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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222269/restoring-cftr-function-reduces-airway-bacteria-and-inflammation-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-chronic-lung-infections
#1
Katherine B Hisert, Sonya L Heltshe, Christopher Pope, Peter Jorth, Xia Wu, Rachael M Edwards, Matthew Radey, Frank J Accurso, Daniel J Wolter, Gordon Cooke, Ryan J Adam, Suzanne Carter, Brenda Grogan, Jan L Launspach, Seamas C Donnelly, Charles Gallagher, James E Bruce, David Stoltz, Michael J Welsh, Lucas R Hoffman, Edward F McKone, Pradeep K Singh
RATIONALE: Previous work indicates that ivacaftor improves CFTR activity and lung function in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and G551D-CFTR mutations, but does not reduce density of bacteria or markers of inflammation in the airway. These findings raise the possibility that infection and inflammation may progress independently of CFTR activity once CF lung disease is established. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the relationship between CFTR activity, airway microbiology and inflammation, and lung function in subjects with CF and chronic airway infections...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221819/a-prospective-study-of-endoscopic-injection-sclerotherapy-and-endoscopic-variceal-ligation-in-the-treatment-of-esophageal-varices
#2
Syed Mohsin Ali, Shanbin Wu, Hongwei Xu, Hui Liu, Jinghua Hao, Chengyong Qin
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) with endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) in the management of esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, we compared the EIS and EVL in 124 patients who had endoscopically proved bleeding from esophageal varices. According to different treatment methods, they were randomly divided into the EIS and the EVL groups...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221736/individual-pharmacokinetic-variation-leads-to-underdosing-of-ciprofloxacin-in-some-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#3
A N Ø Schultz, N Høiby, X C Nielsen, T Pressler, K Dalhoff, M Duno, A Buchard, H K Johansen, H Wang, C S Dalbøge
Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is frequently used when treating cystic fibrose (CF) patients with intermittent Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) lung colonization. However, approximately 20% of the patients progress to chronic infection despite early intervention. The aim of this study, was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of CIP, to evaluate if CYP3A4-related metabolism is involved and to find the optimal dose needed to eradicate intermittently colonizing bacteria in the lungs of CF patients. Methods An open-label, prospective pharmacokinetic study was performed...
March 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220772/tumour-and-host-cell-pd-l1-is-required-to-mediate-suppression-of-anti-tumour-immunity-in-mice
#4
Janet Lau, Jeanne Cheung, Armando Navarro, Steve Lianoglou, Benjamin Haley, Klara Totpal, Laura Sanders, Hartmut Koeppen, Patrick Caplazi, Jacqueline McBride, Henry Chiu, Rebecca Hong, Jane Grogan, Vincent Javinal, Robert Yauch, Bryan Irving, Marcia Belvin, Ira Mellman, Jeong M Kim, Maike Schmidt
Expression of PD-L1, the ligand for T-cell inhibitory receptor PD-1, is one key immunosuppressive mechanism by which cancer avoids eradication by the immune system. Therapeutic use of blocking antibodies to PD-L1 or its receptor PD-1 has produced unparalleled, durable clinical responses, with highest likelihood of response seen in patients whose tumour or immune cells express PD-L1 before therapy. The significance of PD-L1 expression in each cell type has emerged as a central and controversial unknown in the clinical development of immunotherapeutics...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220371/multiple-nonsyndromic-acquired-basal-cell-carcinomas-uncommon-clinical-presentation-in-a-bulgarian-patient
#5
Georgi Tchernev, Ivan Pidakev, Ilia Lozev, Torello Lotti, Uwe Wollina
Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cutaneous neoplasm, with slowly progressive nature and locally invasive behavior. Despite the low metastatic potential, local tissue destruction and disfigurement caused by the tumor can be large if not eradicated in time by early diagnosis and treatment. Both genetic predisposition and exposure to environmental risks are involved in the pathogenesis of the malignant transformation in BCC. The total number of nonmelanocytic skin cancers is a risk factor for recurrence of previous tumor, on the one hand, as well as for the formation of new ones, on the other...
February 20, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219826/hot-topics-in-reactive-oxygen-therapy-antimicrobial-and-immunological-mechanisms-safety-and-clinical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Matthew Dryden, Jonathan Cooke, Rami Salib, Rebecca Holding, Sylvia Pender, Jill Brooks
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), when combined with various delivery mechanisms, has the potential to become a powerful novel therapeutic agent against difficult-to-treat infections, especially those involving biofilm. It is important in the context of the global antibiotic resistance crisis. ROS is rapidly active in vitro against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. ROS also has antifungal and antiviral properties. ROS prevents the formation of biofilms caused by a range of bacterial species in wounds and respiratory epithelium...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219691/hepatitis-b-reactivation-associated-with-immune-suppressive-and-biological-modifier-therapies-current-concepts-management-strategies-and-future-directions
#7
REVIEW
Rohit Loomba, T Jake Liang
Hepatitis B reactivation associated with immune suppressive and biological therapies is emerging to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with current or prior exposure to hepatitis B virus infection. The population at risk for HBV reactivation includes those who are either currently infected with HBV or have past exposure to HBV. Since curative and eradicative therapy for HBV is not currently available, there is a large reservoir of individuals at risk for HBV reactivation in the general population...
February 17, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219643/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-variants-of-a-cancer-testis-antigen-lemd1-in-colorectal-cancer-stem-like-cells
#8
Rui Takeda, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Min Shen, Liming Wang, Tadashi Ogawa, Aiko Murai, Eri Yamamoto, Terufumi Kubo, Munehide Nakatsugawa, Takayuki Kanaseki, Tomohide Tsukahara, Toshihiko Nishidate, Kenji Okita, Goro Kutomi, Noriyuki Sato, Ichiro Takemasa, Toshihiko Torigoe
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancy, and the prognosis is not still satisfactory due to treatment resistance, recurrence and distant metastasis. Cancer stem cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) is endowed with higher tumor-initiating ability, self-renewal ability and differentiation ability, and CSCs/CICs are resistant to treatments. Thus, CSCs/CICs are thought to be responsible for recurrence and distant metastasis, and eradication of CSCs/CICs is essential to cure CRCs. However, the molecular mechanisms of CSCs/CICs are remain unknown, and we aimed to elucidate molecular aspects of CR-CSCs/CICs in this study...
February 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219601/syndrome-of-inappropriate-anti-diuretic-hormone-secretion-secondary-to-strongyloides-stercoralis-infection-in-an-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
M Khushman, M I Morris, L Diaz, M Goodman, D Pereira, K Fuller, M Garcia-Buitrago, B Moshiree, S Zelaya, A Nayer, C L Benjamin, K V Komanduri
Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) has been reported to be associated with systemic Strongyloides stercoralis. Here, we report a case of a stem cell transplant (SCT) recipient who developed severe SIADH secondary to systemic S Stercoralis. The SIADH resolved quickly after treating the systemic S Stercoralis with ivermectin. A systematic review of the literature was performed by PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane database search. Only eight cases of S Stercoralis in allogeneic SCT recipients have been previously reported...
March 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219523/combinatorial-effect-of-mutagenesis-and-medium-component-optimization-on-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-antifungal-activity-and-efficacy-in-eradicating-botrytis-cinerea
#10
Fatma Masmoudi, Saoussen Ben Khedher, Amel Kamoun, Nabil Zouari, Slim Tounsi, Mohamed Trigui
This work is directed towards Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BLB371 metabolite production for biocontrol of fungal phytopathogens. In order to maximise antifungal metabolite production by this strain, two approaches were combined: random mutagenesis and medium component optimization. After three rounds of mutagenesis, a hyper active mutant, named M3-7, was obtained. It produces 7 fold more antifungal metabolites (1800AU/mL) than the wild strain in MC medium. A hybrid design was applied to optimise a new medium to enhance antifungal metabolite production by M3-7...
April 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218973/expression-of-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-in-the-methylotrophic-yeast-pichia-pastoris
#11
Safa Ben Azoun, Meriem Ben Zakour, Soufien Sghaier, Héla Kallel
Rabies is a fatal disease that can be prevented by vaccination. Different approaches were investigated to develop novel human rabies vaccines with improved features compared to the current available vaccines, among them is the use of heterologous gene expression technology. Here, we describe the expression of the surface rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G), which is the major antigen responsible for the induction of protective immunity, in Pichia pastoris. Six transformants were selected according to their gene copy number as determined by real time qPCR...
January 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218902/retinoic-acid-directs-breast-cancer-cell-state-changes-through-regulation-of-tet2-pkc%C3%AE-pathway
#12
M-J Wu, M R Kim, Y-S Chen, J-Y Yang, C-J Chang
The key molecular mechanism governing the cancer cell state (stem cell-like state vs differentiation state) to control the cancer stem cell (CSC) pool remains elusive. This study provides the first evidence showing that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces the interaction and chromatin recruitment of a novel RARβ-TET2 complex to epigenetically activate a specific cohort of gene targets, including MiR-200c. TET2-activated miR-200c further targets and suppresses PKCζ, a cell polarity protein that has a pivotal role in directing asymmetric division of mammalian stem cells to sustain the stem cell pool...
February 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218698/genetic-assessment-of-african-swine-fever-isolates-involved-in-outbreaks-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-between-2005-and-2012-reveals-co-circulation-of-p72-genotypes-i-ix-and-xiv-including-19-variants
#13
Leopold K Mulumba-Mfumu, Jenna E Achenbach, Matthew R Mauldin, Linda K Dixon, Curé Georges Tshilenge, Etienne Thiry, Noelia Moreno, Esther Blanco, Claude Saegerman, Charles E Lamien, Adama Diallo
African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease of domestic pigs. It is a socioeconomically important disease, initially described from Kenya, but subsequently reported in most Sub-Saharan countries. ASF spread to Europe, South America and the Caribbean through multiple introductions which were initially eradicated-except for Sardinia-followed by re‑introduction into Europe in 2007. In this study of ASF within the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 62 domestic pig samples, collected between 2005-2012, were examined for viral DNA and sequencing at multiple loci: C-terminus of the B646L gene (p72 protein), central hypervariable region (CVR) of the B602L gene, and the E183L gene (p54 protein)...
February 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217920/impact-of-target-area-selection-in-125-iodine-seed-brachytherapy-on-locoregional-recurrence-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Wei-Liang Yan, Jin-Shuang Lv, Zhi-Yu Guan, Li-Yang Wang, Jing-Kui Yang, Ji-Xiang Liang
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous implantation of (125) Iodine radioactive seeds requires the precise arrangement of seeds by tumor shape. We tested whether selecting target areas, including subclinical areas around tumors, can influence locoregional recurrence in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHOD: We divided 82 patients with NSCLC into two groups. Target areas in group 1 (n = 40) were defined along tumor margins based on lung-window CT...
February 20, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217815/hiv-and-kidney-a-dangerous-liaison
#15
Alessia Bertoldi, Elisa De Crignis, Anna Miserocchi, Isabella Bon, Giuseppina Musumeci, Serena Longo, Vanessa D'Urbano, Gaetano La Manna, Leonardo Calza, Maria Carla Re
Kidney disease represents an important health concern among HIV-infected individuals, with an estimated prevalence ranging between 2.4 and 17%. The widespread use of antiretroviral drugs has changed the epidemiology of kidney disease in the HIV positive population, drastically reducing the percentage of patients affected by HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a complication characterized by apoptosis and de-differentiation of renal epithelial cells and podocytes. However, impaired kidney function remains an important issue among HIV-infected patients because of their long-term exposure to antiretroviral drugs and the growing burden of traditional risk factors associated with chronic renal disease...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217708/aberrant-rna-splicing-and-mutations-in-spliceosome-complex-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#16
COMMENT
Jianbiao Zhou, Wee-Joo Chng
The spliceosome, the cellular splicing machinery, regulates RNA splicing of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) into maturation of protein coding RNAs. Recurrent mutations and copy number changes in genes encoding spliceosomal proteins and splicing regulatory factors have tumor promoting or suppressive functions in hematological malignancies, as well as some other cancers. Leukemia stem cell (LSC) populations, although rare, are essential contributors of treatment failure and relapse. Recent researches have provided the compelling evidence that link the erratic spicing activity to the LSC phenotype in acute myeloid leukemia (AML)...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217582/detection-of-anti-filarial-antibody-among-hydrocele-patients-living-in-an-endemic-area-for-filariasis
#17
Amit Kumar Singh, Loveleena Agarwal, Krishna Lakhmani, Chandrim Sengupta, Ravinder Pal Singh
BACKGROUND: The knowledge of the current prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and its transmission will be helpful in its elimination. Thus, the present study is aimed to determine its prevalence among hydrocele patients which is a common presentation in chronically infected cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients suffering from hydrocele admitted to the surgical ward were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from the patients during the day hours for the detection of anti-filarial antibody and during night hours to detect the presence of microfilaria by smear examination...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217039/desiccant-dust-and-the-use-of-co2-gas-as-a-mobility-stimulant-for-bed-bugs-a-potential-control-solution
#18
Anders Aak, Espen Roligheten, Bjørn Arne Rukke, Tone Birkemoe
The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius, Hemiptera; Cimicidae) infests homes and service industries, and the number of infestations has greatly increased over the past 20 years. At present, no cost-effective control methods are available, and eradication programs are expensive and laborious. We investigated the control potential of desiccant dust in combination with CO2 as a bed bug activity stimulant. An initial experiment with two desiccant dusts was followed by arena studies with varying doses, available hiding places and the presence or absence of host signals...
2017: Journal of Pest Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216974/comparative-study-vonoprazan-and-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-therapy
#19
Kouichi Sakurai, Hiroko Suda, Yumi Ido, Takayuki Takeichi, Ayako Okuda, Kiwamu Hasuda, Masahiro Hattori
AIM: To compare the effectiveness and safety of vonoprazan-based therapy with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based therapies to treat Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from first-line (vonoprazan or PPI with 200 mg clarithromycin and 750 mg amoxicillin twice daily for 7 d) (n = 1353) and second-line (vonoprazan or PPI with 250 mg metronidazole and 750 mg amoxicillin twice daily for 7 d) (n = 261) eradication treatments for H...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216818/limb-salvage-with-microvascular-free-fibula-following-primary-bone-sarcoma-resection
#20
Sahasrabudhe Parag, Panchwagh Yogesh, Jesal Rathod, Panse Nikhil, Jadhav Amit
BACKGROUND: Extremity sarcomas are challenging to manage. Total eradication of tumour has to be balanced with restoration of limb function to prevent mortality and morbidity. Disease-free survival with maximum limb function is the ultimate goal in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a series of ten cases of extremity malignancies, where limb salvage was attempted with microvascular free fibula for limb reconstruction from the period of 2008 to 2015...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
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