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Calpastatin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386216/calpastatin-overexpression-preserves-cognitive-function-following-seizures-while-maintaining-post-injury-neurogenesis
#1
Vanessa M Machado, Ana Sofia Lourenço, Cláudia Florindo, Raquel Fernandes, Caetana M Carvalho, Inês M Araújo
In the adult mammalian brain, new neurons continue to be produced throughout life in two main regions in the brain, the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone in the walls of the lateral ventricles. Neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferate in these niches, and migrate as neuroblasts, to further differentiate in locations where new neurons are needed, either in normal or pathological conditions. However, the endogenous attempt of brain repair is not very efficient. Calpains are proteases known to be involved in neuronal damage and in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation of several cell types, though their effects on neurogenesis are not well known...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360106/ca-2-and-calpain-mediate-capsaicin-induced-ablation-of-axonal-terminals-expressing-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1
#2
Sheng Wang, Sen Wang, Jamila Asgar, John Joseph, Jin Y Ro, Feng Wei, James N Campbell, Man-Kyo Chung
Capsaicin is an ingredient in spicy peppers that produces burning pain by activating transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a Ca2+-permeable ion channel in nociceptors. Capsaicin also has been used as an analgesic, and its topical administration is approved for the treatment of certain pain conditions. The mechanisms underlying capsaicin-induced analgesia likely involve reversible ablation of nociceptor terminals. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. To visualize TRPV1-lineage axons, a genetically engineered mouse model was used in which a fluorophore is expressed under TRPV1 promoter...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320300/chronic-alcohol-intoxication-is-not-accompanied-by-an-increase-in-calpain-proteolytic-activity-in-cardiac-muscle-of-rats
#3
Yu V Gritsyna, N N Salmov, A G Bobylev, I S Fadeeva, N I Fesenko, D G Sadikova, N I Kukushkin, Z A Podlubnaya, I M Vikhlyantsev
Enzymatic activity of Ca2+-dependent calpain proteases as well as the content and gene expression of μ-calpain (activated by micromolar calcium ion concentrations), calpastatin (inhibitor of calpains), and titin (substrate for calpains) were investigated in cardiac muscles of rats subjected to chronic alcoholization for 3 and 6 months. There was no increase in the "heart weight/body weight" parameter indicating development of heart hypertrophy in the alcoholized rats, while a decreasing trend was observed for this parameter in the rats after 6-month modeling of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, which indicated development of atrophic changes in the myocardium...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319173/affinity-purification-of-human-m-calpain-through-an-intrinsically-disordered-inhibitor-calpastatin
#4
Hung Huy Nguyen, Mihaly Varadi, Peter Tompa, Kris Pauwels
Calpains are calcium-activated proteases that have biomedical and biotechnological potential. Their activity is tightly regulated by their endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin that binds to the enzyme only in the presence of calcium. Conventional approaches to purify calpain comprise multiple chromatographic steps, and are labor-intensive, leading to low yields. Here we report a new purification procedure for the human m-calpain based on its reversible calcium-mediated interaction with the intrinsically disordered calpastatin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228415/reduced-skeletal-muscle-fiber-size-following-caloric-restriction-is-associated-with-calpain-mediated-proteolysis-and-attenuation-of-igf-1-signaling
#5
Yue Lu, Jennifer S Bradley, Sarah R McCoski, John M Gonzalez, Alan D Ealy, Sally E Johnson
Caloric restriction decreases skeletal muscle mass in mammals, principally due to a reduction in fiber size. The effect of suboptimal nutrient intake on skeletal muscle metabolic properties in neonatal calves was examined. The longissimus muscle (LM) was collected after 8 wks consuming a control (CON) or caloric restricted (CR) diet and muscle fiber size, gene expression and metabolic signal transduction activity was measured. Results revealed that CR animals had smaller (P < 0.05) LM fiber cross-sectional area than CON, as expected...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218779/genotypic-and-allelic-frequencies-of-gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-meat-tenderness-in-nellore-beef-cattle
#6
M E Carvalho, J P Eler, M N Bonin, F M Rezende, F H Biase, F V Meirelles, L C A Regitano, L L Coutinho, J C C Balieiro, J B S Ferraz
The objectives of this study were to characterize the allelic and genotypic frequencies of polymorphisms in the µ-calpain and calpastatin genes, and to assess their association with meat tenderness and animal growth in Nellore cattle. We evaluated 605 Nellore animals at 24 months of age, on average, at slaughter. The polymorphisms were determined for the molecular markers CAPN316, CAPN530, CAPN4751, CAPN4753, and UOGACAST1. Analyses of meat tenderness at 7, 14, and 21 days of maturation were performed in samples of longissimus thoracis obtained between the 12th and 13th rib and sheared using a Warner Bratzler Shear Force...
February 16, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107862/neuroprotective-effect-of-spilanthes-acmella-murr-on-pesticide-induced-neuronal-cells-death
#7
Wilasinee Suwanjang, Bongkot Khongniam, Sujittra Srisung, Supaluk Prachayasittikul, Virapong Prachayasittikul
OBJECTIVE: To investigate protective effects of Spilanthes acmella (S. acmella) Murr. extracts against pesticide-induced neuronal cells death and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism in dopaminergic (SH-SY5Y) cells lines. METHODS: Cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells was studied by treating the cells with various concentration of pirimicarb for 24 h. Neuroprotective effect of S. acmella Murr. extracts was investigated by adding the plant extracts to the medium for 24 h prior to the incubation with 100 μM H2O2 or with pirimicarb for 24 h...
January 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018909/a-review-of-selected-genes-with-known-effects-on-performance-and-health-of-cattle
#8
REVIEW
Eduardo Casas, Marcus E Kehrli
There are genetic conditions that influence production in dairy and beef cattle. The objective of this review was to describe relevant genetic conditions that have been associated with productivity and health in cattle. Genes or genomic regions that have been identified as a candidate for the condition will be included, and the genetic basis of the condition will be defined. Genes and genetic conditions included in this review are bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, deficiency of the uridine monophosphate synthase, bovine chronic interstitial nephritis, horn development, myostatin, complex vertebral malformation, leptin, osteopetrosis, apoptosis peptide activating factor 1, chondrodysplastic dwarfism, caseins, calpastatin, umbilical hernia, lactoglobulin, citrullinemia, cholesterol deficiency, prions, thyroglobulin, diacylglycerol acyltransferase, syndactyly, maple syrup urine disease, slick hair, Factor XI deficiency, and μ-Calpain...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013348/calpain-1-cleaves-and-inactivates-prostacyclin-synthase-in-mesenteric-arteries-from-diabetic-mice
#9
Voahanginirina Randriamboavonjy, Anastasia Kyselova, Amro Elgheznawy, Sven Zukunft, Ilka Wittig, Ingrid Fleming
Diabetes is associated with a number of co-morbidities including an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. The activation of Ca(2+)-activated proteases of the calpain family has been implicated in platelet activation associated with diabetes and this study aimed to determine the role of calpain activation in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Diabetes induction in mice attenuated acetylcholine-induced relaxation of mesenteric artery rings, an effect prevented in mice receiving a calpain inhibitor...
January 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956030/calpain-1-resident-in-lipid-raft-caveolin-1-membrane-microdomains-plays-a-protective-role-in-endothelial-cells
#10
Antonino Martines, Roberto Stifanese, Emanuela L Faelli, Luisa Perasso, Ilaria Melloni, Piero Ruggeri, Monica Averna
We are here reporting that calpain-1 is a constitutive component of a distinct lipid raft/caveolin-1 microdomain isolated from bEnd5 cells in association with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Perturbations in intracellular calcium concentration by Ca(2+)-ionophore A23187 or prolonged cell exposure to high glucose induce a significant decrease in the level of eNOS accompanied by a recruitment of additional HSP90 molecules at this site. In these conditions the cells are more resistant to cell death by Ca(2+) overload...
February 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875293/attenuation-of-blood-brain-barrier-breakdown-and-hyperpermeability-by-calpain-inhibition
#11
Himakarnika Alluri, Marcene Grimsley, Chinchusha Anasooya Shaji, Kevin Paul Varghese, Shenyuan L Zhang, Chander Peddaboina, Bobby Robinson, Madhava R Beeram, Jason H Huang, Binu Tharakan
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and the associated microvascular hyperpermeability followed by brain edema are hallmark features of several brain pathologies, including traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Recent studies indicate that pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) that is up-regulated following traumatic injuries also promotes BBB dysfunction and hyperpermeability, but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly known. The objective of this study was to determine the role of calpains in mediating BBB dysfunction and hyperpermeability and to test the effect of calpain inhibition on the BBB following traumatic insults to the brain...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835610/roles-of-calpain-calpastatin-system-ccs-in-human-t-cell-activation
#12
Anna Mikosik, Aleksandra Jasiulewicz, Agnieszka Daca, Izabella Henc, Joanna E Frąckowiak, Katarzyna Ruckemann-Dziurdzińska, Jerzy Foerster, Aurelie Le Page, Ewa Bryl, Tamas Fulop, Jacek M Witkowski
The immune response is determined by the speed of the T cell reaction to antigens assured by a state of readiness for proliferation and cytokine secretion. Proliferation, apoptosis and motion of many cell types are controlled by cytoplasmic proteases - µ- and m-calpain - and their inhibitor calpastatin, together forming the "calpain-calpastatin system" (CCS), assumed to modify their targets only upon activation-dependent cytoplasmic Ca2+ increase. Contrastingly to this notion, using quantitative real time PCR and semiquantitative flow cytometry respectively, we show here that the CCS genes are constitutively expressed, and that both calpains are constitutively active in resting, circulating human CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes...
November 22, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812546/%C3%AE-cell-specific-increased-expression-of-calpastatin-prevents-diabetes-induced-by-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-toxicity
#13
Tatyana Gurlo, Safia Costes, Jonathan D Hoang, Jacqueline F Rivera, Alexandra E Butler, Peter C Butler
The islet in type 2 diabetes (T2D) shares many features of the brain in protein misfolding diseases. There is a deficit of β cells with islet amyloid derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), a protein coexpressed with insulin. Small intracellular membrane-permeant oligomers, the most toxic form of IAPP, are more frequent in β cells of patients with T2D and rodents expressing human IAPP. β Cells in T2D, and affected cells in neurodegenerative diseases, share a comparable pattern of molecular pathology, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, attenuation of autophagy, and calpain hyperactivation...
November 3, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765842/adrenodemedullation-activates-the-ca2-dependent-proteolysis-in-soleus-muscles-from-rats-exposed-to-cold
#14
Leandro H Manfredi, D Lustrino, Juliano Machado, Wilian Assis Silveira, Neusa Maria Zanon, Luiz C Navegantes, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut
Previous studies have shown that catecholamines in vivo and in vitro inhibit the activity of Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in skeletal muscles under basal conditions. In the present study we sought to investigate the role of catecholamines in regulating the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rats acutely exposed to cold. Overall proteolysis, the activity of proteolytic systems as well as protein levels and gene expression of different components of calpain system were investigated in rats submitted to adrenodemedullation (ADMX) and exposed to cold for 24 h...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747292/role-of-calpain-in-pathogenesis-of-human-disease-processes
#15
Brittany A Potz, M Ruhul Abid, Frank W Sellke
Calpains are a 15-member class of calcium activated nonlysosomal neutral proteases which are involved in a broad range of cellular function. Calpains are usually localized to the cytosol and within mitochondria. Calpastatin is an endogenous protein that specifically binds to and inhibits calpain. Overactivation of calpain has been implicated in a number of disease processes of the brain, eyes, heart, lungs, pancreas, kidneys, vascular system and skeletal muscle. Therefore, calpain may serve as a potential therapeutic target for a wide variety of disease processes...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715410/kshv-reduces-autophagy-in-thp-1-cells-and-in-differentiating-monocytes-by-decreasing-cast-calpastatin-and-atg5-expression
#16
R Santarelli, M Granato, G Pentassuglia, V Lacconi, M S Gilardini Montani, R Gonnella, M Tafani, M R Torrisi, A Faggioni, M Cirone
We have previously shown that Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) impairs monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells (DCs). Macroautophagy/autophagy has been reported to be essential in such a differentiating process. Here we extended these studies and found that the impairment of DC formation by KSHV occurs through autophagy inhibition. KSHV indeed reduces CAST (calpastatin) and consequently decreases ATG5 expression in both THP-1 monocytoid cells and primary monocytes. We unveiled a new mechanism put in place by KSHV to escape from immune control...
December 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635352/effect-of-8-hydroxyquinoline-and-derivatives-on-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells-under-high-glucose
#17
Wilasinee Suwanjang, Supaluk Prachayasittikul, Virapong Prachayasittikul
8-Hydroxyquinoline and derivatives exhibit multifunctional properties, including antioxidant, antineurodegenerative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In biological systems, elevation of intracellular calcium can cause calpain activation, leading to cell death. Here, the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline and derivatives (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline or clioquinol and 8-hydroxy-5-nitroquinoline or nitroxoline) on calpain-dependent (calpain-calpastatin) pathways in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was investigated...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472894/dual-roles-of-calpain-in-facilitating-coxsackievirus-b3-replication-and-prompting-inflammation-in-acute-myocarditis
#18
Minghui Li, Yangang Su, Yong Yu, Ying Yu, Xinggang Wang, Yunzeng Zou, Junbo Ge, Ruizhen Chen
BACKGROUND: Viral myocarditis (VMC) treatment has long been lacking of effective methods. Our former studies indicated roles of calpain in VMC pathogenesis. This study aimed at verifying the potential of calpain in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis treatment. METHODS: A transgenic mouse overexpressing the endogenous calpain inhibitor, calpastatin, was introduced in the study. VMC mouse model was established via intraperitoneal injection of CVB3 in transgenic and wild mouse respectively...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456359/gene-protein-expression-of-capn1-2-cast-system-members-is-associated-with-erk1-2-kinases-activity-as-well-as-progression-and-clinical-outcome-in-human-laryngeal-cancer
#19
Katarzyna Starska, Ewa Forma, Paweł Jóźwiak, Iwona Lewy-Trenda, Marian Danilewicz, Olga Stasikowska-Kanicka, Michał Skóra, Katarzyna Kolary, Jakub Miazga, Anna Krześlak, Magdalena Bryś
Recent evidence indicates the involvement of calpains (CAPNs), a family of cysteine proteases, in cancer development and progression, as well as the insufficient response to cancer therapies. The contribution of CAPNs and regulatory calpastatin (CAST) and ERK1/2 kinases to aggressiveness, disease course, and outcome in laryngeal cancer remains elusive. This study was aimed to evaluate the CAPN1/2-CAST-ERK1/2 enzyme system mRNA/protein level and to investigate whether they can promote the dynamic of tumor growth and prognosis...
October 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453531/the-inhibition-of-calpains-ameliorates-vascular-restenosis-through-mmp2-tgf-%C3%AE-1-pathway
#20
Lianghu Tang, Haifeng Pei, Yi Yang, Xiong Wang, Ting Wang, Erhe Gao, De Li, Yongjian Yang, Dachun Yang
Restenosis limits the efficacy of vascular percutaneous intervention, in which vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and activation of inflammation are two primary causal factors. Calpains influence VSMC proliferation and collagen synthesis. However, the roles of calpastatin and calpains in vascular restenosis remain unclear. Here, restenosis was induced by ligating the left carotid artery, and VSMCs were pretreated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. Adenovirus vector carrying MMP2 sequence and specific small interfering RNA against calpain-1/2 were introduced...
2016: Scientific Reports
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