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Traci Cramer, Moriah L Penick, Jolena N Waddell, Chris A Bidwell, Yuan H Brad Kim
The objective of this study was to determine associations of small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) in tenderness development of loins from callipyge and normal genotype lambs. Loins (M. longissimus lumborum) from sixteen lambs across four genotypes were collected throughout 9 days of postmortem aging. The loins from callipyge lambs had more intact desmin and troponin T throughout aging periods, as well as less μ-calpain autolysis and more calpastatin compared to loins from other genotypes (P < 0.05). Delayed onset of apoptosis was found in the callipyge loins indicated by less cytochrome c and more inactive procaspase-3 compared to normal lamb loins (P < 0...
March 6, 2018: Meat Science
Joel D Leal-Gutiérrez, Mauricio A Elzo, Dwain D Johnson, Tracy L Scheffler, Jason M Scheffler, Raluca G Mateescu
Autogenous proteolytic enzymes of the calpain family are implicated in myofibrillar protein degradation. As a result, the μ-calpain gene and its specific inhibitor, calpastatin, have been repeatedly investigated for their association with meat quality traits in cattle; however, no functional mutation has been identified for these two genes. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess breed composition effect on tenderness; (2) to perform a linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis in μ-calpain and calpastatin genes as well as an association analyses with tenderness; and (3) to analyze putative functional SNPs inside the significant LD block for an effect on tenderness...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Richard G Tait, Robert A Cushman, Anthony K McNeel, Eduardo Casas, Timothy P L Smith, Harvey C Freetly, Gary L Bennett
Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to equalize CAPN1 haplotypes, CAST, and GHR genetic marker frequencies. The objective was to estimate the pleiotropic effects of these carcass quality oriented markers for body weight, reproduction, and first calf performance traits in 174 replacement beef females which were managed under 2 post-weaning development protocols...
February 3, 2018: Theriogenology
Jing Zhang, Dan Wu, Yue Li, Yidan Fan, Huiyu Chen, Jianjiang Xu
PURPOSE: To investigate whether calpastatin (CAST) gene polymorphisms are in association with keratoconus (KC) in Han Chinese population. METHODS: Four SNPs (rs4434401, rs7704167, rs26504, and rs10053056) in CAST gene were genotyped in 120 unrelated Han Chinese KC patients and 305 age and gender matched healthy controls, using TaqMan SNP genotyping method. PLINK and LDmatrix software was used for data analysis. RESULTS: SNP rs4434401, whose contribution to KC susceptibility has been established in Caucasians, still kept its effect in our population...
February 8, 2018: Gene
Jiro Takano, Naomi Mihira, Ryo Fujioka, Emi Hosoki, Athar H Chishti, Takaomi C Saido
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Jonasz Jeremiasz Weber, Simon Johannes Kloock, Maike Nagel, Midea Malena Ortiz-Rios, Julian Hofmann, Olaf Riess, Huu Phuc Nguyen
Deciphering the molecular pathology of Huntington disease is of particular importance, not only for a better understanding of this neurodegenerative disease, but also to identify potential therapeutic targets. The polyglutamine-expanded disease protein huntingtin was shown to undergo proteolysis, which results in the accumulation of toxic and aggregation-prone fragments. Amongst several classes of proteolytic enzymes responsible for huntingtin processing, the group of calcium-activated calpains has been found to be a significant mediator of the disease protein toxicity...
January 17, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Hung Huy Nguyen, Alexander N Volkov, Guy Vandenbussche, Peter Tompa, Kris Pauwels
Recently we established a novel affinity purification method for calpain by exploiting the specific and reversible binding properties of its intrinsically disordered protein inhibitor, calpastatin. The immobilization strategy relied on the strength and specificity of the biotin - streptavidin interaction. Here, we report an improved and optimized method that even enables the general applicability of in vivo biotinylated (intrinsically disordered) proteins in any affinity capture strategy. Since in vitro chemical biotinylation is only accomplished with reagents that lack exact site specificity, it can not only cause sample heterogeneity but it can also hamper the functionality of the biotinylated molecules...
January 12, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Hye Yeon Nam, Eun Jung Na, Eunyoung Lee, Youngjoo Kwon, Hwa-Jung Kim
Oleamide was first known as a sleep-inducing fatty acid amide, and later shown to have wide range of neuropharmacological effects upon different neurochemical systems. However, the effects of oleamide on brain damage have scarcely been studied, and the molecular mechanisms and sites of its action remain elusive. Kainic acid (KA) has been used to produce an epileptic animal model that mimics human temporal lobe epilepsy and to induce calpain-activated excitotoxicity, which occurs in numerous neurodegenerative disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Philip A Bidwell, Guan-Sheng Liu, Narayani Nagarajan, Chi Keung Lam, Kobra Haghighi, George Gardner, Wen-Feng Cai, Wen Zhao, Luke Mugge, Elizabeth Vafiadaki, Despina Sanoudou, Jack Rubinstein, Djamel Lebeche, Roger Hajjar, Junichi Sadoshima, Evangelia G Kranias
Ischemia/reperfusion injury is associated with contractile dysfunction and increased cardiomyocyte death. Overexpression of the hematopoietic lineage substrate-1-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) has been shown to protect from cellular injury but the function of endogenous HAX-1 remains obscure due to early lethality of the knockout mouse. Herein we generated a cardiac-specific and inducible HAX-1 deficient model, which uncovered an unexpected role of HAX-1 in regulation of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA2a) in ischemia/reperfusion injury...
January 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Jiro Takano, Naomi Mihira, Ryo Fujioka, Emi Hosoki, Athar H Chishti, Takaomi C Saido
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Jirapa Chetsawang, Sujira Mukda, Rachneekorn Srimokra, Piyarat Govitrapong, Banthit Chetsawang
Excessive intracellular calcium levels induce calpain activation, thereby triggering the cell death cascade. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated the neuroprotective role of the overexpression of calpain inhibitor, calpastatin. In this study, amphetamine-induced degeneration in the substantia nigra of rats was determined by evaluating the decrease in the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation. Amphetamine significantly decreased calpastatin levels but increased calpain levels. An induction in calpain activity was demonstrated by an increase in the formation of calpain spectrin breakdown products...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Christian-Scott E McCartney, James A MacLeod, Peter A Greer, Peter L Davies
Calpain-1 and -2 are Ca2+ -activated intracellular cysteine proteases that regulate a wide range of cellular functions through the cleavage of their protein substrates. Unlike degradative proteases, calpains make limited, transformative cleavages, typically in accessible sequences linking discrete subdomains, to irreversibly alter substrate functions. The biological roles of calpain and their interplay with calcium signaling are of significant biomedical interest as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in a growing number of diseases including Alzheimer's, cancer and fibrosis...
February 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Latha Muniappan, Aida Javidan, Weihua Jiang, Shayan Mohammadmoradi, Jessica J Moorleghen, Wendy S Katz, Anju Balakrishnan, Deborah A Howatt, Venkateswaran Subramanian
Adipose tissue macrophages have been proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying these processes are not completely defined. Calpains are calcium-dependent neutral cysteine proteases that modulate cellular function and have been implicated in various inflammatory diseases. To define whether activated calpains influence diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue macrophage accumulation, mice that were either wild type (WT) or overexpressing calpastatin (CAST Tg), the endogenous inhibitor of calpains were fed with high (60% kcal) fat diet for 16 weeks...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rafael Galindo, Marianne Banks Greenberg, Toshiyuki Araki, Yo Sasaki, Nehali Mehta, Jeffrey Milbrandt, David M Holtzman
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the NAD+ biosynthetic protein, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase-3 (NMNAT3), is a neuroprotective inducible enzyme capable of decreasing cerebral injury after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) and reducing glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxic neurodegeneration of immature neurons. METHODS: Using NMNAT3-overexpressing mice we investigated whether increases in brain NMNAT3 reduced cerebral tissue loss following H-I. We then employed biochemical methods from injured neonatal brains to examine the inducibility of NMNAT3 and the mechanism of NMNAT3-dependent neuroprotection...
October 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Jacek M Witkowski, Anna Mikosik, Ewa Bryl, Tamas Fulop
Cellular life depends mostly on the creation, modification, interactions and destruction of proteins. This is true for every cell, including human T lymphocytes. One way these cells can ascertain the fidelity and at least partial functionality of their proteomes under constant attack of irreversible modulations (e.g., ROS- or glycation-dependent) is proteostasis. However, with cellular aging proteostasis progressively fails and proteostenosis (decreased amounts and functionalities of remaining proteins) occurs...
October 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Jie Zhang, Yang Li, Guangyue Li, Xiufeng Ma, Huiping Wang, Nandu Goswami, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Hui Chang, Yunfang Gao
Previous studies in our lab have shown that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) could effectively attenuate disuse induced muscle atrophy. In order to screening out the optimal dose of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) for protection against disuse induced muscle atrophy in hindlimb unloading (HLU) rats, in this study, we compared effects of 4 TMP doses on muscle wet weight (MWW), the ratios of muscle wet weight/body weight (MWW/BW) and muscle wet weight/dry weight (MWW/DW), fiber type composition, as well as cross-sectional area (CSA) in soleus (SOL) muscle...
October 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Qiang Wang, Akram A Da'dara, Patrick J Skelly
Schistosomes are intravascular, parasitic flatworms that cause debilitating disease afflicting >200 million people. Proteins expressed at the host-parasite interface likely play key roles in modifying the worm's local environment to ensure parasite survival. Proteomic analysis reveals that two proteases belonging to the calpain family (SmCalp1 and SmCalp2) are expressed in the Schistosoma mansoni tegument. We have cloned both; while highly conserved in domain organization they display just 31% amino acid sequence identity...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shelby A Wright, Patricia Ramos, D Dwain Johnson, Jason M Scheffler, Mauricio A Elzo, Raluca G Mateescu, Amy L Bass, C Chad Carr, Tracy L Scheffler
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of Brahman genetics on muscle contractile and metabolic phenotype and postmortem proteolysis. Cattle used in this study represent a continuous spectrum of Angus-Brahman genetic variation. Steers were harvested and Longissimus samples were collected at 1.5h, 24h, and 14d postmortem. Proteolysis during the 14d aging period was evaluated, along with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and trained sensory panel tenderness. Myosin heavy chain composition and enzymatic activity were used to evaluate fiber type characteristics...
January 2018: Meat Science
Bide Liu, Yu Zhou, Dan Lu, Yong Liu, Si-Quan Zhang, Yan Xu, Wei Li, Xiao Gu
The understanding of molecular mechanisms that are involved in the development and the progression of gastric cancer (GC) are of importance for the diagnosis and treatment. The calpain system, which contains the calpains and the endogenous inhibitor, has been suggested as an important factor in the tumorigenesis and migration of colorectal adenocarcinoma, breast and ovarian cancer, and as a prognostic marker for GC. However, the expression level of calpain system proteins in GC and normal-appearing peritumoral gastric mucosa remain unknown...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
Guillaume Hanouna, Laurent Mesnard, Sophie Vandermeersch, Joëlle Perez, Sandrine Placier, Jean-Philippe Haymann, Fabien Campagne, Julien Moroch, Aurélien Bataille, Laurent Baud, Emmanuel Letavernier
Calpains are ubiquitous pro-inflammatory proteases, whose activity is controlled by calpastatin, their specific inhibitor. Transgenic mice over-expressing rabbit calpastatin (CalpTG) are protected against vascular remodelling and angiotensin II-dependent inflammation. We hypothesized that specific calpain inhibition would protect against aging-related lesions in arteries and kidneys. We analysed tissues from 2-months and 2-years-old CalpTG and wild-type mice and performed high throughput RNA-Sequencing of kidney tissue in aged mice...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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