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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438785/nuclear-receptor-research-in-zebrafish
#1
Marcel J M Schaaf
Nuclear receptors (NRs) form a superfamily of transcription factors that can be activated by ligands and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes. NRs are well conserved between vertebrate species. The zebrafish, an increasingly popular animal model system, contains a total of 73 NR genes, and orthologues of almost all human NRs are present. In this review article, an overview is presented of NR research in which the zebrafish has been used as a model. Research is described on the three most studied zebrafish NRs: the Estrogen Receptors (ERs), Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARs) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs)...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433567/ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-rosiglitazone-reduces-autophagy-and-promotes-functional-recovery-in-experimental-traumaticspinal-cord-injury
#2
Hongpeng Li, Qin Zhang, Xiaohui Yang, Liping Wang
BACKGROUND: Secondary damage is often more important in determining the functional outcome and provides a practical target for therapeutic intervention. Rosiglitazone (ROSG) is a potent PPAR-γ agonist and has been shown to induce neuroprotection in animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, it is still unclear whether this PPAR-γ agonist can mediate neuronal autophagy after SCI. METHODS: SCI was induced by application of vascular clips (force of 24g) to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428362/hepatic-lipid-accumulation-cause-and-consequence-of-dysregulated-glucoregulatory-hormones
#3
Caroline E Geisler, Benjamin Jennings Renquist
Fatty liver can be diet, endocrine, genetic, viral, or drug induced. Independent of cause, hepatic lipid accumulation promotes systemic metabolic dysfunction. By acting as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ligands, hepatic non-esterified fatty acids upregulate expression of gluconeogenic, beta-oxidative, lipogenic, and ketogenic genes, promoting hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and ketosis. The typical hormonal environment in fatty liver disease consists of hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone deficiency, and elevated sympathetic tone...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427149/interaction-between-ppar-%C3%AE-and-sorl1-gene-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-in-chinese-han-population
#4
Hui Zhang, Wei Zheng, Linlin Hua, Yutong Wang, Jinfeng Li, Hongying Bai, Shanshan Wang, Mingyao Du, Xuelian Ma, Chunyang Xu, Xiaodong Li, Bin Gong, Yunliang Wang
AIMS: To investigate the impact of sortilin-related receptor 1 gene 1 (SORL1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR G) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene- gene and gene- environment interactions and haplotype on late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk. METHODS: Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), haplotype analysis and pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis were investigated by using SNPStats (available online at http://bioinfo...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425913/loss-of-dnmt3a-and-dnmt3b-does-not-affect-epidermal-homeostasis-but-promotes-squamous-transformation-through-ppar-%C3%AE
#5
Lorenzo Rinaldi, Alexandra Avgustinova, Mercé Martin, Debayan Datta, Guiomar Solanas, Neus Prats, Salvador Aznar Benitah
The DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a suppresses tumorigenesis in models of leukemia and lung cancer. Conversely, deregulation of Dnmt3b is thought to generally promote tumorigenesis. However, the role of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b in many types of cancer remains undefined. Here we show that Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are dispensable for homeostasis of the murine epidermis. However, loss of Dnmt3a-but not Dnmt3b-increases the number of carcinogen-induced squamous tumors, without affecting tumor progression. Only upon combined deletion of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, squamous carcinomas become more aggressive and metastatic...
April 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424539/%C3%AE-3-adrenoceptor-activation-upregulates-apolipoprotein-a-i-expression-in-hepg2-cells-which-might-further-promote-cholesterol-efflux-from-macrophage-foam-cells
#6
Xia-Qing Gao, Yan-Fang Li, Zhi-Li Jiang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of β3-adrenoceptor (β3-AR) activation on HepG2 cells and its influence on cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HepG2 cells were cultured and treated with the β3-AR agonist, BRL37344, and antagonist, SR52390A, and the expression of apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I, ApoA-II, ApoB, and β3-AR in the supernatants and cells was determined. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ and PPARα in the HepG2 cells was also assessed...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415751/gene-gene-interaction-between-pparg-and-cyp1a1-gene-on-coronary-artery-disease-in-the-chinese-han-population
#7
Xiaojiang Zhang, Shuzheng Lv, Chengjun Guo, Conghong Shi, Yunpeng Chi, Lin Zhao, Guozhong Wang, Zhisheng Wang
AIMS: To observe the influence of the peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor-G (PPAR-G) gene and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and interactions among several SNPs on coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. METHODS: A total of 1106 participants (including 583 males and 523 females) including 550 CAD patients and 556 control subjects were recruited in this study, and the mean age for these participants was 55.5 ± 11.8 years old...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397719/toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-pathway-in-the-protective-effect-of-pioglitazone-on-experimental-immunoglobulin-a-nephropathy
#8
Jia-Nan Zou, Jing Xiao, Sha-Sha Hu, Chen-Sheng Fu, Xiao-Li Zhang, Zhen-Xing Zhang, Yi-Jun Lu, Wei-Jun Chen, Zhi-Bin Ye
BACKGROUND: In vitro experiments have revealed that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway is involved in the progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) by induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Evidence showed that, in other disease models, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects through suppression of the expression and activity of TLR4. However, the interaction between PPAR-γ and TLR4 in IgAN has not been fully studied both in vitro and in vivo...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396530/downregulation-of-plzf-gene-ameliorates-metabolic-and-cardiac-traits-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#9
František Liška, Vladimír Landa, Václav Zídek, Petr Mlejnek, Jan Šilhavý, Miroslava Šimáková, Hynek Strnad, Jaroslava Trnovská, Vojtěch Škop, Ludmila Kazdová, Colby G Starker, Daniel F Voytas, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Massimiliano Mancini, Ondřej Šeda, Vladimír Křen, Michal Pravenec
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), one of the most widely used model of essential hypertension, is predisposed to left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and metabolic disturbances. Recently, quantitative trait loci influencing blood pressure, left ventricular mass, and heart interstitial fibrosis were genetically isolated within a minimal congenic subline that contains only 7 genes, including mutant Plzf (promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger) candidate gene. To identify Plzf as a quantitative trait gene, we targeted Plzf in the SHR using the transcription activator-like effector nuclease technique and obtained SHR line harboring targeted Plzf gene with a premature stop codon...
April 10, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389698/evolution-of-the-duplicated-intracellular-lipid-binding-protein-genes-of-teleost-fishes
#10
REVIEW
Ananda B Venkatachalam, Manoj B Parmar, Jonathan M Wright
Increasing organismal complexity during the evolution of life has been attributed to the duplication of genes and entire genomes. More recently, theoretical models have been proposed that postulate the fate of duplicated genes, among them the duplication-degeneration-complementation (DDC) model. In the DDC model, the common fate of a duplicated gene is lost from the genome owing to nonfunctionalization. Duplicated genes are retained in the genome either by subfunctionalization, where the functions of the ancestral gene are sub-divided between the sister duplicate genes, or by neofunctionalization, where one of the duplicate genes acquires a new function...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369354/genetic-modifications-of-mecr-reveal-a-role-for-mitochondrial-2-enoyl-coa-acp-reductase-in-placental-development-in-mice
#11
Remya R Nair, Juha M Kerätär, Kaija J Autio, Ali J Masud, Mikko A J Finnilä, Helena I Autio-Harmainen, Ilkka J Miinalainen, Pentti A Nieminen, J Kalervo Hiltunen, Alexander J Kastaniotis
Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) is an underappreciated but highly conserved metabolic process, indispensable for mitochondrial respiration. It was recently reported that dysfunction of mtFAS causes childhood onset of dystonia and optic atrophy in humans (MEPAN). To study the role of mtFAS in mammals, we generated three different mouse lines with modifications of the Mecr gene, encoding mitochondrial enoyl-CoA/ACP reductase. A knock-out-first type mutation, relying on insertion of a strong transcriptional terminator between the first two exons of Mecr, displayed embryonic lethality over a broad window of time and due to a variety of causes...
March 24, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365916/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-pedf-prevents-hepatic-fat-storage-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-dietary-steatohepatitis-of-mice
#12
Takafumi Yoshida, Jun Akiba, Takanori Matsui, Kazuo Nakamura, Takao Hisamoto, Mitsuhiko Abe, Yu Ikezono, Fumitaka Wada, Hideki Iwamoto, Toru Nakamura, Hironori Koga, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Takuji Torimura
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of inflammation through its anti-oxidative property. Since oxidative response is considered to play the pivotal role of the development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), it is conceivable that PEDF may play a protective role against NASH. In this study, we examined whether administration of PEDF slowed the progression of NASH in mice models. METHODS: Mice were fed methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet with or without intramuscular administration of adenovirus-expressing PEDF (Ad-PEDF)...
April 1, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365473/pioglitazone-treatment-following-spinal-cord-injury-maintains-acute-mitochondrial-integrity-and-increases-chronic-tissue-sparing-and-functional-recovery
#13
Samir P Patel, David H Cox, Jenna L Gollihue, William M Bailey, Werner J Geldenhuys, John C Gensel, Patrick G Sullivan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Pioglitazone is an FDA-approved PPAR-γ agonist drug used to treat diabetes, and it has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in multiple models of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Acute treatment after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats is reported to suppress neuroinflammation, rescue injured tissues, and improve locomotor recovery. In the current study, we additionally assessed the protective efficacy of pioglitazone treatment on acute mitochondrial respiration, as well as functional and anatomical recovery after contusion SCI in adult male C57BL/6 mice...
March 30, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361462/ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-fenofibrate-reduces-insulin-resistance-in-impaired-glucose-tolerance-patients-with-hypertriglyceridemia-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Xiaomeng Feng, Xia Gao, Yumei Jia, Yuan Xu
INTRODUCTION: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) agonists can regulate metabolism and protect the cardiovascular system. This study investigated the effects of PPAR-α agonist fenofibrate on insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). METHODS: This research evaluated cross-sectional and interventional studies. 191 subjects with IGT were divided into a hypertriglyceridemia group (HTG group, n = 118) and a normal triglyceride (TG) group (NTG group, n = 73)...
April 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360393/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-of-ins-insr-irs1-irs2-ppar-g-and-capn10-genes-in-the-pathogenesis-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
Maheswari Thangavelu, Usha Rani Godla, F D Paul Solomon, Ravi Maddaly
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and a complex female endocrine disorder, and is one of the leading cause of female infertility. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G and CAPN10 gene in the pathogenesis of PCOS. A hospital-based, observational case-control study was carried on 169 PCOS and 169 control women in the southern region of India. Genotype was carried out by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A chi-square (χ(2)) test was performed and the genotypes were verified to comply with the Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium...
March 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352346/salvianolic-acid-b-prevents-steroid-induced-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-via-ppar%C3%AE-expression-in-rats
#16
Shuangqing Li, Juan Wang
Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a water-soluble phenolic compound derived from Salvia Miltiorrhiza. Recent studies show Sal B has a clear function of anti-cerebral ischemia injury, which is closely related to antioxidation, free radical scavenging, neuroprotection and the blood brain barrier. The aim of the present study was to verify whether Sal B prevents steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head and to investigate its underlying pharmacological mechanisms. Steroid-induced osteonecrosis rat models were established to evaluate the effects of Sal B on osteonecrotic changes and repair processes...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350954/integrating-drug-s-mode-of-action-into-quantitative-structure-activity-relationships-for-improved-prediction-of-drug-induced-liver-injury
#17
Leihong Wu, Zhichao Liu, Scott Auerbach, Ruili Huang, Minjun Chen, Kristin McEuen, Joshua Xu, Hong Fang, Weida Tong
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is complex in mechanism. Different drugs could undergo different mechanisms but result in the same DILI type, while the same drug could lead to different DILI types via different mechanisms. Therefore, predicting a drug's potential for DILI should take its underlying mechanisms into consideration. To achieve that, we constructed a novel approach by incorporating the drug's Mode of Action (MOA) into Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling. This MOA-DILI approach was examined using a data set of 333 drugs...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344789/a-ppar-gamma-agonist-protects-from-radiation-induced-intestinal-toxicity
#18
Monica Mangoni, Mariangela Sottili, Chiara Gerini, Isacco Desideri, Cinzia Bastida, Stefania Pallotta, Francesca Castiglione, Pierluigi Bonomo, Icro Meattini, Daniela Greto, Sabrina Cappelli, Lucia Di Brina, Mauro Loi, Giampaolo Biti, Lorenzo Livi
OBJECTIVE: Because of its anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, anti-apoptotic and anti-neoplastic properties, the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone is an interesting drug for investigating for use in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced intestinal damage. We aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone in a murine model of acute intestinal damage, assessing whether radioprotection is selective for normal tissues or also occurs in tumour cells. METHODS: Mice were total-body irradiated (12 Gy), with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day)...
March 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336257/a-novel-pyrazole-containing-indolizine-derivative-suppresses-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-protects-against-tnbs-induced-colitis-via-a-ppar-%C3%AE-dependent-pathway
#19
Yong Fu, Junting Ma, Xiafei Shi, Xiang-Yun Song, Yaping Yang, Shuke Xiao, Jiahuang Li, Wei-Jin Gu, Zhen Huang, Junfeng Zhang, Jiangning Chen
The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-mediated activation of macrophages plays a key role in mucosal immune responses in Crohn's disease (CD). Moreover, increasing evidence shows that the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) exerts satisfactory anti-inflammatory effects in experimental colitis models, mostly by suppressing NF-κB-mediated macrophage activation. Therefore, exploring therapeutic strategies to activate PPAR-γ and inhibit the NF-κB pathway in colonic macrophages holds great promise for the treatment of CD...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336108/vitamin-d-increases-ppar%C3%AE-expression-and-promotes-beneficial-effects-of-physical-activity-in-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Rastegar Hoseini, Arsalan Damirchi, Parvin Babaei
OBJECTIVES: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and vitamin D signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes involved in different physiological functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation and aerobic training on metabolic syndrome and PPARγ expression. METHODS: Forty female ovariectomized rats were divided into five groups of aerobic training with high (OVX + Exe + HD), moderate (OVX + Exe + MD), and low dose of vitamin D (OVX + Exe + LD), aerobic training receving vehicle (sesame oil; OVX + Exe + oil), and sham-operated control (sham) groups...
April 2017: Nutrition
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