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Calpastatin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727083/influence-of-feed-efficiency-classification-and-growing-and-finishing-diet-type-on-meat-tenderness-attributes-of-beef-steers
#1
C P Blank, J Russell, S M Lonergan, S L Hansen
Enhancing feed efficiency (FE) in cattle continues to be an important goal in the beef industry. Previous research suggests improving FE may alter calpain system activity, potentially having negative effects on meat tenderness. The objective of this study was to assess the potential influence of beef cattle FE on postmortem meat tenderness. During the growing phase, 181 crossbred steers were fed for 76 d at the University of Missouri on a whole shell corn-based diet (MU-Corn; = 90) or a roughage-based diet (MU-Rough; = 91)...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713829/experimental-verification-of-capn1-and-cast-gene-polymorphisms-in-different-generations-of-da-heng-broilers
#2
Yu-Guang Zhou, Yong Xiong, Chao-Wu Yang, Xiao-Song Jiang, Jin-Shan Ran, Jie Jin, Ye Wang, Dan Lan, Peng Ren, Yao-Dong Hu, Yi-Ping Liu
The micromolar calcium activated neutral protease (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) have been widely regarded as genes related to muscle growth and meat tenderness. The objective of this study was to verify the association of SNPs of CAPN1 and CAST genes with carcass and tenderness traits and search the possible change patterns of SNPs in CAPN1 and CAST genes in six generations of broiler breeding process for growth rate, efficiency, and reproduction, during the third generation and the ninth generation, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642177/protective-functions-of-pj34-a-parp-inhibitor-is-related-to-down-regulation-of-calpain-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-a-mouse-model-of-tbi
#3
Xiaogang Tao, Xuetao Chen, Zonggang Hou, Shuyu Hao, Baiyun Liu
OBJECTIVES: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), calpain, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) are reported to participate in inflammatory reactions in pathological conditions and are involved in traumatic brain injury. The objective of this study was to investigate whether PARP participated in inflammation related to calpain and NF-κB in a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI). METHODS: PJ34 (10 mg/kg), a selective PARP inhibitor, was administered intraperitoneally 5 min and 8 h after experimental CCI...
June 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525658/genotyping-of-snps-associated-with-meat-tenderness-comparison-of-two-pcr-based-methods
#4
L E López-Rojas, L Patiño-Cadavid, A López-Herrera, J J Echeverri-Zuluaga
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) carried in calpain (CAPN1), calpastatin (CAST), and leptin (LEP) genes are associated with meat tenderness. Due to the economic importance of this meat quality attribute, the development of fast, reliable, and affordable methods to identify bovine carriers of favorable alleles is of great importance for genetic improvement. Currently, PCR-RFLP is accepted as the standard gold method for genotyping SNPs associated with meat tenderness. But these SNPs can be detected by other techniques as high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis - a post-PCR method - that offers several advantages and has great application potential in the meat industry...
May 18, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512118/epstein-barr-virus-encoded-lmp2a-stimulates-migration-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-via-the-egfr-ca-2-calpain-itg%C3%AE-4-axis
#5
Jiezhen Liang, Shixing Zheng, Xue Xiao, Jiazhang Wei, Zhe Zhang, Ingemar Ernberg, Liudmila Matskova, Guangwu Huang, Xiaoying Zhou
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) promotes the motility of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. Previously, we have shown that the localization of integrin β4 (ITGβ4) is regulated by LMP2A, with ITGβ4 concentrated at the cellular protrusions in LMP2A-expressing NPC cells. In the present study, we aim to further investigate mechanisms involved in this process and its contribution to cell motility. We show that expression of LMP2A was correlated with increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, elevated levels of intracellular Ca(2+), calpain activation and accelerated cleavage of ITGβ4...
June 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469577/interference-with-ca-2-dependent-proteolysis-does-not-alter-the-course-of-muscle-wasting-in-experimental-cancer-cachexia
#6
Fabrizio Pin, Valerio G Minero, Fabio Penna, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Roberta De Tullio, Francesco M Baccino, Paola Costelli
Protein hypercatabolism significantly contributes to the onset and progression of muscle wasting in cancer cachexia. In this regard, a major role is played by the ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent pathway and by autophagy. However, little is known about the relevance of the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolytic system. Since previous results suggested that this pathway is activated in the skeletal muscle of tumor hosts, the present study was aimed to investigate whether inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent proteases (calpains) may improve cancer-induced muscle wasting...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432377/emerging-roles-of-calpain-proteolytic-systems-in-macrophage-cholesterol-handling
#7
REVIEW
Takuro Miyazaki, Akira Miyazaki
Calpains are Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular proteases that play central roles in the post-translational processing of functional proteins. In mammals, calpain proteolytic systems comprise the endogenous inhibitor calpastatin as well as 15 homologues of the catalytic subunits and two homologues of the regulatory subunits. Recent pharmacological and gene targeting studies in experimental animal models have revealed the contribution of conventional calpains, which consist of the calpain-1 and -2 isozymes, to atherosclerotic diseases...
August 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386216/calpastatin-overexpression-preserves-cognitive-function-following-seizures-while-maintaining-post-injury-neurogenesis
#8
Vanessa M Machado, Ana Sofia Lourenço, Cláudia Florindo, Raquel Fernandes, Caetana M Carvalho, Inês M Araújo
In the adult mammalian brain, new neurons continue to be produced throughout life in two main regions in the brain, the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone in the walls of the lateral ventricles. Neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferate in these niches, and migrate as neuroblasts, to further differentiate in locations where new neurons are needed, either in normal or pathological conditions. However, the endogenous attempt of brain repair is not very efficient. Calpains are proteases known to be involved in neuronal damage and in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation of several cell types, though their effects on neurogenesis are not well known...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360106/ca-2-and-calpain-mediate-capsaicin-induced-ablation-of-axonal-terminals-expressing-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1
#9
Sheng Wang, Sen Wang, Jamila Asgar, John Joseph, Jin Y Ro, Feng Wei, James N Campbell, Man-Kyo Chung
Capsaicin is an ingredient in spicy peppers that produces burning pain by activating transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a Ca(2+)-permeable ion channel in nociceptors. Capsaicin has also been used as an analgesic, and its topical administration is approved for the treatment of certain pain conditions. The mechanisms underlying capsaicin-induced analgesia likely involve reversible ablation of nociceptor terminals. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. To visualize TRPV1-lineage axons, a genetically engineered mouse model was used in which a fluorophore is expressed under the TRPV1 promoter...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320300/chronic-alcohol-intoxication-is-not-accompanied-by-an-increase-in-calpain-proteolytic-activity-in-cardiac-muscle-of-rats
#10
Yu V Gritsyna, N N Salmov, A G Bobylev, I S Fadeeva, N I Fesenko, D G Sadikova, N I Kukushkin, Z A Podlubnaya, I M Vikhlyantsev
Enzymatic activity of Ca2+-dependent calpain proteases as well as the content and gene expression of μ-calpain (activated by micromolar calcium ion concentrations), calpastatin (inhibitor of calpains), and titin (substrate for calpains) were investigated in cardiac muscles of rats subjected to chronic alcoholization for 3 and 6 months. There was no increase in the "heart weight/body weight" parameter indicating development of heart hypertrophy in the alcoholized rats, while a decreasing trend was observed for this parameter in the rats after 6-month modeling of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, which indicated development of atrophic changes in the myocardium...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319173/affinity-purification-of-human-m-calpain-through-an-intrinsically-disordered-inhibitor-calpastatin
#11
Hung Huy Nguyen, Mihaly Varadi, Peter Tompa, Kris Pauwels
Calpains are calcium-activated proteases that have biomedical and biotechnological potential. Their activity is tightly regulated by their endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin that binds to the enzyme only in the presence of calcium. Conventional approaches to purify calpain comprise multiple chromatographic steps, and are labor-intensive, leading to low yields. Here we report a new purification procedure for the human m-calpain based on its reversible calcium-mediated interaction with the intrinsically disordered calpastatin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228415/reduced-skeletal-muscle-fiber-size-following-caloric-restriction-is-associated-with-calpain-mediated-proteolysis-and-attenuation-of-igf-1-signaling
#12
Yue Lu, Jennifer S Bradley, Sarah R McCoski, John M Gonzalez, Alan D Ealy, Sally E Johnson
Caloric restriction decreases skeletal muscle mass in mammals, principally due to a reduction in fiber size. The effect of suboptimal nutrient intake on skeletal muscle metabolic properties in neonatal calves was examined. The longissimus muscle (LM) was collected after a control (CON) or caloric restricted (CR) diet was cosnumed for 8 wk and muscle fiber size, gene expression, and metabolic signal transduction activity were measured. Results revealed that CR animals had smaller (P < 0.05) LM fiber cross-sectional area than CON, as expected...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218779/genotypic-and-allelic-frequencies-of-gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-meat-tenderness-in-nellore-beef-cattle
#13
M E Carvalho, J P Eler, M N Bonin, F M Rezende, F H Biase, F V Meirelles, L C A Regitano, L L Coutinho, J C C Balieiro, J B S Ferraz
The objectives of this study were to characterize the allelic and genotypic frequencies of polymorphisms in the µ-calpain and calpastatin genes, and to assess their association with meat tenderness and animal growth in Nellore cattle. We evaluated 605 Nellore animals at 24 months of age, on average, at slaughter. The polymorphisms were determined for the molecular markers CAPN316, CAPN530, CAPN4751, CAPN4753, and UOGACAST1. Analyses of meat tenderness at 7, 14, and 21 days of maturation were performed in samples of longissimus thoracis obtained between the 12th and 13th rib and sheared using a Warner Bratzler Shear Force...
February 16, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107862/neuroprotective-effect-of-spilanthes-acmella-murr-on-pesticide-induced-neuronal-cells-death
#14
Wilasinee Suwanjang, Bongkot Khongniam, Sujittra Srisung, Supaluk Prachayasittikul, Virapong Prachayasittikul
OBJECTIVE: To investigate protective effects of Spilanthes acmella (S. acmella) Murr. extracts against pesticide-induced neuronal cells death and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism in dopaminergic (SH-SY5Y) cells lines. METHODS: Cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells was studied by treating the cells with various concentration of pirimicarb for 24 h. Neuroprotective effect of S. acmella Murr. extracts was investigated by adding the plant extracts to the medium for 24 h prior to the incubation with 100 μM H2O2 or with pirimicarb for 24 h...
January 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018909/a-review-of-selected-genes-with-known-effects-on-performance-and-health-of-cattle
#15
REVIEW
Eduardo Casas, Marcus E Kehrli
There are genetic conditions that influence production in dairy and beef cattle. The objective of this review was to describe relevant genetic conditions that have been associated with productivity and health in cattle. Genes or genomic regions that have been identified as a candidate for the condition will be included, and the genetic basis of the condition will be defined. Genes and genetic conditions included in this review are bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, deficiency of the uridine monophosphate synthase, bovine chronic interstitial nephritis, horn development, myostatin, complex vertebral malformation, leptin, osteopetrosis, apoptosis peptide activating factor 1, chondrodysplastic dwarfism, caseins, calpastatin, umbilical hernia, lactoglobulin, citrullinemia, cholesterol deficiency, prions, thyroglobulin, diacylglycerol acyltransferase, syndactyly, maple syrup urine disease, slick hair, Factor XI deficiency, and μ-Calpain...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013348/calpain-1-cleaves-and-inactivates-prostacyclin-synthase-in-mesenteric-arteries-from-diabetic-mice
#16
Voahanginirina Randriamboavonjy, Anastasia Kyselova, Amro Elgheznawy, Sven Zukunft, Ilka Wittig, Ingrid Fleming
Diabetes is associated with a number of co-morbidities including an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. The activation of Ca(2+)-activated proteases of the calpain family has been implicated in platelet activation associated with diabetes and this study aimed to determine the role of calpain activation in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Diabetes induction in mice attenuated acetylcholine-induced relaxation of mesenteric artery rings, an effect prevented in mice receiving a calpain inhibitor...
January 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956030/calpain-1-resident-in-lipid-raft-caveolin-1-membrane-microdomains-plays-a-protective-role-in-endothelial-cells
#17
Antonino Martines, Roberto Stifanese, Emanuela L Faelli, Luisa Perasso, Ilaria Melloni, Piero Ruggeri, Monica Averna
We are here reporting that calpain-1 is a constitutive component of a distinct lipid raft/caveolin-1 microdomain isolated from bEnd5 cells in association with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Perturbations in intracellular calcium concentration by Ca(2+)-ionophore A23187 or prolonged cell exposure to high glucose induce a significant decrease in the level of eNOS accompanied by a recruitment of additional HSP90 molecules at this site. In these conditions the cells are more resistant to cell death by Ca(2+) overload...
February 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875293/attenuation-of-blood-brain-barrier-breakdown-and-hyperpermeability-by-calpain-inhibition
#18
Himakarnika Alluri, Marcene Grimsley, Chinchusha Anasooya Shaji, Kevin Paul Varghese, Shenyuan L Zhang, Chander Peddaboina, Bobby Robinson, Madhava R Beeram, Jason H Huang, Binu Tharakan
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and the associated microvascular hyperpermeability followed by brain edema are hallmark features of several brain pathologies, including traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Recent studies indicate that pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) that is up-regulated following traumatic injuries also promotes BBB dysfunction and hyperpermeability, but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly known. The objective of this study was to determine the role of calpains in mediating BBB dysfunction and hyperpermeability and to test the effect of calpain inhibition on the BBB following traumatic insults to the brain...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835610/roles-of-calpain-calpastatin-system-ccs-in-human-t-cell-activation
#19
Anna Mikosik, Aleksandra Jasiulewicz, Agnieszka Daca, Izabella Henc, Joanna E Frąckowiak, Katarzyna Ruckemann-Dziurdzińska, Jerzy Foerster, Aurelie Le Page, Ewa Bryl, Tamas Fulop, Jacek M Witkowski
The immune response is determined by the speed of the T cell reaction to antigens assured by a state of readiness for proliferation and cytokine secretion. Proliferation, apoptosis and motion of many cell types are controlled by cytoplasmic proteases - µ- and m-calpain - and their inhibitor calpastatin, together forming the "calpain-calpastatin system" (CCS), assumed to modify their targets only upon activation-dependent cytoplasmic Ca2+ increase. Contrastingly to this notion, using quantitative real time PCR and semiquantitative flow cytometry respectively, we show here that the CCS genes are constitutively expressed, and that both calpains are constitutively active in resting, circulating human CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes...
November 22, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812546/%C3%AE-cell-specific-increased-expression-of-calpastatin-prevents-diabetes-induced-by-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-toxicity
#20
Tatyana Gurlo, Safia Costes, Jonathan D Hoang, Jacqueline F Rivera, Alexandra E Butler, Peter C Butler
The islet in type 2 diabetes (T2D) shares many features of the brain in protein misfolding diseases. There is a deficit of β cells with islet amyloid derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), a protein coexpressed with insulin. Small intracellular membrane-permeant oligomers, the most toxic form of IAPP, are more frequent in β cells of patients with T2D and rodents expressing human IAPP. β Cells in T2D, and affected cells in neurodegenerative diseases, share a comparable pattern of molecular pathology, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, attenuation of autophagy, and calpain hyperactivation...
November 3, 2016: JCI Insight
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