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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912736/citrus-junos-tanaka-peel-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-hepg2-cells-and-in-mice-fed-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#1
Eun Ju Shin, Jae Ho Park, Mi Jeong Sung, Min-Yu Chung, Jin-Taek Hwang
BACKGROUND: Citrus junos Tanaka (yuja), a yellow-coloured citrus fruit has traditionally been consumed in Korea, Japan, and China and has been found effective in preventing certain diseases. However, the inhibitory effect of yuja on hepatic lipid accumulation has not been clearly elucidated thus far. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of yuja on hepatic lipid accumulation was investigated in both cell culture and mouse models. We investigated the inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of yuja peel (YE) using HepG2 cells...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889747/alisol-a-24-acetate-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-and-metabolic-disorders-in-hepg2-cells
#2
Lu Zeng, WaiJiao Tang, JinJin Yin, LiJuan Feng, Yabing Li, Xiaorui Yao, BenJie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with metabolic disorders including hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. Alisol A 24-acetate, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizome, has multiple biologic activities such as hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic. Thus we hypothesized that Alisol A 24 -acetate would have effect on NAFLD. The present study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of Alisol A 24-acetate against hepatic steatosis in a free fatty acids (FFAs) induced NAFLD cell model...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884680/caloric-restriction-ameliorates-cardiomyopathy-in-animal-model-of-diabetes
#3
Keren Cohen, Maayan Waldman, Nader G Abraham, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Danny Gurfield, Dan Aravot, Michael Arad, Edith Hochhauser
BACKGROUND: The db/db mouse is an animal model of diabetes in which leptin receptor activity is deficient resulting accelerated cardiomyopathy when exposed to angiotensin (AT). Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 (TLR4, TLR2) are pattern recognition receptors, that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and exacerbate and release inflammatory cytokines. Fetuin A (Fet A) is a fatty acid carrier which affects inflammation and insulin resistance in obese humans and animals through TLRs...
November 21, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881385/antihypertensive-effects-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-activation
#4
Marta Toral, Miguel Romero, Francisco Perez-Vizcaino, Juan Duarte, Rosario Jimenez
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, which is composed of three members encoded by distinct genes: PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. The biological actions of PPARα and PPARγ and their potential as a cardiovascular therapeutic target have been extensively reviewed, whereas the biological actions of PPARβ/δ and its effectiveness as a therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension remain less investigated...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867498/bone-muscle-crosstalk-targets-muscle-regeneration-pathway-regulated-by-core-circadian-transcriptional-repressors-dec1-and-dec2
#5
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Gorski, Jeffrey L Price
Deletion of proprotein convertase Mbtps1 in bone osteocytes leads to a significant postnatal increase in skeletal muscle size and contractile function, while causing only a 25% increase in stiffness in long bones. Concerns about leakiness in skeletal muscle were discounted since Cre recombinase expression does not account for our findings, and, Mbtps1 protein and mRNA is not deleted. Interestingly, the response of normal skeletal muscle to exercise and the regenerative response of skeletal muscle to the deletion of Mbtps1 in bone share some key regulatory features including a preference for slow twitch muscle fibers...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861729/antidepressant-like-effects-of-fenofibrate-in-mice-via-the-hippocampal-bdnf-signaling-pathway
#6
Bo Jiang, Ying-Jie Wang, Hao Wang, Lu Song, Chao Huang, Qing Zhu, Feng Wu, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder accompanied by decreased brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling cascade in the hippocampus. Fenofibrate is a selective agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). In this study, we investigated the antidepressant-like effects of fenofibrate in C57BL/6 J mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The antidepressant-like effects of fenofibrate were first detected in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), and then assessed in the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model...
November 15, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860527/roles-of-ppar-transcription-factors-in-the-energetic-metabolic-switch-occurring-during-adult-neurogenesis
#7
E Di Giacomo, E Benedetti, L Cristiano, A Antonosante, M d'Angelo, A Fidoamore, D Barone, S Moreno, R Ippoliti, M P Cerù, A Giordano, A Cimini
PPARs are a class of ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the superfamily of receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones, retinoids and vitamin D that control the expression of a large number of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. The role of PPARs in the CNS has been primarily associated with lipid and glucose metabolism; however, these receptors are also implicated in neural cell differentiation and death, as well as neuronal maturation...
November 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858842/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-pro12ala-polymorphism-and-the-risks-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-an-updated-meta-analysis-of-12-studies
#8
Lihong Wang, Wenting Xu, Xu Wang
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-λ (PPAR-λ) is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor often found in the adrenal gland, the spleen, and adipose tissue. The Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR-λ has been associated with the risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); however, association studies have provided conflicting results. The aim of this Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) compliant meta-analysis is to reach a more up-to-date and accurate estimation of the relationship between Pro12Ala genetic polymorphisms and the risks of GDM...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849367/fetal-exposure-to-low-levels-of-the-plasticizer-dehp-predisposes-the-adult-male-adrenal-gland-for-endocrine-disruption
#9
S Lee, D B Martinez-Arguelles, E Campioli, V Papadopoulos
In utero exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may affect adult health. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an EDC widely used in the production of polyvinyl chloride products and an ubiquitous environmental contaminant. Previously, we used a rat model system to show that fetal exposure to DEHP decreased levels of major steroid hormones in adulthood and that environmentally-relevant levels of DEHP affected both gene expression and epigenomic loci that were affected by exposure to high levels. In the adrenal gland, we reported that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways were sensitive targets of DEHP...
November 16, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845069/mechanism-of-corilagin-interference-with-il-13-stat6-signaling-pathways-in-hepatic-alternative-activation-macrophages-in-schistosomiasis-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-mouse-model
#10
Peng Du, Qian Ma, Zhi-De Zhu, Gang Li, Yao Wang, Quan-Qiang Li, Yun-Fei Chen, Zhen-Zhong Shang, Juan Zhang, Lei Zhao
This study tried to find the mechanism of Corilagin interference with interleukin (IL)-13/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 signaling pathways in IL-13-activated liver alternative activation macrophages in schistosomiasis-induced liver fibrosis in Balb/c mice. As a result, IL-13 in serum and the mRNA expression of IL-13 Receptor α1, IL-4 Receptor α and downstream mediators supressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1, Kruppel-like factor (KLF) 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ in the liver tissue were significantly inhibited by Corilagin (P<0...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834124/gymnema-sylvestre-for-diabetes-from-traditional-herb-to-future-s-therapeutic
#11
Pragya Tiwari, Khurshid Ahmad, Mohammad Hassan Baig
Diabetes has increased at an unprecedented rate and is fast emerging as a global threat worldwide. The focus on pharmacological studies pertaining to diabetes has seen a remarkable shift from conventional medicines to therapeutics employing bioactive phytomolecules from natural sources. The prospective effectiveness of natural products together with their low cost and minimal side effects has revolutionized the entire concept of drug discovery and management programs. One such beneficial herb is Gymnema sylvestre, possessing remarkable hypoglycemic properties and forms the platform of diabetes therapeutics in the traditional system of medication...
November 8, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832992/studies-on-the-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism-and-its-mechanism-of-the-iridoids-rich-fraction-in-valeriana-jatamansi-jones
#12
Jiali Zhu, Keke Xu, Xuemei Zhang, Jiahong Cao, Zhanrong Jia, Ruocong Yang, Chaoying Ma, Chang Chen, Tiane Zhang, Zhiyong Yan
Valeriana jatamansi Jones, a plant with heart-shaped leaves in the Valeriana genus of Valerianaceae, is widely used in Chinese folk medicine. Iridoid is an important constituent of V. jatamansi that contributes to the pharmacological efficacy of the herb. This study aims to investigate the regulation of lipid metabolism and its mechanism of the iridoids rich fraction in V. jatamansi (IRFV). A high fat diet was used to establish the hyperlipidemia rat model, with 2mg/kg/d of simvastatin as a positive control, fed with 7...
November 7, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828718/5-7-dimethoxyflavone-attenuates-obesity-by-inhibiting-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-and-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-c57bl-6j-mice
#13
Youngwoo Song, Mi-Bo Kim, Changhee Kim, Jongwook Kim, Jae-Kwan Hwang
The antiobesity effect of 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF) was evaluated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. The accumulation of lipid droplets and triglycerides in adipocytes was dose dependently suppressed by DMF through inhibition of adipogenesis. DMF downregulated the adipogenic transcription factors (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [PPAR]γ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein [C/EBP]α, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c [SREBP-1c]) and lipid synthesis enzymes (fatty acid synthase [FAS], acetyl-CoA carboxylase [ACC], lipoprotein lipase [LPL], and HMG-CoA reductase [HMGR])...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823969/targeting-ezh1-and-ezh2-contributes-to-the-suppression-of-fibrosis-associated-genes-by-mir-214-3p-in-cardiac-myofibroblasts
#14
Wen-Si Zhu, Chun-Mei Tang, Zhen Xiao, Jie-Ning Zhu, Qiu-Xiong Lin, Yong-Heng Fu, Zhi-Qin Hu, Zhuo Zhang, Min Yang, Xi-Long Zheng, Shu-Lin Wu, Zhi-Xin Shan
The role of microRNA-214-3p (miR-214-3p) in cardiac fibrosis was not well illustrated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and potential target of miR-214-3p in angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced cardiac fibrosis. MiR-214-3p was markedly decreased in the fibrotic myocardium of a mouse Ang-II infusion model, but was upregulated in Ang-II-treated mouse myofibroblasts. Cardiac fibrosis was shown attenuated in Ang-II-infused mice received tail vein injection of miR-214-3p agomir. Consistently, miR-214-3p inhibited the expression of Col1a1 and Col3a1 in mouse myofibroblasts in vitro...
November 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819738/association-between-the-ppar%C3%AE-pro12ala-polymorphism-and-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-meta-analysis
#15
H L Shuai, X Z Lin, D L Chen, P Li, X Luo
The relationship between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARγ and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus remains unresolved. Here, we attempted to resolve this inconsistency. Case-control studies pertaining to the effect of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ protein and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus were extracted from the HuGE, PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI, and SinoMed databases after an extensive literature search. The studies were statistically analyzed using STATA (v.12.0) software. Twelve case-control studies composed of 2968 GDM cases and 5576 controls that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis...
November 3, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818323/als-causing-mutations-differentially-affect-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-and-function-in-the-brain-vs-peripheral-tissues
#16
Hanna Bayer, Kerstin Lang, Eva Buck, Julia Higelin, Lara Barteczko, Noemi Pasquarelli, Jasmin Sprissler, Tanja Lucas, Karlheinz Holzmann, Maria Demestre, Katrin S Lindenberg, Karin M Danzer, Tobias Boeckers, Albert C Ludolph, Luc Dupuis, Patrick Weydt, Anke Witting
BACKGROUND: Monogenetic forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) offer an opportunity for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying this devastating neurodegenerative disorder. In order to identify a link between ALS-related metabolic changes and neurodegeneration, we investigated whether ALS-causing mutations interfere with the peripheral and brain-specific expression and signaling of the metabolic master regulator PGC (PPAR gamma coactivator)-1α (PGC-1α). METHODS: We analyzed the expression of PGC-1α isoforms and target genes in two mouse models of familial ALS and validated the stimulated PGC-1α signaling in primary adipocytes and neurons of these animal models and in iPS derived motoneurons of two ALS patients harboring two different frame-shift FUS/TLS mutations...
November 3, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802237/improved-brain-insulin-igf-signaling-and%C3%A2-reduced-neuroinflammation-with%C3%A2-t3d-959-in-an-experimental-model%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Suzanne M de la Monte, Ming Tong, Irio Schiano, John Didsbury
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with progressive impairments in brain insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and insulin receptor substrate (IRS) signaling through Akt pathways that regulate neuronal growth, survival, metabolism, and plasticity. The intracerebral streptozotocin (i.c. STZ) model replicates the full range of abnormalities in sporadic AD. T3D-959, an orally active PPAR-delta/gamma agonist remediates neurocognitive deficits and AD neuropathology in the i...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799461/hepatocyte-specific-ppar%C3%AE-regulated-mechanisms-to-promote-steatosis-in-adult-mice
#18
Abigail Wolf Greenstein, Neena Majumdar, Peng Yang, Papasani V Subbaiah, Rhonda D Kineman, Jose Cordoba-Chacon
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is the target for thiazolidinones (TZDs), drugs that improve insulin sensitivity and fatty liver in humans and rodent models, related to a reduction in hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL). The systemic effects of TZDs are in contrast to reports suggesting hepatocyte-specific activation of PPARγ promotes DNL, triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake and fatty acid (FA) esterification. Since these hepatocyte-specific effects of PPARγ could counterbalance the positive therapeutic actions of systemic delivery of TZDs, the current study used a mouse model of adult-onset, liver (hepatocyte)-specific PPAR knockdown (aLivPPARγkd)...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789312/ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-activation-protects-against-corticosterone-induced-er%C3%A2-stress%C3%A2-in-astrocytes-by-inhibiting-the-cpg-hypermethylation-of%C3%A2-microrna-181a
#19
Juan Ji, Xiao-Ning Zeng, Lu-Lu Cao, Ling Zhang, Zhan Zhao, Dan-Dan Yang, Xiu-Lan Sun
Increasing evidence indicates that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play neuroprotective roles in various neurodegenerative disease models in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Astrocyte proliferation is a key process in neural development and plays significant roles in the regeneration of neural tissue after a penetrating injury. Corticosterone can significantly reduce the expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) in cultured rat hippocampal astrocytes in vitro, and induce astrocytic dysfunction...
October 24, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777595/soshiho-tang-aqueous-extract-exerts-antiobesity-effects-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-and-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#20
Sae-Rom Yoo, Mee-Young Lee, Byoung-Kab Kang, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin, Soo-Jin Jeong
Soshiho-tang (SST; sho-saiko-to in Japanese; xiaochaihu-tang in Chinese) has generally been used to improve liver fibrosis- and cirrhosis-related symptoms in traditional Korean medicine. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological properties of SST, its antiobesity effect has not been elucidated. Thus, our present study was carried out to evaluate the antiobesity effect of SST using a high fat diet- (HFD) induced obese mouse model and 3T3-L1 adipose cells. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6/group), normal diet (ND), HFD-fed group, and HFD- and SST-fed groups (S200: 200 mg/kg of SST; S600: 600 mg/kg of SST) and given HFD with or without SST extract for 8 weeks...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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