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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641285/role-of-glycyrrhizin-in-the-reduction-of-inflammation-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#1
Vikram Thakur, Syeda Nargis, Mayra Gonzalez, Swetak Pradhan, Daniel Terreros, Munmun Chattopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the most debilitating complications of type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence suggests chronic inflammation to be one of the causal factors of DKD. The mechanisms entailed are not completely elucidated except that a variety of cytokines play a major role in this process. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a pro-inflammatory toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-binding cytokine that is involved in inflammation-associated gene expression. This investigation was designed to assess the involvement of HMGB1, TLR-4, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the development of DKD and to evaluate that whether blocking HMGB1 by its natural inhibitor Glycyrrhizin (GLC) can reduce the progression of the disease...
June 23, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637236/the-ribosome-assembly-gene-network-is-controlled-by-the-feedback-regulation-of-transcription-elongation
#2
Fernando Gómez-Herreros, Thanasis Margaritis, Olga Rodríguez-Galán, Vicent Pelechano, Victoria Begley, Gonzalo Millán-Zambrano, Macarena Morillo-Huesca, Mari Cruz Muñoz-Centeno, José E Pérez-Ortín, Jesús de la Cruz, Frank C P Holstege, Sebastián Chávez
Ribosome assembly requires the concerted expression of hundreds of genes, which are transcribed by all three nuclear RNA polymerases. Transcription elongation involves dynamic interactions between RNA polymerases and chromatin. We performed a synthetic lethal screening in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a conditional allele of SPT6, which encodes one of the factors that facilitates this process. Some of these synthetic mutants corresponded to factors that facilitate pre-rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis...
June 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636317/downsizing-proto-oncogene-cfos-to-short-helix-constrained-peptides-that-bind-jun
#3
Daniel Baxter, Samuel R Perry, Timothy A Hill, W Mei Kok, Nathan R Zaccai, R Leo Brady, David P Fairlie, Jody M Mason
The oncogenic transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a DNA-binding protein that assembles through dimerization of Fos and Jun protein subunits, their leucine-rich helical sequences entwining into a coiled-coil structure. This study reports on downsizing the proto-oncogene cFos protein (380 residues) to shorter peptides (37-25 residues) modified with helix-inducing constraints to enhance binding to Jun. A crystal structure is reported for a 37-residue Fos-derived peptide (FosW) bound to Jun. This guided iterative downsizing of FosW to shorter peptide sequences that were constrained into stable water-soluble α-helices by connecting amino acid side chains to form cyclic pentapeptide components...
June 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636088/multicompartment-drug-release-system-for-dynamic-modulation-of-tissue-responses
#4
Aaron H Morris, Rajwant S Mahal, Jillian Udell, Michelle Wu, Themis R Kyriakides
Pharmacological modulation of responses to injury is complicated by the need to deliver multiple drugs with spatiotemporal resolution. Here, a novel controlled delivery system containing three separate compartments with each releasing its contents over different timescales is fabricated. Core-shell electrospun fibers create two of the compartments in the system, while electrosprayed spheres create the third. Utility is demonstrated by targeting the foreign body response to implants because it is a dynamic process resulting in implant failure...
June 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635271/emerging-chemistry-strategies-for-engineering-native-chromatin
#5
Yael David, Tom W Muir
Chromosomes present one of most challenging of all substrates for biochemical study. This is because genomic DNA is physically associated with an astonishing collection of nuclear factors, which serve to both store the nucleic acid in a stable form, but also grant access to the information it encodes when needed. Understanding this complex molecular choreography is central to the field of epigenetics. One of the great challenges in this area is to move beyond correlative type information, which is now in abundant supply, to the point where we can truly connect the dots at the molecular level...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635225/-modification-factors-associated-with-maternally-inherited-non-syndromic-hearing-loss
#6
W J Hong, B J Zheng, J F Qian, H Wu, H Jin, Y T Zhu
Mutations in the mitochondrial DNA have been certified to be one of the most important causes of maternally inherited sensorineural hearing loss. Among these, mitochondrial 12S rRNA1555A>G, 1494C>T and other mutations are associated with both nonsyndromic and drug induced hearing loss caused by aminoglycosides. Individuals carrying 1555A>G or 1494C>T mutation have a variety of clinical manifestations, which implies that the 1555A>G or 1494C>T mutation is a chief factor underlying the development of deafness but insufficient to produce the clinical phenotype...
June 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634389/novel-indolyl-chalcone-derivatives-inhibit-a549-lung-cancer-cell-growth-through-activating-nrf-2-ho-1-and-inducing-apoptosis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Xuan Zhao, WenLiang Dong, YuanDi Gao, Dong-Shoo Shin, Qing Ye, Le Su, Fan Jiang, BaoXiang Zhao, JunYing Miao
Increasing evidence indicates that Nrf-2, named the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor, may perform anticancer function. In this study, a series of novel substituted phenyl- (3-methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-prop-2-en-1-one (indolyl-chalcone) derivatives were synthesized and their effects on Nrf-2 activity were observed. We found that compounds 3a-3d and 6c elevated Nrf-2 activity. Then we evaluated their anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo by utilizing human lung cancer cell line A549. The in vitro results showed that among the compounds, 3d performed effectively anti-growth activity by inducing A549 lung cancer cell apoptosis and activating Nrf-2/HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) pathway...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633435/mcm3ap-in-recessive-charcot-marie-tooth-neuropathy-and-mild-intellectual-disability
#8
Emil Ylikallio, Rosa Woldegebriel, Manuela Tumiati, Pirjo Isohanni, Monique M Ryan, Zornitza Stark, Maie Walsh, Sarah L Sawyer, Katrina M Bell, Alicia Oshlack, Paul J Lockhart, Mariia Shcherbii, Alejandro Estrada-Cuzcano, Derek Atkinson, Taila Hartley, Martine Tetreault, Inge Cuppen, W Ludo van der Pol, Ayse Candayan, Esra Battaloglu, Yesim Parman, Koen L I van Gassen, Marie-José H van den Boogaard, Kym M Boycott, Liisa Kauppi, Albena Jordanova, Tuula Lönnqvist, Henna Tyynismaa
Defects in mRNA export from the nucleus have been linked to various neurodegenerative disorders. We report mutations in the gene MCM3AP, encoding the germinal center associated nuclear protein (GANP), in nine affected individuals from five unrelated families. The variants were associated with severe childhood onset primarily axonal (four families) or demyelinating (one family) Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. Mild to moderate intellectual disability was present in seven of nine affected individuals. The affected individuals were either compound heterozygous or homozygous for different MCM3AP variants, which were predicted to cause depletion of GANP or affect conserved amino acids with likely importance for its function...
June 19, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631929/-13-c-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-using-a-trimeric-gd-3-complex-as-an-additive
#9
Peter Niedbalski, Christopher Parish, Qing Wang, Andhika Kiswandhi, Zahra Hayati, Likai Song, Lloyd Laporca Lumata
Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is one of the most successful techniques that resolves the insensitivity problem in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) by amplifying the signal by several thousand-fold. One way to further improve the DNP signal is the inclusion of trace amounts of lanthanides in DNP samples doped with trityl OX063 free radical as the polarizing agent. In practice, stable monomeric gadolinium complexes such as Gd-DOTA or Gd-HP-DO3A are used as beneficial additives in DNP samples, further boosting the DNP-enhanced solid-state 13C polarization by a factor of 2 or 3...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631557/bispecific-antibody-suppresses-osteosarcoma-aggressiveness-through-regulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#10
Gui-Hua Yu, Ai-Min Li, Xiang Li, Zhong Yang, Hao Peng
Osteosarcoma is one of the most lethal malignancies, and the prognosis remains dismal due to the paucity of effective therapeutic targets. Bmi-1 and TRIM-14 are associated with the initiation and progression of osteosarcoma, which could promote angiogenesis, invasion, and apoptotic resistance in bone cancer tissue. In this study, we constructed a bispecific antibody of BsAbBmi/TRIM targeting Bmi-1 and TRIM-14 and investigated the therapeutic value in bone carcinoma cells and xenograft mice. Our results showed that Bmi-1 and TRIM-14 expression levels were markedly upregulated correlated with nuclear factor-κB nuclear translocation in bone cancer cells and clinical carcinoma tissues...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631556/kruppel-like-factor-4-inhibits-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-growth-and-aggressiveness-by-stimulating-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-meidated-erk-jnk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#11
Renzhi Yu, Lei Han, Xin Ni, Minghuan Wang, Ping Xue, Li Zhang, Mei Yuan
Non-small cell lung cancer is one of the most common epithelial tumors that cause the most common cancer-related mortality due to invasive ability. Research has found that Kruppel-like factor 4, a zinc-finger transcription factor, plays a critical role in the tumor evolution and progression. However, the molecular signal pathways mediated by Kruppel-like factor 4 in the progression of non-small cell lung cancer cells have not been well understood yet. In this study, we investigated the possible role and potential mechanism of Kruppel-like factor 4 in growth and aggressiveness of non-small cell lung cancer cells...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628608/tcp4-dependent-induction-of-constans-transcription-requires-gigantea-in-photoperiodic-flowering-in-arabidopsis
#12
Akane Kubota, Shogo Ito, Jae Sung Shim, Richard S Johnson, Yong Hun Song, Ghislain Breton, Greg S Goralogia, Michael S Kwon, Dianne Laboy Cintrón, Tomotsugu Koyama, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Jose L Pruneda-Paz, Steve A Kay, Michael J MacCoss, Takato Imaizumi
Photoperiod is one of the most reliable environmental cues for plants to regulate flowering timing. In Arabidopsis thaliana, CONSTANS (CO) transcription factor plays a central role in regulating photoperiodic flowering. In contrast to posttranslational regulation of CO protein, still little was known about CO transcriptional regulation. Here we show that the CINCINNATA (CIN) clade of class II TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1/ CYCLOIDEA/ PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN FACTOR (TCP) proteins act as CO activators. Our yeast one-hybrid analysis revealed that class II CIN-TCPs, including TCP4, bind to the CO promoter...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627587/effects-of-salinomycin-and-17%C3%A2-aag-on-proliferation-of-human-gastric-cancer-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#13
Zuwen Zhang, Jumei Zhao, Zhikuan Mi, Qiuxia Pang, Aihong Wang, Meini Chen, Xiaobin Liu, Xiaoli Wei, Tao Liu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of 17‑AAG combined with salinomycin treatment on proliferation and apoptosis of the SGC‑7901 gastric cancer cell line. An MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation of SGC‑7901 cells. Morphological alterations of cells were observed under inverted phase‑contrast and fluorescence microscopes. Cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry analysis. The protein expression of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB p65 and Fas‑ligand (L) were evaluated by immunocytochemistry...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627394/novel-non-canonical-genetic-rearrangements-termed-complex-structural-variations-in-hbv-genome
#14
Kei Fujiwara, Kayoko Matsunami, Etsuko Iio, Shunsuke Nojiri, Takashi Joh
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important worldwide public health issue. Further knowledge on the characteristics of HBV will facilitate its eradication. Genome structural variations (SVs) are defined by its canonical form such as duplication, deletion, and insertion. However, recent studies have reported complex SVs that cannot be explained by those canonical SVs. A HBV strain (UK2) with an unusual genome structure rearrangement that was completely different from known mutations or rearrangements was previously reported...
June 13, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626166/efficacy-of-denosumab-for-osteoporosis-in-three-female-patients-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#15
Masashi Uehara, Yukio Nakamura, Jun Takahashi, Mikio Kamimura, Shota Ikegami, Takako Suzuki, Shigeharu Uchiyama, Tomomi Yamaguchi, Tomoki Kosho, Hiroyuki Kato
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited bone disorder that causes fractures due to impaired production of collagen type I. In recent years, denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), has become widely used as an anti-osteoclastic agent for osteoporosis. This study investigated osteoporotic cases of OI to examine effects of denosumab on bone fragility. This was a retrospective, consecutive case series that included 3 female patients aged 42, 40, and 14 years, respectively...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623717/baicalein-exerts-anti-neuroinflammatory-effects-to-protect-against-rotenone-induced-brain-injury-in-rats
#16
Xue Zhang, Yulin Yang, Lida Du, Wen Zhang, Guanhua Du
Baicalein, a major bioactive flavone constituent isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to be neuroprotective in several Parkinson's disease (PD) animal models. Since neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of PD, potential explanation for the neuroprotective action of anti-PD compounds involves among others reduced inflammation. Our study investigated that one of the mechanisms of protection afforded by baicalein in rotenone-induced parkinsonian rats was associated with anti-inflammatory action and explored its underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro...
June 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622932/an-evolutionary-medicine-perspective-on-neandertal-extinction
#17
Alexis P Sullivan, Marc de Manuel, Tomas Marques-Bonet, George H Perry
The Eurasian sympatry of Neandertals and anatomically modern humans - beginning at least 45,000 years ago and possibly lasting for more than 5000 years - has sparked immense anthropological interest into the factors that potentially contributed to Neandertal extinction. Among many different hypotheses, the "differential pathogen resistance" extinction model posits that Neandertals were disproportionately affected by exposure to novel infectious diseases that were transmitted during the period of spatiotemporal sympatry with modern humans...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621210/effects-of-lucilia-sericata-on-wound-healing-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-and-analysis-of-its-secretome-at-the-proteome-level
#18
F K Tombulturk, M Kasap, M Tuncdemir, E Polat, S Sirekbasan, A Kanli, G Kanigur-Sultuybek
The use of Lucilia sericata larvae on the healing of wounds in diabetics has been reported. However, the role of the excretion/secretion (ES) products of the larvae in treatment of diabetic wounds remains unknown. This study investigated whether application of the ES products of L. sericata on the wound surface could improve the impaired wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Additional analysis was performed to understand proteome content of L. sericata secretome to understand ES contribution at the molecular level...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620699/evolution-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-ferredoxins-and-their-interactions-with-fefe-hydrogenases
#19
REVIEW
Anne Sawyer, Martin Winkler
Ferredoxins are soluble iron sulphur proteins which function as electron donors in a number of metabolic pathways in a broad range of organisms. In photosynthetic organisms, PETF, or ferredoxin 1 (FDX1), is the most studied ferredoxin due to its essential role in photosynthesis, where it transfers electrons from photosystem I to ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase. However, PETF can also transfer electrons to a large number of other proteins. One important PETF electron acceptor found in green microalgae is the biologically and biotechnologically important [FeFe]-hydrogenase HYDA, which catalyses the production of molecular hydrogen (H2) from protons and electrons...
June 15, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619001/icariin-attenuates-interleukin-1%C3%AE-induced-inflammatory-response-in-human-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#20
Wen-Bin Hua, Yu-Kun Zhang, Xing-Huo Wu, Liang Kang, Ji Tu, Kang-Cheng Zhao, Shuai Li, Kun Wang, Yu Song, Rong-Jin Luo, Zeng-Wu Shao, Cao Yang
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a common problem, mainly caused by intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). An important pathophysiological characteristic of IDD is the loss of homeostatic balance of the extracellular matrix metabolism. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is one of the inflammatory mediators stimulating the degradation of extracellular matrix in the nucleus pulposus (NP) and contributing to IDD pathogenesis. Icariin, which is isolated from Epimedium brevicornum, acts as an anti-inflammatory drug...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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