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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908544/inhibition-of-cartilage-degradation-and-suppression-of-pge2-and-mmps-expression-by-pomegranate-fruit-extract-in-a-model-of-posttraumatic-osteoarthritis
#1
Nahid Akhtar, Nazir M Khan, Omer S Ashruf, Tariq M Haqqi
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage degradation in the affected joints. Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibits cartilage degradation in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral consumption of PFE inhibits disease progression in rabbits with surgically induced OA. METHODS: OA was surgically induced in the tibiofemoral joints of adult New Zealand White rabbits. In one group, animals were fed PFE in water for 8 wk postsurgery...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908129/self-consistent-molecular-dynamics-calculation-of-diffusion-in-higher-n-alkanes
#2
Nikolay D Kondratyuk, Genri E Norman, Vladimir V Stegailov
Diffusion is one of the key subjects of molecular modeling and simulation studies. However, there is an unresolved lack of consistency between Einstein-Smoluchowski (E-S) and Green-Kubo (G-K) methods for diffusion coefficient calculations in systems of complex molecules. In this paper, we analyze this problem for the case of liquid n-triacontane. The non-conventional long-time tails of the velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) are found for this system. Temperature dependence of the VACF tail decay exponent is defined...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906993/ancient-mitochondrial-capture-as-factor-promoting-mitonuclear-discordance-in-freshwater-fishes-a-case-study-in-the-genus-squalius-actinopterygii-cyprinidae-in-greece
#3
Silvia Perea, Jasna Vukić, Radek Šanda, Ignacio Doadrio
Hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting are common confounding factors in phylogeny and speciation resulting in mitonuclear disparity. Mitochondrial introgression, a particular case of hybridization, may, in extreme cases, lead to replacement of the mitochondrial genome of one species with that of another (mitochondrial capture). We investigated mitochondrial introgression involving two species of the cyprinid genus Squalius in the western Peloponnese region of Greece using molecular and morphological data...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906075/nuclear-bodies-reorganize-during-myogenesis-in-vitro-and-are-differentially-disrupted-by-expression-of-fshd-associated-dux4
#4
Sachiko Homma, Mary Lou Beermann, Bryant Yu, Frederick M Boyce, Jeffrey Boone Miller
BACKGROUND: Nuclear bodies, such as nucleoli, PML bodies, and SC35 speckles, are dynamic sub-nuclear structures that regulate multiple genetic and epigenetic processes. Additional regulation is provided by RNA/DNA handling proteins, notably TDP-43 and FUS, which have been linked to ALS pathology. Previous work showed that mouse cell line myotubes have fewer but larger nucleoli than myoblasts, and we had found that nuclear aggregation of TDP-43 in human myotubes was induced by expression of DUX4-FL, a transcription factor that is aberrantly expressed and causes pathology in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD)...
December 1, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904663/t-type-calcium-channel-blocker-attenuates-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-induced-renal-interstitial-fibrosis-by-activating-the-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway
#5
Sungjin Chung, Soojeong Kim, Minyoung Kim, Eun Sil Koh, Hye Eun Yoon, Ho-Shik Kim, Cheol Whee Park, Yoon Sik Chang, Seok Joon Shin
Besides its effect on high blood pressure, T-type calcium channel blocker is renoprotective in experimental models of renal fibrosis. However, the exact mechanism of T-type calcium channel blocker on tubulointerstitial fibrosis is unclear. We investigated whether the renoprotective effect of T-type calcium channel blocker is associated with modulation of the signaling of oxidative stress-induced renal fibrosis. Treatment with a non-hypotensive dose of efonidipine, a T-type calcium channel blocker, or nifedipine, an L-type channel blocker, was initiated one day before unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in C57BL6/J mice, and was continued until 3 and 7 days after UUO...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903425/activation-of-akt-and-jnk-nrf2-nqo1-pathway-contributes-to-the-protective-effect-of-coptisine-against-aaph-induced-oxidative-stress
#6
Yin-Ran Hu, Hang Ma, Zong-Yao Zou, Kai He, Yu-Bo Xiao, Yue Wang, Min Feng, Xiao-Li Ye, Xue-Gang Li
Coptisine (COP) is one of the main active constituents of Coptidis Rhizoma. Previous studies have clarified that COP possesses antioxidant activity, but its defensive effects against pathological characteristics accompanied by oxidative damage in animal models and antioxidant mechanism are still unclear. Therefore, our purpose was to confirm the antioxidant activity of COP and explore its mechanism of action. We first detected the effects of COP on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), heart beating rate, lipid peroxidation and cell death in zebrafish model with AAPH-induced oxidative stress...
November 27, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902969/rac1-gtp-ase-signals-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-mediated-integrin-directed-metastasis-associated-tumor-cell-phenotypes-in-triple-negative-breast-cancers
#7
Pradip De, Jennifer H Carlson, Tyler Jepperson, Scooter Willis, Brian Leyland-Jones, Nandini Dey
The acquisition of integrin-directed metastasis-associated (ID-MA) phenotypes by Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells is caused by an upregulation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway (WP). We reported that WP is one of the salient genetic features of TNBC. RAC-GTPases, small G-proteins which transduce signals from cell surface proteins including integrins, have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis by their role in essential cellular functions like motility. The collective percentage of alteration(s) in RAC1 in ER+ve BC was lower as compared to ER-ve BC (35% vs 57%) (brca/tcga/pub2015)...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902539/cystoid-macular-edema-and-cystoid-macular-degeneration-as-a-result-of-multiple-pathogenic-factors-in-the-setting-of-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#8
Polina Astroz, Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam, Lawrence A Yannuzzi
PURPOSE: To report the pathogenic factors that account for cystoid macular edema and cystoid macular degeneration in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS: The clinical course and multimodal imaging findings, including fundus color photography, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography, of one eye with cystoid macular edema due to chronic CSC was documented. RESULTS: A 44-year old woman with a history of chronic CSC presented with progressive visual decline in the right eye...
November 29, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902483/androgen-receptor-phosphorylation-status-at-serine-578-predicts-poor-outcome-in-prostate-cancer-patients
#9
Patek Sc, Willder Jm, Heng Js, Taylor B, Horgan Pg, Leung Hy, Underwood Ma, Edwards J
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer growth is dependent upon androgen receptor (AR) activation, regulated via phosphorylation. Protein kinase C (PKC) is one kinase that can mediate AR phosphorylation. This study aimed to establish if AR phosphorylation by PKC is of prognostic significance. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for AR, AR phosphorylated at Ser-81 (pARS81), AR phosphorylated at Ser-578 (pARS578), PKC and phosphorylated PKC (pPKC) was performed on 90 hormone-naïve prostate cancer specimens...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899501/unraveling-fungal-radiation-resistance-regulatory-networks-through-the-genome-wide-transcriptome-and-genetic-analyses-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#10
Kwang-Woo Jung, Dong-Hoon Yang, Min-Kyu Kim, Ho Seong Seo, Sangyong Lim, Yong-Sun Bahn
The basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has been known to be highly radiation resistant and has been found in fatal radioactive environments such as the damaged nuclear reactor at Chernobyl. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the radiation resistance phenotype of C. neoformans, we identified genes affected by gamma radiation through genome-wide transcriptome analysis and characterized their functions. We found that genes involved in DNA damage repair systems were upregulated in response to gamma radiation...
November 29, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897416/curcumin-an-effective-adjunct-in-patients-with-statin-associated-muscle-symptoms
#11
REVIEW
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Nikou Saboni, Matteo Pirro, Maciej Banach
In spite of the unequivocal efficacy of statins in reducing primary and secondary cardiovascular events, the use of these drugs in a considerable number of patients is limited because of statin intolerance, mainly statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). SAMS encompass a broad spectrum of clinical presentations, including mild muscular aching and other types of myalgias, myopathy with the significant elevation of creatine kinase, and the rare but life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Among several pathophysiologic mechanisms of SAMS, mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to be one of the main one...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897118/smoking-and-eye-pathologies-a-systemic-review-part-i-anterior-eye-segment-pathologies
#12
Małgorzata Nita, Andrzej Grzybowski
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking has detrimental influence on human health and is one of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, associated with lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease and cardiovascular disease. AIM: The analysis of the influence of tobacco smoking on pathology of the anterior segment of the eye in adults and children. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature performed through MEDLINE and PubMed searches, was published during the period 2000-2016...
November 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894667/nuclear-pkm2-expression-an-independent-risk-factor-for-er-after-curative-resection-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Fangtian Fan, Hongyan Wu, Zhaoguo Liu, Xianbang Hou, Wenxin Chen, Aiyun Wang, Yin Lu
Surgical resection, providing a long-term survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, is regarded as one of the standard curative treatments of HCC if the tumor is resectable. However, 50% patients develop early recurrence (ER) during the first two years after operation, which are more diffuse and rarely treatable with unsatisfactory long-term survival. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms of ER after curative resection and the molecular markers with predictive and prognostic significance have never been identified yet...
November 25, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893715/tgf%C3%AE-promotes-mesenchymal-phenotype-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells-in-part-through-epigenetic-activation-of-vav1
#14
P-H Huang, P-J Lu, L-Y Ding, P-C Chu, W-Y Hsu, C-S Chen, C-C Tsao, B-H Chen, C-T Lee, Y-S Shan, C-S Chen
The highly homeostasis-resistant nature of cancer cells leads to their escape from treatment and to liver metastasis, which in turn makes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) difficult to treat, especially the squamous/epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like subtype. As the molecular mechanisms underlying tumour heterogeneity remain elusive, we investigated whether epigenetic regulation might explain inter-individual differences in the progression of specific subtypes. DNA methylation profiling performed on cancer tissues prior to chemo/radiotherapy identified one hypermethylated CpG site (CpG6882469) in the VAV1 gene body that was correlated with demethylation of two promoter CpGs (CpG6772370/CpG6772811) in both PDAC and peripheral blood...
November 28, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892895/prothymosin-alpha-and-ki-67-expression-in-pituitary-adenomas
#15
Iga Wierzbicka-Tutka, Grzegorz Sokołowski, Agata Bałdys-Waligórska, Dariusz Adamek, Edyta Radwańska, Filip Gołkowski
INTRODUCTION: Prothymosin alpha (PTMA), a nuclear oncoprotein involved in cell cycle regulation, is used as a prognostic marker in many cancers. The histopathology of pituitary carcinomas and locally invasive adenomas is indistinguishable from that of benign tumors. A new marker is needed to differentiate these lesions. We evaluated PTMA in pituitary adenomas to determine its usefulness as a prognostic factor of tumor proliferation. MATERIAL/METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a group of 27 patients, including 15 females (56%) and 12 males (44%) with a mean age of 58...
November 7, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892512/where-is-iron-in-erionite-a-multidisciplinary-study-on-fibrous-erionite-na-from-jersey-nevada-usa
#16
Alessandro F Gualtieri, Nicola Bursi Gandolfi, Simone Pollastri, Kilian Pollok, Falko Langenhorst
Fibrous erionite is a mineral fibre of great concern but to date mechanisms by which it induces cyto- and geno-toxic damage, and especially the role of iron associated to this zeolite species, remain poorly understood. One of the reasons is that we still don't know exactly where iron is in natural erionite. This work is focused on fibrous erionite-Na from Jersey (Nevada, USA) and attempts to draw a general model of occurrence of iron in erionite and relationship with toxicity mechanisms. It was found that iron is present as 6-fold coordinated Fe(3+) not part of the zeolite structure...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890943/recapitulation-of-acquired-immuno-deficiency-syndrome-associated-kaposi-s-sarcoma
#17
REVIEW
Balaji Govindan
Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is one of the clinical forms of KS. KS is caused by human herpes viruses 8 or KS associated herpes virus (KSHV). In India, till now, only 16 cases of AIDS associated KS was reported. Of all the clinical forms of KS, AIDS associated KS is distinct in many ways viz.; cutaneous manifestations commonly affects face and trunk rather than lower limbs, more mucosal lesions, rapidly progressive, and early systemic involvement. When human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is co-infected with KSHV, in addition to the other pathogenic factors for the development of KS, HIV Tat protein promotes the proliferation of cytokine-activated endothelial cells and stimulates KS...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890031/a-national-assessment-of-the-health-and-safety-of-emergency-medical-services-professionals
#18
Melissa A Bentley, Roger Levine
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to assess changes in (1) health and physical fitness, (2) the prevalence of selected health problems, (3) risk behaviors, (4) ambulance safety issues, and (5) the preparedness of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals. In addition, the incidence of patient-initiated violence directed toward EMS personnel and associated factors were assessed. METHODS: Data were obtained from a sample of nationally certified EMS professionals via annual questionnaires between 1999 and 2008...
November 28, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889290/randomized-split-body-single-blinded-clinical-trial-of-topical-broccoli-sprout-extract-assessing-the-feasibility-of-its-use-in-keratin-based-disorders
#19
Michelle L Kerns, Lark Guss, Jed Fahey, Bernard Cohen, Jill M C Hakim, Sarah Sung, Rosemary G Lu, Pierre A Coulombe
BACKGROUND: Epidermolysis bullosa simplex is a skin-blistering disorder caused by mutations in keratin (K)14 or K5. Treatment with nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 inducer sulforaphane ameliorated skin blistering in Krt14-null mice, correlating with induction of K17. To be therapeutically useful for epidermolysis bullosa simplex, topical broccoli sprout extract (BSE), enriched for sulforaphane, would ideally induce the expression of homologous keratins (eg, K6, K17, K16) in the basal layer of human epidermis without impacting expression of defective keratins (K5/K14)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888442/annulohpoxylotol-a-and-b-new-sesquiterpenoids-from-the-endophytic-fungus-annulohypoxylon-truncatum-are-natural-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitors
#20
Wei Li, Ya Nan Sun, Changyeol Lee, Sung Hee Bang, Soonok Kim, Jin Yeul Ma, Young Ho Kim, Sang Hee Shim
Two sesquiterpenoids, annulohpoxylotol A and B, were isolated along with five sterols from an ethyl acetate extract of cultures of the endophytic fungus Annulohypoxylon truncatum growing on leaves of Zizania caduciflora. The structures of the isolated compounds were established using one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D)-NMR and mass spectrometry. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitory activities of the isolated compounds stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured using a luciferase reporter system...
November 25, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
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