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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096382/mitochondrial-activation-chemicals-synergize-with-surface-receptor-pd-1-blockade-for-t-cell-dependent-antitumor-activity
#1
Kenji Chamoto, Partha S Chowdhury, Alok Kumar, Kazuhiro Sonomura, Fumihiko Matsuda, Sidonia Fagarasan, Tasuku Honjo
Although immunotherapy by PD-1 blockade has dramatically improved the survival rate of cancer patients, further improvement in efficacy is required to reduce the fraction of less sensitive patients. In mouse models of PD-1 blockade therapy, we found that tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in draining lymph nodes (DLNs) carry increased mitochondrial mass and more reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that ROS generation by ROS precursors or indirectly by mitochondrial uncouplers synergized the tumoricidal activity of PD-1 blockade by expansion of effector/memory CTLs in DLNs and within the tumor...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095314/cloning-and-expression-characterization-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-ppars-with-their-agonists-dietary-lipids-and-ambient-salinity-in-rabbitfish-siganus-canaliculatus
#2
Cuihong You, Danli Jiang, Qinghao Zhang, Dizhi Xie, Shuqi Wang, Yewei Dong, Yuanyou Li
Rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus is the first marine teleost reported to have the ability of biosynthesizing C20-22 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from C18 precursors, and thus provides us a model for studying the regulatory mechanisms of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in teleosts. To investigate the possible roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), critical transcription factors involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, in the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in rabbitfish, the PPAR genes were cloned and their expression characterization with PPAR agonists, dietary lipid resource, and ambient salinity were examined...
January 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087694/iso-%C3%AE-acids-bitter-components-of-beer-prevent-inflammation-and-cognitive-decline-induced-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Yasuhisa Ano, Atsushi Dhata, Yoshimasa Taniguchi, Ayaka Hoshi, Kazuyuki Uchida, Akihiko Takashima, Hiroyuki Nakayama
Alongside the rapid growth in aging populations worldwide, prevention and therapy for age-related memory decline and dementia are in great demand to maintain a long healthy life. Here we found that iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter compounds in beer, enhance microglial phagocytosis and suppress inflammation via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ). In normal mice, oral administration of iso-α-acids led to a significant increase both in CD11b and CD206 double-positive anti-inflammatory type microglia (P<0...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058519/stimulation-of-glycerol-kinase-in-grass-carp-preadipocytes-by-epa
#4
Caixia Lei, Jingjing Tian, Hong Ji
This study was conducted to assess the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on grass carp preadipocyte glycerol kinase (GyK) expression, as well as to explore the mechanism. Here, we cloned partial sequence of grass carp GyK gene and analyzed its tissue distribution. The result showed that GyK gene expressed most in the liver, followed by adipose tissue and the kidney. Besides, 400 μM oleic acid (18:1n-9, OA) was used to establish a hypertrophic preadipocyte model. GyK gene expression and enzyme activity were significantly enhanced after model cells were treated with 100 μM eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) for 6, 12, and 24 h...
January 5, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054961/the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-a-phthalimide-ppar-%C3%AE-agonist
#5
Mingzhi Su, Jiafu Cao, Jin Huang, Sen Liu, Dong Soon Im, Jin-Wook Yoo, Jee H Jung
Previously, the authors found that 4-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenethyl) isoindoline-1,3-dione (PD1) (a phthalimide analogue) bound to and activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Since PPAR-γ suppresses inflammatory responses, the present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of PD1. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW264.7 macrophages, PD1 suppressed the inductions of pro-inflammatory factors, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
January 4, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045158/metabolomics-and-proteomics-technologies-to-explore-the-herbal-preparation-affecting-metabolic-disorders-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#6
Aihua Zhang, Xiaohang Zhou, Hongwei Zhao, Shiyu Zou, Chung Wah Ma, Qi Liu, Hui Sun, Liang Liu, Xijun Wang
An integrative metabolomics and proteomics approach can provide novel insights in the understanding of biological systems. We have integrated proteome and metabolome data sets for a holistic view of the molecular mechanisms in disease. Using quantitative iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS proteomics coupled with UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS based metabolomics, we determined the protein and metabolite expression changes in the kidney-yang deficiency syndrome (KYDS) rat model and further investigated the intervention effects of the Jinkui Shenqi Pill (JSP)...
January 3, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035383/atorvastatin-alleviates-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-by-promoting-m1-m2-transition
#7
Qi Wang, Yan-Yan Su, Yan-Qun Li, Yun-Fang Zhang, Shen Yang, Jie-Lin Wang, Hong-Yan Li
Acute kidney injury (AKI) often occurs as a result of ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Previous studies have demonstrated that inflammation is an important contributor to AKI. Atorvastatin (ATO) possesses anti‑inflammatory properties and has been demonstrated to exert protective effects against renal IR injury (IRI). However, the underlying mechanism requires further study. In the present study, a rat model of renal IRI was successfully established. Consistent with the results of a previous study, ATO significantly attenuated IRI, which was supported by a decrease in serum creatinine and an increase in creatinine clearance rate, as well as alleviated pathological alterations in renal tubular cells...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031713/pioglitazone-could-induce-remission-in-major-depression-a-meta-analysis
#8
Romain Colle, Delphine de Larminat, Samuel Rotenberg, Franz Hozer, Patrick Hardy, Céline Verstuyft, Bruno Fève, Emmanuelle Corruble
BACKGROUND: Pioglitazone, a selective agonist of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, could have antidepressant properties. However, its potential to induce remission of major depressive episodes, the optimal clinical target for an antidepressant drug, is a matter of concern. Indeed, only one out of four double-blind randomized controlled trials show higher remission rates with pioglitazone than with control treatments...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025954/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-an-oxylipin-containing-lyophilised-biomass-from-a-microalga-in-a-murine-recurrent-colitis-model
#9
Javier Ávila-Román, Elena Talero, Azahara Rodríguez-Luna, Sofía García-Mauriño, Virginia Motilva
Diet and nutritional factors have emerged as possible interventions for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which are characterised by chronic uncontrolled inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Microalgal species are a promising source of n-3 PUFA and derived oxylipins, which are lipid mediators with a key role in the resolution of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an oxylipin-containing lyophilised biomass from Chlamydomonas debaryana on a recurrent 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mice model...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025714/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-improves-radiation-induced-heart-injury-through-dna-damage-repair-in-rat-model
#10
Song Gao, Zhiying Zhao, Rong Wu, Yuecan Zeng, Zhenyong Zhang, Jianing Miao, Zhengwei Yuan
Radiotherapy is an effective form of therapy for most thoracic malignant tumors. However, myocardial injury resulting from the high doses of radiation is a severe complication. Here we aimed to study the possibility of reducing radiation-induced myocardial injury with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation. We used MSCs extracted from bone marrow (BMSCs) to transplant via the tail vein into a radiation-induced heart injury (RIHI) rat model. The rats were divided into six groups: a Sham group, an IRR (irradiation) group, and four IRR + BMSCs transplantation groups obtained at different time points...
December 26, 2016: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024724/a-ppar-gamma-agonist-protects-against-oral-mucositis-induced-by-irradiation-in-a-murine-model
#11
Monica Mangoni, Mariangela Sottili, Chiara Gerini, Isacco Desideri, Cinzia Bastida, Stefania Pallotta, Francesca Castiglione, Pierluigi Bonomo, Icro Meattini, Daniela Greto, Emanuela Olmetto, Francesca Terziani, Carlotta Becherini, Camilla Delli Paoli, Laura Trombetta, Mauro Loi, Giampaolo Biti, Lorenzo Livi
BACKGROUND: Due to its anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic and antineoplastic properties, the PPAR gamma agonist rosiglitazone is of interest in prevention and therapy of radiation-induced toxicities. We aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone in a mouse model of radiation-induced oral mucositis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Oral mucositis was obtained by irradiation of the oral region of C57BL/6J mice, pretreated or not with rosiglitazone. Mucositis was assessed by macroscopic scoring, histology and molecular analysis...
January 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007570/dysfunctional-oleoylethanolamide-signaling-in-a-mouse-model-of-prader-willi-syndrome
#12
Miki Igarashi, Vidya Narayanaswami, Virginia Kimonis, Pietro M Galassetti, Fariba Oveisi, Kwang-Mook Jung, Daniele Piomelli
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), the leading genetic cause of obesity, is characterized by a striking hyperphagic behavior that can lead to obesity, type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death. The molecular mechanism underlying impaired satiety in PWS is unknown. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a lipid mediator involved in the control of feeding, body weight and energy metabolism. OEA produced by small-intestinal enterocytes during dietary fat digestion activates type-α peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α) to trigger an afferent signal that causes satiety...
December 19, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998858/-interaction-of-polymorphisms-of-ppar-%C3%AE-2-gene-c34g-and-nadph-oxidase-subunit-p22phox-gene-c242t-with-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#13
Chao-Xian Zhang, Li-Ke Guo, Li-Li Zhang, Yu Han
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interaction of polymorphisms of PPAR-γ2 gene -C34G and NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox gene -C242T with helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) . METHODS: A total of 200 cases of LSCC of Broder grade I, 200 of Broder grade II and of grade III were enrolled in this study with 200 healthy individuals as the control group. The genetic polymorphisms of PPAR-γ2 gene -C34G and NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox gene -C242T were analyzed using PCR-RFLP in peripheral blood leukocytes...
December 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992530/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-rosiglitazone-in-obesity-impaired-wound-healing-depend-on-adipocyte-differentiation
#14
Anna Siebert, Itamar Goren, Josef Pfeilschifter, Stefan Frank
Combined diabetes-obesity syndromes severely impair regeneration of acute skin wounds in mouse models. This study assessed the contribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue to exacerbated wound inflammatory conditions. Genetically obese (ob/ob) mice showed an increased expression of positive transcriptional effectors of adipocyte differentiation such as Krüppel-like factor (KLF)-5 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and an associated expression of leptin and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP)-4, but also CXCL2 in isolated subcutaneous fat...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978584/ppar-%C3%AE-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-major-depression-a-review
#15
R Colle, D de Larminat, S Rotenberg, F Hozer, P Hardy, C Verstuyft, B Fève, E Corruble
Introduction: Selective agonists of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We reviewed their efficacy and safety for the treatment of major depression and the association of their potential antidepressant effects with changes in biomarkers of metabolism and inflammation. Methods: From 8 studies, 4 open-label trials, and 4 randomized controlled trials (RCT) (3 vs. placebo and 1 vs. metformin), 448 patients with major depression were included, of which 209 patients received PPAR-γ agonists (pioglitazone or rosiglitazone) for 6-12 weeks, either alone or in add-on therapy to conventional treatments...
December 15, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973471/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-agonist-pioglitazone-reduces-the-development-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-a-neonatal-preterm-rat-model
#16
Iuri Corsini, Simone Polvani, Mirko Tarocchi, Sara Tempesti, Giada Marroncini, Marta Generoso, Cecilia Bresci, Elena Gozzini, Tommaso Bianconi, Andrea Galli, Carlo Dani
BACKGROUND: Factors affecting innate immunity and acting as inflammatory regulators, such as the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) could be crucial in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO) might be effective in preventing the development of NEC and/or reducing its severity. METHODS: We studied preterm rats in which NEC was induced using the hypoxia-hypothermia model...
December 14, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959965/functional-analyses-of-the-crohn-s-disease-risk-gene-lacc1
#17
Ghazaleh Assadi, Liselotte Vesterlund, Ferdinando Bonfiglio, Luca Mazzurana, Lina Cordeddu, Danika Schepis, Jenny Mjösberg, Sabrina Ruhrmann, Alessia Fabbri, Vladana Vukojevic, Piergiorgio Percipalle, Florian A Salomons, Jurga Laurencikiene, Leif Törkvist, Jonas Halfvarson, Mauro D'Amato
BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the Laccase (multicopper oxidoreductase) domain-containing 1 (LACC1) gene has been shown to affect the risk of Crohn's disease, leprosy and, more recently, ulcerative colitis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. LACC1 function appears to promote fatty-acid oxidation, with concomitant inflammasome activation, reactive oxygen species production, and anti-bacterial responses in macrophages. We sought to contribute to elucidating LACC1 biological function by extensive characterization of its expression in human tissues and cells, and through preliminary analyses of the regulatory mechanisms driving such expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956139/characterization-of-stem-cell-derived-liver-and-intestinal-organoids-as-a-model-system-to-study-nuclear-receptor-biology
#18
Ingrid T G W Bijsmans, Alexandra Milona, Noortje Ijssennagger, Ellen C L Willemsen, José M Ramos Pittol, Johan W Jonker, Katja Lange, Guido J E J Hooiveld, Saskia W C van Mil
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors regulating a large variety of processes involved in reproduction, development, and metabolism. NRs are ideal drug targets because they are activated by lipophilic ligands that easily pass cell membranes. Immortalized cell lines recapitulate NR biology poorly and generating primary cultures is laborious and requires a constant need for donor material. There is a clear need for development of novel preclinical model systems that better resemble human physiology...
December 10, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955667/the-effect-of-chinese-herbs-and-its-effective-components-on-coronary-heart-disease-through-ppars-pgc1%C3%AE-pathway
#19
Qiyan Wang, Chun Li, Qian Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Tianjiao Shi, Linghui Lu, Yi Zhang, Yong Wang, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: DanQi pill (DQP) is prescribed widely in China and has definite cardioprotective effect on coronary heart disease. Our previous studies proved that DQP could effectively regulate plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). However, the regulatory mechanisms of DQP and its major components Salvianolic acids and Panax notoginseng saponins (DS) on lipid metabolism disorders haven't been comprehensively studied so far. METHODS: Rat model of coronary heart disease was induced by left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation operations...
December 12, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924948/foxa1-gata3-and-ppar%C3%A9-cooperate-to-drive-luminal-subtype-in-bladder-cancer-a-molecular-analysis-of-established-human-cell-lines
#20
Joshua I Warrick, Vonn Walter, Hironobu Yamashita, Eunah Chung, Lauren Shuman, Vasty Osei Amponsa, Zongyu Zheng, Wilson Chan, Tiffany L Whitcomb, Feng Yue, Tejaswi Iyyanki, Yuka I Kawasawa, Matthew Kaag, Wansong Guo, Jay D Raman, Joo-Seop Park, David J DeGraff
Discrete bladder cancer molecular subtypes exhibit differential clinical aggressiveness and therapeutic response, which may have significant implications for identifying novel treatments for this common malignancy. However, research is hindered by the lack of suitable models to study each subtype. To address this limitation, we classified bladder cancer cell lines into molecular subtypes using publically available data in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), guided by genomic characterization of bladder cancer by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
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