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N G Fischer, A Tsujimoto, A G Baruth
OBJECTIVE: Limited information is available on how to polish and finish zirconia surfaces following computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), specifically, how differing application forces and reuse of zirconia polishing systems affect zirconia topography. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of differing, clinically relevant, polishing application forces and multiple usages of polishing burs on the surface topography of CAD/CAM zirconia. METHODS: One hundred twenty 220-grit carbide finished zirconia disks were sintered according to manufacturer's directions and divided into two groups for the study of two coarse polishing bur types...
March 16, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Brodie Pearson, Baylor Fox-Kemper
Data from turbulent numerical simulations of the global ocean demonstrate that the dissipation of kinetic energy obeys a nearly log-normal distribution even at large horizontal scales O(10  km). As the horizontal scales of resolved turbulence are larger than the ocean is deep, the Kolmogorov-Yaglom theory for intermittency in 3D homogeneous, isotropic turbulence cannot apply; instead, the down-scale potential enstrophy cascade of quasigeostrophic turbulence should. Yet, energy dissipation obeys approximate log-normality-robustly across depths, seasons, regions, and subgrid schemes...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Vinit Baliyan, Hamed Kordbacheh, Bimal Parameswaran, Balaji Ganeshan, Dushyant Sahani, Avinash Kambadakone
PURPOSE: To study the impact of keV levels of virtual monoenergetic images generated from rapid kVp-switching dual-energy CT (rsDECT) on CT texture analysis (CTTA). METHODS: This study included 30 consecutive patients (59.3 ± 12 years; range 34-77 years; 17M:13F) who underwent portal venous phase abdominal CT on a rsDECT scanner. Axial 5-mm monoenergetic images at 5 energy levels (40/50/60/70/80 keV) were created and CTTA of liver was performed. CTTA comprised a filtration-histogram technique with different spatial scale filter (SSF) values (0-6)...
March 14, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
John T Van Stan, Dennis A Gordon
Stemflow, a precipitation and solute supply to soils near tree stems, can play a wide array of roles in ecosystem functioning. However, stemflow's ecohydrological functions have been primarily studied in forests with voluminous stemflow because resource subsidy is currently considered stemflow's only impact on near-stem soils. This common assumption ignores controls that stemflow generation may exert via resource limitation (when stemflow < open rainfall and near-stem throughfall is negligible). We reviewed selected literature across numerous forests to evaluate the predominance of stemflow as a potential resource limitation to near-stem soils and characterized the concentrated, but meager, solute flux from low stemflow generators...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pietro Mancosu, Giorgia Nicolini, Giulia Goretti, Fiorenza De Rose, Davide Franceschini, Chiara Ferrari, Giacomo Reggiori, Stefano Tomatis, Marta Scorsetti
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Lean Six Sigma Methodology (LSSM) was introduced in industry to provide near-perfect services to large processes, by reducing improbable occurrence. LSSM has been applied to redesign the 2D-2D breast repositioning process (Lean) by the retrospective analysis of the database (Six Sigma). MATERIALS & METHODS: Breast patients with daily 2D-2D matching before RT were considered. The five DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) LSSM steps were applied...
March 6, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Stefan Schob, Benno Münch, Julia Dieckow, Ulf Quäschling, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Cindy Richter, Nikita Garnov, Clara Frydrychowicz, Matthias Krause, Hans-Jonas Meyer, Alexey Surov
PURPOSE: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) quantifies motion of hydrogen nuclei in biological tissues and hereby has been used to assess the underlying tissue microarchitecture. Histogram-profiling of DWI provides more detailed information on diffusion characteristics of a lesion than the standardly calculated values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-minimum, mean and maximum. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate, which parameters of histogram-profiling of DWI in primary central nervous system lymphoma can be used to specifically predict features like cellular density, chromatin content and proliferative activity...
March 6, 2018: Translational Oncology
Timothy O'Connor, Siddharth Rawat, Adam Markman, Bahram Javidi
We propose a compact imaging system that integrates an augmented reality head mounted device with digital holographic microscopy for automated cell identification and visualization. A shearing interferometer is used to produce holograms of biological cells, which are recorded using customized smart glasses containing an external camera. After image acquisition, segmentation is performed to isolate regions of interest containing biological cells in the field-of-view, followed by digital reconstruction of the cells, which is used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) pseudocolor optical path length profile...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Bahram Javidi, Adam Markman, Siddharth Rawat
We investigate the use of compact, lensless, single random phase encoding (SRPE) and double random phase encoding (DRPE) systems for automatic cell identification when multiple cells, either of the same or mixed classes, are in the field of view. A microscope glass slide containing the sample is inputted into the single or double random phase encoding system, which is then illuminated by a coherent or partially coherent light source generating a unique opto-biological signature (OBS) that is captured by an image sensor...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Anna K Paschall, S Mojdeh Mirmomen, Rolf Symons, Amir Pourmorteza, Rabindra Gautam, Amil Sahai, Andrew J Dwyer, Maria J Merino, Adam R Metwalli, W Marston Linehan, Ashkan A Malayeri
PURPOSE: To determine whether objective volumetric whole-lesion apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) distribution analysis improves upon the capabilities of conventional subjective small region-of-interest (ROI) ADC measurements for prediction of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtype. METHODS: This IRB-approved study retrospectively enrolled 55 patients (152 tumors). Diffusion-weighted imaging DWI was acquired at b values of 0, 250, and 800 s/mm2 on a 1.5T system (Aera, Siemens Healthcare)...
March 8, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Wei Zhang, Yue Zhou, Xiao-Quan Xu, Ling-Yan Kong, Hai Xu, Tong-Fu Yu, Hai-Bin Shi, Qing Feng
Objective: To assess the performance of a whole-tumor histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in differentiating thymic carcinoma from lymphoma, and compare it with that of a commonly used hot-spot region-of-interest (ROI)-based ADC measurement. Materials and Methods: Diffusion weighted imaging data of 15 patients with thymic carcinoma and 13 patients with lymphoma were retrospectively collected and processed with a mono-exponential model...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Anastasia Oikonomou, Farzad Khalvati, Pascal N Tyrrell, Masoom A Haider, Usman Tarique, Laura Jimenez-Juan, Michael C Tjong, Ian Poon, Armin Eilaghi, Lisa Ehrlich, Patrick Cheung
We sought to quantify contribution of radiomics and SUVmax at PET/CT to predict clinical outcome in lung cancer patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). 150 patients with 172 lung cancers, who underwent SBRT were retrospectively included. Radiomics were applied on PET/CT. Principal components (PC) for 42 CT and PET-derived features were examined to determine which ones accounted for most of variability. Survival analysis quantified ability of radiomics and SUVmax to predict outcome. PCs including homogeneity, size, maximum intensity, mean and median gray level, standard deviation, entropy, kurtosis, skewness, morphology and asymmetry were included in prediction models for regional control (RC) [PC4-HR:0...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Colleen Bailey, David J Collins, Nina Tunariu, Matthew R Orton, Veronica A Morgan, Thorsten Feiweier, David J Hawkes, Martin O Leach, Daniel C Alexander, Eleftheria Panagiotaki
Purpose: To examine the usefulness of rich diffusion protocols with high b -values and varying diffusion time for probing microstructure in bone metastases. Analysis techniques including biophysical and mathematical models were compared with the clinical apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Methods: Four patients were scanned using 13 b -values up to 3,000 s/mm2 and diffusion times ranging 18-52 ms. Data were fitted to mono-exponential ADC, intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), Kurtosis and Vascular, extracellular, and restricted diffusion for cytometry in tumors (VERDICT) models...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Martin Obert, Marian Kampschulte, Rebekka Limburg, Stefan Barańczuk, Gabriele A Krombach
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a new image marker that retrieves information from computed tomography (CT) density histograms, with respect to classification properties between different lung parenchyma groups. Furthermore, to conduct a comparison of the new image marker with conventional markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Density histograms from 220 different subjects (normal = 71; emphysema = 73; fibrotic = 76) were used to compare the conventionally applied emphysema index (EI), 15th percentile value (PV), mean value (MV), variance (V), skewness (S), kurtosis (K), with a new histogram's functional shape (HFS) method...
March 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Maho Tsubakimoto, Tsuneo Yamashiro, Yukari Tamashiro, Sadayuki Murayama
PURPOSE: To assess the ability of parameters derived from computed tomography (CT) histograms and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax ) of 18F-fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT) images to distinguish solid lung adenocarcinomas from squamous cell carcinomas and to determine if these parameters are correlated. METHODS: This study comprised 43 consecutive patients with solid lung cancer (<3 cm in diameter), who underwent both plain chest CT and FDG-PET/CT (adenocarcinoma, n = 25; squamous cell carcinoma, n = 18)...
March 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Iris Lucas, Michel Cotsaftis, Cyrille Bertelle
This paper introduces an original mathematical description for describing agents' decision-making process in the case of problems affected by both individual and collective behaviors in systems characterized by nonlinear, path dependent, and self-organizing interactions. An application to artificial financial markets is proposed by designing a multi-agent system based on the proposed formalization. In this application, agents' decision-making process is based on fuzzy logic rules and the price dynamics is purely deterministic according to the basic matching rules of a central order book...
February 2018: Chaos
Mami Iima, Masako Kataoka, Shotaro Kanao, Makiko Kawai, Natsuko Onishi, Sho Koyasu, Katsutoshi Murata, Akane Ohashi, Rena Sakaguchi, Kaori Togashi
We prospectively examined the variability of non-Gaussian diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) measurements with different numbers of b-values and excitations in normal breast tissue and breast lesions. Thirteen volunteers and fourteen patients with breast lesions (seven malignant, eight benign; one patient had bilateral lesions) were recruited in this prospective study (approved by the Internal Review Board). Diffusion-weighted MRI was performed with 16 b-values (0-2500 s/mm2 with one number of excitations [NEX]) and five b-values (0-2500 s/mm2, 3 NEX), using a 3T breast MRI...
2018: PloS One
Alexey Surov, Leonard Leifels, Hans Jonas Meyer, Karsten Winter, Osama Sabri, Sandra Purz
AIM: To analyze associations between parameters of positron-emission tomography (PET) and histogram analysis values of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 28 patients with primary HNSCC of different localizations were involved.18 F-FDG-PET/CT and DCE MR imaging were performed for all patients. Histogram analysis parameters of DCE MRI were calculated. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the associations between investigated parameters...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
G A Shilovsky, T S Putyatina, V V Ashapkin, O S Luchkina, A V Markov
Measurements of variation are of great importance for studying the stability of pathological phenomena and processes. For the biology of aging, it is very important not only to determine average mortality, but also to study its stability in time and the size of fluctuations that are indicated by the variation coefficient of lifespan (CVLS ). It is believed that a relatively small (~20%) value of CVLS in humans, comparable to the coefficients of variation of other events programmed in ontogenesis (for example, menarche and menopause), indicates a relatively rigid determinism (N...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Chunmei Li, Min Chen, Ben Wan, Jingying Yu, Ming Liu, Wei Zhang, Jianye Wang
Background Although several studies have been reported on evaluating the performance of Gaussian and different non-Gaussian diffusion models on prostate cancer, few studies have been reported on the comparison of different models on differential diagnosis for prostate cancer. Purpose To compare the utility of various metrics derived from monoexponential model (MEM), biexponential model (BEM), stretched-exponential model (SEM) based diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Rafał Brygoła, Sławomir Sęk, Maciej Sokołowski, Marek Kowalczyk-Hernández, Jacek Pniewski
In the paper the results of AFM surface profile measurements of seven new long-wear contact lenses (CL) available in Poland are presented. Calculated statistical roughness parameters are shown, namely standard deviation (RMS), mean roughness, maximum difference between peak and valley, skewness, and kurtosis. It is demonstrated that CLs manufactured using recent methods, such as two-stage polimerisation or extending silicon chains exhibit small RMS, less than 10 nm, in comparison with older generation CLs which maintains RMS on the level of tens of nanometers...
February 15, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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