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Gro Gujord Tangen, Astrid Bergland, Knut Engedal, Anne Marit Mengshoel
Parkinsonian signs are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) of mild degree and predict functional decline, but their relationship with gait speed and balance is unclear. The aims of this study were to describe characteristics of patients with parkinsonian signs among 98 patients with AD of mild degree (with no comorbid Parkinson's disease), and to examine associations between parkinsonian signs with gait speed and balance. A cross sectional study at a memory clinic was conducted. Presence of each parkinsonian sign (bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor) was derived from the UPDRS, regular gait speed was recorded over 10m and balance were assessed using the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest)...
October 14, 2016: Gait & Posture
Shigeto Sato, Masato Koike, Manabu Funayama, Junji Ezaki, Takahiro Fukuda, Takashi Ueno, Yasuo Uchiyama, Nobutaka Hattori
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS) is an autosomal recessive form of early-onset parkinsonism linked to the PARK9 locus. The causative gene for KRS is Atp13a2, which encodes a lysosomal type 5 P-type ATPase. We recently showed that KRS/PARK9-linked mutations lead to several lysosomal alterations, including reduced proteolytic processing of cathepsin D in vitro. However, it remains unknown how deficiency of Atp13a2 is connected to lysosomal impairments. To address this issue, we analyzed brain tissues of Atp13a2 conditional-knockout mice, which exhibited characteristic features of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, including accumulation of lipofuscin positive for subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase, suggesting that a common pathogenic mechanism underlies both neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Parkinson disease...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Xiaona Zhang, Xiaoxuan Sun, Junhong Wang, Liou Tang, Anmu Xie
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is thought to be one of the most frequent preceding symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the prevalence of RBD in PD stated in the published studies is still inconsistent. We conducted a meta and meta-regression analysis in this paper to estimate the pooled prevalence. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE and EBSCO up to June 2016 for related articles. STATA 12.0 statistics software was used to calculate the available data from each research...
October 21, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Walter Pirker, Regina Katzenschlager
Human gait depends on a complex interplay of major parts of the nervous, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems. The individual gait pattern is influenced by age, personality, mood and sociocultural factors. The preferred walking speed in older adults is a sensitive marker of general health and survival. Safe walking requires intact cognition and executive control. Gait disorders lead to a loss of personal freedom, falls and injuries and result in a marked reduction in the quality of life. Acute onset of a gait disorder may indicate a cerebrovascular or other acute lesion in the nervous system but also systemic diseases or adverse effects of medication, in particular polypharmacy including sedatives...
October 21, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Ruinan Gu, Fali Zhang, Gang Chen, Chaojun Han, Jay Liu, Zhaoxiang Ren, Yi Zhu, John L Waddington, Long Tai Zheng, Xuechu Zhen
Clock (Clk)1/COQ7 is a mitochondrial hydroxylase that is necessary for the biosynthesis of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q or UQ). Here, we investigate the role of Clk1 in neuroinflammation and consequentially dopaminergic (DA) neuron survival. Reduced expression of Clk1 in microglia enhanced the LPS-induced proinflammatory response and promoted aerobic glycolysis. Inhibition of glycolysis abolished Clk1 deficiency-induced hypersensitivity to the inflammatory stimulation. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that mTOR/HIF-1α and ROS/HIF-1α signaling pathways were involved in Clk1 deficiency-induced aerobic glycolysis...
October 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Tianfang Jiang, Qian Sun, Shengdi Chen
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the overproduction and incorporation of free radicals and the dynamic ability of a biosystem to detoxify reactive intermediates. Free radicals produced by oxidative stress are one of the common features in several experimental models of diseases. Free radicals affect both the structure and function of neural cells, and contribute to a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Although the precise mechanisms that result in the degeneration of neurons and the relevant pathological changes remain unclear, the crucial role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is associated with several proteins (such as α-synuclein, DJ-1, Amyloid β and tau protein) and some signaling pathways (such as extracellular regulated protein kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Protein Kinase B pathway and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2) that are tightly associated with the neural damage...
October 18, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Da-Shi Qi, Jin-Hao Tao, Lian-Qin Zhang, Mei Wang, Rui Qu, Lian-Qin Zhang, Pei Liu, Jian-Cheng Miu, Jing-Yi Ma, Xin-Yu Mei
Cilostazol(CTL) is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which has been widely used as anti-platelet agent. It also has preventive effects on various central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including ischemic stroke, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer disease. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effects of CTL is still unclear, and whether CTL can prevent I/R induced cognitive deficit has not been reported. Transient global brain ischemia was induced by 4-vessel occlusion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
Jaweed Haqparwar, Antonio Pepe, Klaus Fassbender, Ulrich Dillmann, Samer Ezziddin, Andrea Schaefer, Daniela Leppert, Jörg Spiegel
INTRODUCTION: Alpha-synuclein pathology (ASP) is a characteristic histopathological finding in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The ASP involves not only the brain but also extracranial structures. In the present study we utilized MIBG scintigraphy to measure the sympathetic innervation of the major salivary glands. We were interested in whether MIBG uptake in the major salivary glands represents a potential biomarker for ASP in PD. METHODS: We investigated 77 PD patients (age 61 ± 10 years, mean ± SD), while 15 non-PD patients (age 58 ± 15 years) with arterial hypertension, who underwent MIBG scintigraphy to exclude pheochromocytoma, served as age-matched controls...
October 15, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Cheng-Fu Chang, Yi-Chao Lee, Kuen-Haur Lee, Hui-Ching Lin, Chia-Ling Chen, Che-Kun James Shen, Chi-Chen Huang
BACKGROUND: In the central nervous system regions of the sporadic and familial FTLD and ALS patients, TDP-43 has been identified as the major component of UBIs inclusions which is abnormally hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and cleaved into C-terminal fragments to form detergent-insoluble aggregates. So far, the effective drugs for FTLD and ALS neurodegenerative diseases are yet to be developed. Autophagy has been demonstrated as the major metabolism route of the pathological TDP-43 inclusions, hence activation of autophagy is a potential therapeutic strategy for TDP-43 pathogenesis in FTLD and ALS...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Sonja Rutten, Chris Vriend, Jan H Smit, Henk W Berendse, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Odile A van den Heuvel, Ysbrand D van der Werf
BACKGROUND: A disturbed circadian rhythm seems to be a causal factor in the occurrence of depressive disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The circadian rhythm can be restored with light. Therefore, Bright Light Therapy (BLT) might be a new treatment option for depression in PD patients. METHODS/DESIGN: In this double-blind controlled trial, 84 subjects with idiopathic PD are randomized to either BLT or a control light condition. The BLT condition emits white light with an intensity of 10,000 Lux, while the control device emits dim white light of 200 Lux, which is presumed to be too low to influence the circadian rhythm...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Raquel Marin, Noemí Fabelo, Virginia Martín, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Isidre Ferrer, David Quinto-Alemany, Mario Díaz
Lipid rafts are highly dynamic membrane microdomains intimately associated with cell signaling. Compelling evidence has demonstrated that alterations in lipid rafts are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such Alzheimer's disease, but at present, whether alterations in lipid raft microdomains occur in other types of dementia such dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) remains unknown. Our analyses reveal that lipid rafts from DLB exhibit aberrant lipid profiles including low levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly docosahexaenoic acid), plasmalogens and cholesterol, and reduced unsaturation and peroxidability indexes...
September 6, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Manal Zafar, Ariyana Bozzorg, Madeleine E Hackney
PURPOSE: Our aims were to determine (1) the impact of aging versus combined aging and disease on participation and (2) participation before and after a 12-week, Adapted Tango dance intervention (AT) in older adults with and without Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Participant responses to open and closed-ended questions on the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire (IPA) were recorded before, one-week-after, and three-months after 20 lessons of AT...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Heather Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Vineeta Gupta, Nasreen Ghazi Ansari, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Sanjay Khattri
BACKGROUND: Various uses of metals in industries, including the domestic sphere, agriculture, medicine, and technology, have led to their wide distribution in the environment. These result in raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Because of their high degree of toxicity, Cd, Cr, and Pb are some of the priority metals that are of public health significance. The levels of Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni were measured in Parkinson's disease patients. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 40 patients and 40 healthy controls, and stored at -80 °C until assayed...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
C Schlenstedt, A Shalash, M Muthuraman, D Falk, K Witt, G Deuschl
The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the short- and long-term effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) on gait and freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease and to detect predictors of post-stimulation outcome. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted up to October 2015 using Medline Ovid databases for studies analyzing the effect of bilateral STN-DBS on FOG and/or gait. Sixteen studies with available data for the gait item (no. 29) of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and six studies with the FOG item (no...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Mercedes Garcia-Gil, Elisabetta Albi
In the last 20 years it has been widely demonstrated that cell nucleus contains neutral and polar lipids localized in nuclear membranes, nucleoli, nuclear matrix and chromatin. Nuclear lipids may show specific organization forming nuclear lipid microdomains and have both structural and functional roles. Depending on their localization, nuclear lipids play different roles such as the regulation of nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix fluidity but they also can act as platforms for vitamin and hormone function, for active chromatin anchoring, and for the regulation of gene expression, DNA duplication and transcription...
October 20, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Ewa Papuć, Konrad Rejdak
There is emerging evidence that glial cells are involved in the neuropathological process in Parkinson's disease (PD) in addition to degeneration of neuronal structures. Recently, we confirmed the presence of an adaptive immune response against different glial-derived antigens in PD, with a possible role of anti-MAG, anti-MBP and anti-PLP antibodies in the disease progression. The aim of the present study was to assess humoral response against myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in patients with parkinsonism (both idiopathic and atypical) to check whether these antibodies could serve as biomarkers of PD, its severity and progression...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Yingxue Yu, Xuehua Sun, Jinyang Gu, Chang Yu, Yankai Wen, Yueqiu Gao, Qiang Xia, Xiaoni Kong
Liver fibrosis is a global health problem and previous studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in fibrogenesis. Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset) 7 (Park7) also called DJ-1 has an essential role in modulating cellular ROS levels. DJ-1 therefore may play functions in liver fibrogenesis and modulation of DJ-1 may be a promising therapeutic approach. Here, wild-type (WT) and DJ-1 knockout (DJ-1 KO) mice were administrated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce liver fibrosis or acute liver injury...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Maria I Ventura, Deborah E Barnes, Jessica M Ross, Kimberly E Lanni, Karen A Sigvardt, Elizabeth A Disbrow
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with deficits in motor, cognitive, and emotion/quality of life (QOL) domains, yet most pharmacologic and behavioral interventions focus only on motor function. Our goal was to perform a pilot study of Dance for Parkinson's-a community-based program that is growing in popularity-in order to compare effect sizes across multiple outcomes and to inform selection of primary and secondary outcomes for a larger trial. Study participants were people with PD who self-enrolled in either Dance for Parkinson's classes (intervention group, N=8) or PD support groups (control group, N=7)...
October 17, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Shearwood McClelland, Joseph F Baker, Justin S Smith, Breton G Line, Thomas J Errico, Christopher P Ames, R Shay Bess
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder manifesting over time to result in reduced mobility. The impact of PD on spinal fusion has yet to be addressed on a nationwide level. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2001 to 2012 was used for analysis. Admissions with spinal fusion of two or more vertebrae (ICD-9 codes=81.62, 81.63 and 81.64) were included and then stratified based on the presence or absence of PD (ICD-9 code=332.0); patients with cancer (ICD-9 codes=140-239) or trauma (ICD-9 codes=805...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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