothelial cells on simultaneous exposure to both opioids and HIV protein(s). Here we hypothesize that the exacerbation of autophagy may be involved in the switching of endothelial cells from an early apoptotic state to later hyper-proliferative state...
October 10, 2016: Autophagy
Qian Wang, Linhong Wang, Liwen Fang, Ailing Wang, Xi Jin, Fang Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Yaping Qiao, Sheena G Sullivan, Shannon Rutherford, Lei Zhang
This study investigates the improvement of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in China during 2004-2011. A clinic-based prospective study was conducted among HIV-positive pregnant women and their children in eight counties across China. Associated factors of mother-to-child transmission were analyzed using regression analysis. A total of 1,387 HIV+ pregnant women and 1,377 HIV-exposed infants were enrolled. The proportion of pregnant women who received HIV testing increased significantly from 45...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Andréia P Andrade, Suzy D B Pacheco, Fabricio Q Silva, Luiz M L Pinheiro, Jairo A A Castro, Carlos E M Amaral, Renata B Hermes, Benedikt Fischer, João R R Pinho, José Alexandre R Lemos, Aldemir B Oliveira-Filho
South America is considered to have a low prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, although areas with a relatively high prevalence have been identified in northern Brazil. Few epidemiological studies of populations at risk of HBV infection are available for this region. Given this, in the present study, we investigated the prevalence of HBV and the factors associated with infection among illicit drug users (DUs) in the Marajó Archipelago, northern Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, we collected samples and epidemiological information from DUs in 11 municipalities of the Marajó Archipelago...
October 7, 2016: Archives of Virology
Jianhui Tian, Cesar A López, Cynthia A Derdeyn, Morris S Jones, Abraham Pinter, Bette Korber, S Gnanakaran
Heavy glycosylation of the envelope (Env) surface subunit, gp120, is a key adaptation of HIV-1; however, the precise effects of glycosylation on the folding, conformation and dynamics of this protein are poorly understood. Here we explore the patterns of HIV-1 Env gp120 glycosylation, and particularly the enrichment in glycosylation sites proximal to the disulfide linkages at the base of the surface-exposed variable domains. To dissect the influence of glycans on the conformation these regions, we focused on an antigenic peptide fragment from a disulfide bridge-bounded region spanning the V1 and V2 hyper-variable domains of HIV-1 gp120...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Sophie Desmonde, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Valériane Leroy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants exposed to both HIV and multiple antiretroviral drugs in utero and during prolonged breastfeeding is increasing in low-income countries where HIV prevalence is the highest. We review recent evidence on the effects of perinatal/postnatal exposure to maternal HIV and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on health outcomes of HEU children (mitochondrial and metabolic toxicity, adverse pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, growth, infectious morbidity, and mortality)...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Catherine Belin, Olivier Bouchaud
Combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) has turned HIV-infection to a treatable chronic disease during which many patients survive to middle and older age. However, they prematurely develop non-AIDS comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Microcirculatory changes and endothelial dysfunction occur early both in HIV-infected and in aging patients, in whom they usually precede cardiovascular and neurocognitive impairments. Also, mild cognitive involvement has been reported in women during the menopausal transition...
October 5, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Yuqin Zhao, Daniel T Wood, Hristo V Kojouharov, Yang Kuang, Dobromir T Dimitrov
Mechanistic mathematical models are increasingly used to evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions for HIV prevention and to inform public health decisions. By focusing exclusively on the impact of the interventions, the importance of the demographic processes in these studies is often underestimated. In this paper, we use simple deterministic models to assess the effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis in reducing the HIV transmission and to explore the influence of the recruitment mechanisms on the epidemic and effectiveness projections...
October 4, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Krishna Vaddiparti, Catherine W Striley, Linda B Cottler
The purpose of this study is to assess the association between gambling severity and exposure to guns among substance-using women recruited in the community. Data for these analyses come from the baseline phase of two community-based HIV prevention interventions conducted among alcohol and drug-using women in St. Louis, MO. Gun exposure was assessed using the Violence Exposure Questionnaire (VEQ), and DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) symptoms and other psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule; The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Substance Abuse Module assessed DSM-IV substance dependence, including cocaine dependence and alcohol dependence...
September 1, 2016: Violence Gend
Hok Hei Tam, Mariane B Melo, Myungsun Kang, Jeisa M Pelet, Vera M Ruda, Maria H Foley, Joyce K Hu, Sudha Kumari, Jordan Crampton, Alexis D Baldeon, Rogier W Sanders, John P Moore, Shane Crotty, Robert Langer, Daniel G Anderson, Arup K Chakraborty, Darrell J Irvine
Natural infections expose the immune system to escalating antigen and inflammation over days to weeks, whereas nonlive vaccines are single bolus events. We explored whether the immune system responds optimally to antigen kinetics most similar to replicating infections, rather than a bolus dose. Using HIV antigens, we found that administering a given total dose of antigen and adjuvant over 1-2 wk through repeated injections or osmotic pumps enhanced humoral responses, with exponentially increasing (exp-inc) dosing profiles eliciting >10-fold increases in antibody production relative to bolus vaccination post prime...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ameena E Goga, Thu-Ha Dinh, Debra J Jackson, Carl J Lombard, Adrian Puren, Gayle Sherman, Vundli Ramokolo, Selamawit Woldesenbet, Tanya Doherty, Nobuntu Noveve, Vuyolwethu Magasana, Yagespari Singh, Trisha Ramraj, Sanjana Bhardwaj, Yogan Pillay
BACKGROUND: Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV (EMTCT), defined as ≤50 infant HIV infections per 100 000 live births, is a global priority. Since 2011 policies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) shifted from maternal antiretroviral (ARV) treatment or prophylaxis contingent on CD4 cell count to lifelong maternal ARV treatment (cART). We sought to measure progress with early (4-8 weeks postpartum) MTCT prevention and elimination, 2011-2013, at national and sub-national levels in South Africa, a high antenatal HIV prevalence setting ( ≈ 29%), where early MTCT was 3...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
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