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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141147/a-water-soluble-galactose-decorated-cationic-photodynamic-therapy-agent-based-on-bodipy-to-selectively-eliminate-biofilm
#1
Xiaomei Dai, Xuelei Chen, Yu Zhao, Yunjian Yu, Xiaosong Wei, Xinge Zhang, Chaoxing Li
A multitude of serious chronic infections involved in bacterial biofilms that are difficult to eradicate. Here, a water-soluble galactose functionalized cationic 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY)-based photodynamic therapy agent was synthesized for selectively eliminating the bacterial biofilm. These conjugates can capture bacteria to form aggregations through electrostatic interaction and then generate a large number of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under visible light irradiation to kill the bacteria without the emergence of bacterial resistance...
November 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140982/development-standardization-and-testing-of-a-bacterial-wound-infection-model-based-on-ex-vivo-human-skin
#2
Christoph Schaudinn, Christin Dittmann, Jana Jurisch, Michael Laue, Nazende Günday-Türeli, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Annika Vogt, Fiorenza Rancan
Current research on wound infections is primarily conducted on animal models, which limits direct transferability of these studies to humans. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using-otherwise discarded-skin from cosmetic surgeries. Superficial wounds are induced in fresh ex vivo skin, followed by intradermal injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under the wound. Subsequently, the infected skin is incubated for 20 hours at 37°C and the CFU/wound are determined. Within 20 hours, the bacteria count increased from 107 to 109 bacteria per wound, while microscopy revealed a dense bacterial community in the collagen network of the upper wound layers as well as numerous bacteria scattered in the dermis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140766/the-rise-of-alternative-bread-leavening-technologies-in-the-nineteenth-century
#3
Carolyn Ann Cobbold
This article reveals how nineteenth-century chemists and health reformers tried to eradicate the use of yeast in bread, claiming they had devised healthier and more sanitary ways to raise bread. It describes the alternative technological solutions to baking bread, investigating factors that influenced their development and adaptation in the marketplace. A lack of scientific and cultural consensus surrounding yeast, what it was and what it did, fermented during this period. The conflict over yeast helped create a heterogeneous industrialization of the baking industry, changing processes and ingredients and creating new forms of bakery products...
November 15, 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140260/vaccinia-virus-natural-infections-in-brazil-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#4
REVIEW
Jaqueline Silva de Oliveira, Poliana de Oliveira Figueiredo, Galileu Barbosa Costa, Felipe Lopes de Assis, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira, Erna Geessien Kroon, Giliane de Souza Trindade
The orthopoxviruses (OPV) comprise several emerging viruses with great importance to human and veterinary medicine, including vaccinia virus (VACV), which causes outbreaks of bovine vaccinia (BV) in South America. Historically, VACV is the most comprehensively studied virus, however, its origin and natural hosts remain unknown. VACV was the primary component of the smallpox vaccine, largely used during the smallpox eradication campaign. After smallpox was declared eradicated, the vaccination that conferred immunity to OPV was discontinued, favoring a new contingent of susceptible individuals to OPV...
November 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140108/cytomegalovirus-and-hiv-persistence-pouring-gas-on-the-fire
#5
Aaron Christensen-Quick, Christophe Vanpouille, Andrea Lisco, Sara Gianella
The inherent stability of a small population of T cells that are latently infected with HIV despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a stubborn obstacle to an HIV cure. By exploiting the memory compartment of our immune system, HIV maintains persistence in a small subset of quiescent cells with varying phenotypes, thus evading immune surveillance and clinical detection. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms that maintain the latent reservoir will be critical to the success of HIV eradication strategies...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139579/topical-adjuvants-incompletely-remove-adherent-staphylococcus-aureus-from-implant-materials
#6
Emily P Ernest, Anthony S Machi, Brock A Karolcik, P Rocco LaSala, Matthew J Dietz
Adjuvant treatments including Betadine, Dakin's solution (sodium hypochlorite), or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been attempted to eradicate prosthetic joint infection caused by biofilm or intracellular bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro abilities of chemical adjuvants to decrease Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilm presence on orthopaedic implant grade materials, including titanium, stainless steel, and cobalt chrome. S. aureus biofilms were grown for 48 hours and evaluated for baseline colony forming units/centimeter squared (CFU/cm(2) ) and compared to treatments with Betadine, Dakin's solution, H2 O2 , or 1% chlorine dioxide (ClO2 )...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139180/successful-heart-transplantation-in-patients-with-active-staphylococcus-bloodstream-infection-and-suspected-mechanical-circulatory-support-device-infection
#7
Timothy Sullivan, Sarah Taimur, Meenakshi Rana, Gopi Patel, Sean Pinney, Anelechi Anyanwu, Shirish Huprikar
BACKGROUND: An active bloodstream infection (BSI) is typically considered a contraindication to heart transplantation (HT). However, in some patients with Staphylococcus bacteremia and mechanical circulatory support device infection, positive blood cultures may persist until removal of the infected device, and eradicating the infection prior to HT may not be possible. We report the outcomes of six patients with active Staphylococcus BSI at the time of HT. METHODS: All cases of HT performed at The Mount Sinai Hospital from 2009 through 2015 were reviewed...
November 15, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138921/world-trends-for-h-pylori-eradication-therapy-and-gastric-cancer-prevention-strategy-by-h-pylori-test-and-treat
#8
REVIEW
Hidekazu Suzuki, Hideki Mori
Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis leads to the development of gastric cancer. Kyoto global consensus report on H. pylori gastritis recommended H. pylori eradication therapy to prevent gastric cancer. To manage H. pylori infection, it is important to choose the appropriate regimen considering regional differences in resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole. Quinolones and rifabutin-containing regimens are useful as third- and fourth-line rescue therapies.
November 14, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138883/hallmarks-of-bone-metastasis
#9
REVIEW
Rachelle W Johnson, Larry J Suva
Breast cancer bone metastasis develops as the result of a series of complex interactions between tumor cells, bone marrow cells, and resident bone cells. The net effect of these interactions are the disruption of normal bone homeostasis, often with significantly increased osteoclast and osteoblast activity, which has provided a rational target for controlling tumor progression, with little or no emphasis on tumor eradication. Indeed, the clinical course of metastatic breast cancer is relatively long, with patients likely to experience sequential skeletal-related events (SREs), often over lengthy periods of time, even up to decades...
November 14, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138104/novel-mixed-vesicles-containing-lactobacilli-biosurfactant-for-vaginal-delivery-of-an-anti-candida-agent
#10
Angela Abruzzo, Barbara Giordani, Carola Parolin, Beatrice Vitali, Michele Protti, Laura Mercolini, Martina Cappelletti, Stefano Fedi, Federica Bigucci, Teresa Cerchiara, Barbara Luppi
The purpose of this work was to prepare and characterize an innovative formulation for vaginal delivery of econazole nitrate, commonly used for the treatment of Candida infections. A novel biosurfactant isolated from a vaginal Lactobacillus strain was used to prepare phosphatidylcholine based mixed vesicles. Biosurfactant was produced by Lactobacillus gasseri BC9, isolated from the vagina of a healthy premenopausal woman, and was chemically characterized by FT-IR and ESI-MS. Mixed vesicles, obtained through film rehydration and extrusion method, were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, mucoadhesion properties and econazole release...
November 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137077/quality-of-life-and-complications-at-the-different-stages-of-bone-transport-for-treatment-infected-nonunion-of-the-tibia
#11
Hu Wang, Xing Wei, Ping Liu, Ya-Hui Fu, Peng-Fei Wang, Yu-Xuan Cong, Bin-Fei Zhang, Zhong Li, Jin-Lai Lei, Kun Zhang, Yan Zhuang
The aim of this study was to assess Physical Component Summary (PCS), Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the Mos 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) score, and the virtual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain during the treatment period and the complication rate associated with infected nonunion of the tibia managed surgically by bone transport.This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in a consecutive patient cohort. Patients suffering from infected nonunion of the tibia were treated by bone transport from 2012 to 2014...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136503/acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-a-paradigm-for-oncoprotein-targeted-cure
#12
REVIEW
Hugues de Thé, Pier Paolo Pandolfi, Zhu Chen
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that the immense majority of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients can be definitively cured by the combination of two targeted therapies: retinoic acid (RA) and arsenic. Mouse models have provided unexpected insights into the mechanisms involved. Restoration of PML nuclear bodies upon RA- and/or arsenic-initiated PML/RARA degradation is essential, while RA-triggered transcriptional activation is dispensable for APL eradication. Mutations of the arsenic-binding site of PML/RARA, but also PML, have been detected in therapy-resistant patients, demonstrating the key role of PML in APL cure...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136469/novel-linear-lipopeptide-paenipeptins-with-potential-for-eradicating-biofilms-and-sensitizing-gram-negative-bacteria-to-rifampicin-and-clarithromycin
#13
Sun Hee Moon, Xuan Zhang, Guangrong Zheng, Daniel G Meeker, Mark S Smeltzer, En Huang
We report the structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses of 17 linear lipopeptide paenipeptin analogues. Analogues 7, 12 and 17 were more potent than the lead compound. Analogue 17 was active against carbapenem-resistant and polymyxin-resistant pathogens. This compound at 40 μg/mL resulted in 3 log and 2.6 log reductions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, in catheter-associated biofilms in vitro. Analogue 17 showed little hemolysis at 32 µg/ml and lysed 11% of red blood cells at 64 µg/ml...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136329/follow-up-of-sustained-virologic-responders-with-hepatitis-c-and-advanced-liver-disease-after-interferon-ribavirin-free-treatment
#14
Karin Kozbial, Stephan Moser, Ramona Al-Zoairy, Remy Schwarzer, Christian Datz, Rudolf Stauber, Hermann Laferl, Michael Strasser, Sandra Beinhardt, Albert Friedrich Stättermayer, Michael Gschwantler, Heinz Zoller, Andreas Maieron, Ivo Graziadei, Michael Trauner, Petra Steindl-Munda, Harald Hofer, Peter Ferenci
BACKGROUND: The introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has increased sustained virological response (SVR) rates in patients with advanced liver disease and chronic hepatitis C(CHC)infection. At present, data on clinical outcome and long-term durability of viral eradication after successful DAA therapy are scarce. AIM: To evaluate the long-term success of viral eradication in patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis treated with DAAs. METHODS: Five hundred and fifty one patients with advanced fibrosis (n=158) or liver cirrhosis (CPS-A:317,CPS-B/C:76) and SVR after interferon and ribavirin-free DAA therapy treated between October 2013 and April 2016 were studied with a median follow-up of 65...
November 14, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135922/targeting-immune-cell-checkpoints-during-sepsis
#15
REVIEW
Naeem K Patil, Yin Guo, Liming Luan, Edward R Sherwood
Immunosuppression is increasingly being recognized as one of the causes of increased morbidity and mortality during sepsis. Both innate and adaptive immune system dysfunction have been shown to cause an impaired ability to eradicate the primary infection and also lead to frequent occurrence of secondary opportunistic infections. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules, including programmed death-1 (PD-1), programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), T cell membrane protein-3 (TIM-3), Lymphocyte activation-gene-3 (LAG-3) and 2B4, are upregulated during the course of sepsis...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135040/the-suppressive-effects-of-geniposide-and-genipin-on-helicobacter-pylori-infections-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Chiung-Hung Chang, Jin-Bin Wu, Jai-Sing Yang, Yen-Ju Lai, Chiu-Hsian Su, Chi-Cheng Lu, Yuan-Man Hsu
Geniposide and genipin have been found in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, a traditional Chinese medicine that exhibits multiple biological functions. However, no report showing the effects of geniposide and genipin on gastric protection in Helicobacter pylori infections in vitro and in vivo has been done. In this study, we clarified how geniposide and genipin suppress H. pylori-mediated inflammation in gastric AGS cells and C57BL/6 mice. Our results demonstrated that genipin shows a strong ability to inhibit H...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133892/er-associated-degradation-regulates-alzheimer-s-amyloid-pathology-and-memory-function-by-modulating-%C3%AE-secretase-activity
#17
Bing Zhu, LuLin Jiang, Timothy Huang, Yingjun Zhao, Tongfei Liu, Yongwang Zhong, Xiaoguang Li, Alexandre Campos, Kenneth Pomeroy, Eliezer Masliah, Dongxian Zhang, Huaxi Xu
Endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is an important protein quality control system which maintains protein homeostasis. Constituents of the ERAD complex and its role in neurodegeneration are not yet fully understood. Here, using proteomic and FRET analyses, we demonstrate that the ER protein membralin is an ERAD component, which mediates degradation of ER luminal and membrane substrates. Interestingly, we identify nicastrin, a key component of the γ-secretase complex, as a membralin binding protein and membralin-associated ERAD substrate...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133755/analysis-of-the-relationship-between-helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-diabetic-gastroparesis
#18
Ju Huang
BACKGROUND: Whether Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential correlation between H. pylori infection and DGP. METHODS: In this study, 163 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 175 nondiabetic patients who were treated in our department were divided into DGP, simple diabetes, non-DGP (NDG), and normal groups based on their conditions. The H. pylori infection rate in each group was calculated...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133552/cd101-a-novel-echinocandin-possesses-potent-anti-biofilm-activity-against-early-and-mature-candida-albicans-biofilms
#19
Jyotsna Chandra, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
Currently available echinocandins are generally effective against Candida biofilms, but recent emergence of resistance has underscored the importance of developing new antifungal agents that are effective against biofilms. CD101 is a long-acting, novel echinocandin with distinctive pharmacokinetic properties and improved stability and safety relative to other drugs in the same class. CD101 is currently being evaluated as a once-weekly IV infusion for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. In this study, we determined: (1) the effect of CD101 against early and mature phase biofilms formed by C...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133134/sensing-the-breaks-cytosolic-chromatin-in-senescence-and-cancer
#20
Raffaella Di Micco
Cellular senescence constitutes a stable growth arrest characterized by DNA damage response (DDR) activation and by the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). SASP, through its paracrine effects, stimulates the immune system for senescence eradication. Similarly, chemotherapy-treated cancers activate an interferon-mediated response to induce anti-tumor immunity. Recent studies now uncover a new role for the innate DNA sensing pathway in the recognition of cytosolic chromatin in senescence and cancer...
November 10, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
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