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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437854/is-there-sufficient-evidence-for-a-causal-association-between-antiretroviral-therapy-and-diabetes-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Chidozie U Nduka, Saverio Stranges, Peter K Kimani, Ahmed M Sarki, Olalekan A Uthman
BACKGROUND: The association of antiretroviral therapy (ART) with diabetes is inconsistent and varies widely across primary epidemiological studies. A comprehensive and more precise estimate of this association is fundamental to establishing a plausible causal link between ART and diabetes. METHODS: We identified epidemiological studies that compared mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations and proportions of diabetes and metabolic syndrome between HIV-infected patients naïve and exposed to ART...
April 24, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426534/age-disparate-relationships-and-hiv-incidence-in-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-evidence-from-a-general-population-cohort-in-zimbabwe
#2
Robin Schaefer, Simon Gregson, Jeffrey W Eaton, Owen Mugurungi, Rebecca Rhead, Albert Takaruza, Rufurwokuda Maswera, Constance Nyamukapa
OBJECTIVE: Age-disparate sexual relationships with older men may drive high rates of HIV acquisition in young women in sub-Saharan Africa but evidence is limited. We investigate the association between age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. DESIGN: A general-population open-cohort study (six surveys) (1998-2013). METHODS: 3746 young women aged 15-24 years participated in consecutive surveys and were HIV-negative at the beginning of inter-survey periods...
April 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424971/high-frequency-of-illegal-drug-use-influences-condom-use-among-female-transgender-sex-workers-in-argentina-impact-on-hiv-and-syphilis-infections
#3
María M Avila, María S Dos Ramos Farías, Lucía Fazzi, Marcela Romero, Elena Reynaga, Rubén Marone, María A Pando
The high prevalence of HIV and syphilis found among female transgender sex workers (FTSWs) in Argentina calls for the study of factors leading to negative health consequences. Given the particular characteristics observed in this population (high marginalization, school dropout, and low adherence to healthcare services), we explored the association of several socio-demographic characteristics with syphilis and HIV infections, and the determinants of condom use. This study revealed that FTSWs from Argentina were exposed to several risk factors decreasing thus their ability to negotiate condom use and leading to increased risk for transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs)...
April 19, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424561/response-by-gender-of-hiv-1-infected-subjects-treated-with-abacavir-lamivudine-plus-atazanavir-with-or-without-ritonavir-for-144-weeks
#4
Kathleen E Squires, Benjamin Young, Lizette Santiago, Robin H Dretler, Sharon L Walmsley, Henry H Zhao, Gary E Pakes, Lisa L Ross, Mark S Shaefer
PURPOSE: The 144-week results of the open-label, multicenter Atazanavir/Ritonavir Induction with Epzicom Study (ARIES) were stratified by gender to compare treatment responses. METHODS: A total of 369 HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve subjects receiving once-daily abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) whose HIV-1 RNA was <50 copies/mL by week 30 were randomized 1:1 at week 36 to maintain or discontinue ritonavir for 108 subsequent weeks. Between- and within-treatment gender-related efficacy and safety differences were analyzed...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422809/associations-between-dietary-intake-prior-to-6-months-of-age-and-rapid-weight-gain-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#5
Daniela Neri, Fernanda C Oliveira, Aline M Carvalho, Gabriel A Somarriba, Gwendolyn B Scott, Tracie L Miller
INTRODUCTION: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants are potentially at risk for cardiovascular disease due to in utero exposures. Feeding practices of the infant could compound this risk. However, few studies have evaluated dietary intake of HEU infants. We determined dietary factors associated with rapid weight gain (RWG) among HEU infants from birth to 6 months followed at the University of Miami HIV Screening Program. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, logistic regression was used to determine dietary factors associated with RWG defined as a greater than 0...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422788/stabilized-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-trimers-for-vaccine-use
#6
Max Medina-Ramírez, Rogier W Sanders, Quentin J Sattentau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the latest developments in the field of HIV-1 antibody-based soluble envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer design for vaccine use. RECENT FINDINGS: The development of soluble native-like HIV-1 Env trimer immunogens has moved the field of antibody-based vaccine design forward dramatically over the past few years with refinement of various stabilizing approaches. However, despite this progress, significant challenges remain...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420766/project-accrue-exploring-options-to-increase-awareness-of-aids-malignancy-consortium-clinical-trials-in-north-carolina
#7
Anissa I Vines, Cathy L Melvin, Jaimie C Hunter, Veronica A Carlisle
BACKGROUND Longer lifespans conferred by antiretroviral therapy result in more time exposed to cancer risk for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Given limited diversity in AIDS Malignancy Consortium (AMC) clinical trials, there is need for new approaches to educate PLWHA in order to improve awareness and participation in AMC trials.METHODS With input from a community advisory board, Project ACCRUE (AMC Clinical Trials at Carolina Ramp Up Enrollment) conducted a key informant interview with service providers; online organizational surveys of AMC trial awareness and resource needs; and "lunch and learn" educational sessions, including pre- and post-intervention knowledge assessments...
March 2017: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419277/prevention-of-tb-using-rifampicin-plus-isoniazid-reduces-nevirapine-concentrations-in-hiv-exposed-infants
#8
Helen McIlleron, Paolo Denti, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Jennifer D Hoffmann, Saba Shembe, Regina Msandiwa, Lubbe Wiesner, Sithembiso Velaphi, Sanjay G Lala, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson, Kelly E Dooley
Background: Newborns of HIV-infected mothers are given daily doses of nevirapine to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Infants born to mothers with TB should also receive TB preventive therapy. TB preventive regimens include isoniazid for 6 months or rifampicin plus isoniazid for 3 months (RH preventive therapy). The effect of concomitant RH preventive therapy on nevirapine concentrations in infants is unknown. Patients and methods: Tshepiso was a prospective case-control cohort study of pregnant HIV-infected women with and without TB whose newborn infants received standard doses of nevirapine for HIV prophylaxis...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419200/switching-to-efavirenz-versus-remaining-on-ritonavir-boosted-lopinavir-in-hiv-infected-children-exposed-to-nevirapine-long-term-outcomes-of-a-randomized-trial
#9
Pamela M Murnane, Renate Strehlau, Stephanie Shiau, Faeezah Patel, Ndileke Mbete, Gillian Hunt, Elaine J Abrams, Ashraf Coovadia, Louise Kuhn
Background: We previously demonstrated the non-inferiority of switching to efavirenz (EFV) versus remaining on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) for virologic control in HIV-infected children exposed to nevirapine (NVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Here we assess outcomes up to four years post-randomization. Methods: From 2010-2013, 298 NVP-exposed HIV-infected children ≥3 years of age were randomized to switch to EFV or remain on LPV/r in Johannesburg, South Africa (Clinicaltrials...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418989/impact-of-antiretroviral-treatment-containing-tenofovir-difumarate-on-the-telomere-length-of-aviremic-hiv-infected-patients
#10
Rocio Montejano, Natalia Stella-Ascariz, Susana Monge, José I Bernardino, Ignacio Pérez-Valero, MaLuisa Montes, Eulalia Valencia, Luz Martín-Carbonero, Victoria Moreno, Juan González-García, Francisco Arnalich, Jesús Mingorance, Laura Pintado Berniches, Rosario Perona, José R Arribas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vivo relevance of the inhibitory effect of tenofovir upon telomerase activity observed in vitro. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of HIV-infected patients with suppressed virological replication (HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL for more than one year) Methods: Telomere length in whole blood was measured by quantitative real time PCR. We performed a multivariate analysis to elucidate variables associated with telomere length and also evaluated the association between telomere length and use of tenofovir difumarate (TDF) adjusted by significant confounders RESULTS:: 200 patients included, 72% male, median age 49 (IQR 45-54...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418986/performance-of-virological-testing-for-early-infant-diagnosis-a-systematic-review
#11
Divya Mallampati, Nathan Ford, Alisse Hanaford, Nandita Sugandhi, Martina Penazzato
BACKGROUND: Improved access to both maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant prophylaxis may have an impact on the performance of virological assays for diagnosis of HIV infection in infants. This systematic review was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of virological testing at birth as well as the performance of virological testing on dried-blood spots at 6-weeks amongst HIV- and ARV-exposed infants. METHODS: A systematic review was performed for studies published between January 1, 2009 and January 30, 2015...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413739/genetic-modulation-therapy-through-stem-cell-transplantation-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#12
REVIEW
Varshil Mehta, Divya Chandramohan, Shivika Agarwal
Highly active anti-retroviral treatment has changed the dimensions of the outcomes for patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV infection is still an ailment which is spreading throughout the world extensively. Given the confinements of the present restorative methodologies and the non-availability of any strategic vaccination against HIV, there is a squeezing need to build a therapeutic treatment. Viral tropism for HIV includes CD4+ cells, macrophages, and microglial cells, and it is through binding with co-receptors C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)...
March 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413399/hsv-1-hsv-2-infection-related-cancers-in-bantu-populations-driving-hiv-1-prevalence-in-africa-tracking-the-origin-of-aids-at-the-onset-of-the-20th-century
#13
Jacqueline Le Goaster, Patrice Bouree, Franck N El Sissy, Florence Phuong Bui, Johanna Pokossy Epee, Paul Rollin, Frédéric Tangy, Anne-Lise Haenni
INTRODUCTION: At the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in Bantu populations of Sub-Saharan Africa were discovered. They were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. In 1983, in San Francisco, Calif., USA, cancer epidemics were related to infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) known as AIDS disease. Yet since 1996, it is known that HIV-1 strains are not the only ones involved. In Sub-Saharan Africa, recurrent orobuccal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and genital recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) appeared many times prior to infection by HIV-1...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410829/metabolic-syndrome-among-hiv-infected-patients-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study-in-northwestern-nigeria
#14
Fakhraddeen Yahya Muhammad, Ibrahim Danjummai Gezawa, Andrew Uloko, Ahmad Maifada Yakasai, Abdulrazaq Garba Habib, Garba Iliyasu
INTRODUCTION: The increasing availability of antiretroviral drugs has made HIV-positive patients to live longer, and conditions that are associated with longevity such as metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular related conditions have become relevant in them. This is less well studied among African populations. Therefore the study aimed at estimating and comparing the prevalence of and associated risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (MS) among African HIV infected patients. METHOD: In this comparative cross-sectional study, we analyzed the data of 300 participants matched for age and gender who satisfied the inclusion criteria with half of the subjects on HAART, while the other half was HAART naïve...
April 5, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410276/hiv-transmission-to-premature-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#15
Candyce Levin, David Le Roux, Michael Harrison, Lloyd Tooke
There is sparse literature about HIV transmission in preterm infants. 82 HIV exposed preterm infants received birth PCRs. Five (6.1%) were HIV positive with all 5 mothers receiving inadequate antiretrovirals. Of the PCR negative infants, 9 died and 87% of the survivors received further PCR testing which remained negative. With correct care, intrapartum transmission of HIV can virtually be eliminated.
April 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407452/uptake-and-performance-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-and-early-infant-diagnosis-in-pregnant-hiv-infected-women-and-their-exposed-infants-at-seven-health-centres-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#16
Marshet Girma, Rahel Wendaferash, Hailu Shibru, Yemane Berhane, Michael Hoelscher, Arne Kroidl
OBJECTIVE: To assess the uptake of WHO-recommended PMTCT procedures in Ethiopia's health services. METHODS: Prospective observational study of HIV-positive pregnant mothers and their newborns attending PMTCT services at seven health centres in Addis Ababa. Women were recruited during antenatal care and followed-up with their newborns at delivery, day 6 and week 6 postpartum. Retention to PMCTC procedures, self-reported ART adherence, and HIV infant outcome were assessed...
April 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406952/individual-and-contextual-factors-associated-with-appropriate-healthcare-seeking-behavior-among-febrile-children-in-tanzania
#17
Juma Adinan, Damian J Damian, Neema R Mosha, Innocent B Mboya, Redempta Mamseri, Sia E Msuya
INTRODUCTION: Fever in malaria endemic areas, has been shown to strongly predict malaria infection and is a key symptom influencing malaria treatment. WHO recommended confirmation testing for Plasmodium spp. before initiation of antimalarials due to increased evidence of the decrease of morbidity and mortality from malaria, decreased malaria associated fever, and increased evidence of high prevalence of non-malaria fever. To immediately diagnose and promptly offer appropriate management, caretakers of children with fever should seek care where these services can be offered; in health facilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406596/improving-early-identification-of-hiv-infected-neonates-with-birth-pcr-testing-in-a-large-urban-hospital-in-johannesburg-south-africa-successes-and-challenges
#18
Karl-Günter Technau, Louise Kuhn, Ashraf Coovadia, Sergio Carmona, Gayle Sherman
INTRODUCTION: Timely diagnosis is necessary to avert early death in HIV-infected neonates. Birth PCR testing may improve early identification and facilitate access to care. We implemented a birth HIV diagnosis programme in Johannesburg, South Africa and present successes and challenges of the first two and a half years of operation. METHODS: Between June 2014 and December 2016, we sought to identify all HIV-exposed births and offer newborn HIV PCR testing before discharge after delivery...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405623/bcg-vaccination-induces-hiv-target-cell-activation-in-hiv-exposed-infants-in-a-randomized-trial
#19
Melanie A Gasper, Anneke C Hesseling, Isaac Mohar, Landon Myer, Tali Azenkot, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Willem Hanekom, Mark F Cotton, I Nicholas Crispe, Donald L Sodora, Heather B Jaspan
BACKGROUND. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered at birth to protect infants against tuberculosis throughout Africa, where most perinatal HIV-1 transmission occurs. We examined whether BCG vaccination alters the levels of activated HIV target T cells in HIV-exposed South African infants. METHODS. HIV-exposed infants were randomized to receive routine (at birth) or delayed (at 8 weeks) BCG vaccination. Activated and CCR5-expressing peripheral blood CD4(+) T cell, monocyte, and NK cell frequencies were evaluated by flow cytometry and immune gene expression via PCR using Biomark (Fluidigm)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399000/overcoming-health-system-challenges-for-women-and-children-living-with-hiv-through-the-global-plan
#20
Surbhi Modi, Tegan Callahan, Jessica Rodrigues, Mwikemo D Kajoka, Helen M Dale, Judite O Langa, Marilena Urso, Matsepeli I Nchephe, Helene Bongdene, Sostena Romano, Laura N Broyles
To meet the ambitious targets set by the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan), the initial 22 priority countries quickly developed innovative approaches for overcoming long-standing health systems challenges and providing HIV testing and treatment to pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants. The Global Plan spurred programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission to integrate HIV-related care and treatment into broader maternal, newborn, and child health services; expand the effectiveness of the health workforce through task sharing; extend health services into communities; strengthen supply chain and commodity management systems; reduce diagnostic and laboratory hurdles; and strengthen strategic supervision and mentorship...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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