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Model vdr ppar

Marta Dominguez, Susana Alvarez, Angel R de Lera
Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are promiscuous partners of heterodimeric associations with other members of the Nuclear Receptor (NR) superfamily. Through these liaisons RXR ligands ("rexinoids") either transcriptionally activate on their own the "permissive" subclass of heterodimers (PPAR/RXR, LXR/RXR, FXR/RXR) or synergize with partner ligands in the "non-permissive" subclass of heterodimers (RAR/RXR, VDR/RXR and TR/RXR). The nature and extent of the interaction of the ligand-receptor complexes with co-regulators, which is cell and context-dependent, results ultimately in transcriptional modulation of cognate gene networks...
2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Carolyn J Ricciardi, Jiyoung Bae, Debora Esposito, Slavko Komarnytsky, Pan Hu, Jiangang Chen, Ling Zhao
PURPOSE: The vitamin D system plays a role in metabolism regulation. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) suppressed 3T3-L1 white adipocyte differentiation. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout mice showed increased energy expenditure, whereas mice with adipose-specific VDR over-expression showed decreased energy expenditure. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), now known to be present in adult humans, functions in non-shivering thermogenesis by uncoupling ATP synthesis from respiration and plays an important role in energy expenditure...
September 2015: European Journal of Nutrition
Richard G Moore, Thilo S Lange, Katina Robinson, Kyu K Kim, Alper Uzun, Timothy C Horan, Nada Kawar, Naohiro Yano, Sharon R Chu, Quanfu Mao, Laurent Brard, Monique E DePaepe, James F Padbury, Leggy A Arnold, Alexander Brodsky, Tun-Li Shen, Rakesh K Singh
BACKGROUND: Numerous vitamin-D analogs exhibited poor response rates, high systemic toxicities and hypercalcemia in human trials to treat cancer. We identified the first non-hypercalcemic anti-cancer vitamin D analog MT19c by altering the A-ring of ergocalciferol. This study describes the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of MT19c in both in vitro and in vivo models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Antitumor efficacy of MT19c was evaluated in ovarian cancer cell (SKOV-3) xenografts in nude mice and a syngenic rat ovarian cancer model...
2012: PloS One
Efrén Pérez, William Bourguet, Hinrich Gronemeyer, Angel R de Lera
As the promiscuous partner of heterodimeric associations, retinoid X receptors (RXRs) play a key role within the Nuclear Receptor (NR) superfamily. Some of the heterodimers (PPAR/RXR, LXR/RXR, FXR/RXR) are "permissive" as they become transcriptionally active in the sole presence of either an RXR-selective ligand ("rexinoid") or a NR partner ligand. In contrast, "non-permissive" heterodimers (including RAR/RXR, VDR/RXR and TR/RXR) are unresponsive to rexinoids alone but these agonists superactivate transcription by synergizing with partner agonists...
January 2012: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Natacha Rochel, Fabrice Ciesielski, Julien Godet, Edelmiro Moman, Manfred Roessle, Carole Peluso-Iltis, Martine Moulin, Michael Haertlein, Phil Callow, Yves Mély, Dmitri I Svergun, Dino Moras
Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) control numerous physiological processes through the regulation of gene expression. The present study provides a structural basis for understanding the role of DNA in the spatial organization of NHR heterodimers in complexes with coactivators such as Med1 and SRC-1. We have used SAXS, SANS and FRET to determine the solution structures of three heterodimer NHR complexes (RXR-RAR, PPAR-RXR and RXR-VDR) coupled with the NHR interacting domains of coactivators bound to their cognate direct repeat elements...
May 2011: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Pit Sertznig, Markus Seifert, Wolfgang Tilgen, Jörg Reichrath
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes that are of importance for a multitude of cellular functions including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, immune responses and apoptosis. Ligands and other agents influencing the PPAR and VDR signaling pathways have been shown to reveal chemopreventive potential by mediating tumor suppressive activities in a variety of human cancers. Use of these compounds may represent a potential novel strategy to prevent melanoma pathogenesis and to inhibit melanoma progression...
July 2010: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Richard J Wood
The focus of the current review is to highlight some new insights into the molecular mechanism by which vitamin D, a potentially nutritionally modulated factor, influences adipogenesis. Recent studies, predominantly using the mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell culture model, have shown that the role of vitamin D in inhibiting adipogenesis is mediated at the molecular level through a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent inhibition of CCAAT enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP alpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma) expression and a decrease in PPAR gamma transactivating activity in the pre-adipocyte...
January 2008: Nutrition Reviews
Trevor G Marshall, Robert E Lee, Frances E Marshall
BACKGROUND: There have been indications that common Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) may be exerting anti-inflammatory actions by directly modulating the immune system. We decided to use molecular modelling to rapidly assess which of the potential targets might justify the expense of detailed laboratory validation. We first studied the VDR nuclear receptor, which is activated by the secosteroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D. This receptor mediates the expression of regulators as ubiquitous as GnRH (Gonadatrophin hormone releasing hormone) and the Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)...
January 10, 2006: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
Matthias Schmuth, Peter M Elias, Kenneth R Feingold
Nuclear hormone receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors. The class of nuclear hormone receptors that form heterodimers with retinoid X receptor includes members that are well established targets of current dermatological therapeutics such as the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) as well as more recently discovered receptors including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and the liver X receptor (LXR). After ligand activation (often lipid metabolites), these intracellular receptors exert their functions by binding to specific response elements in regulatory sequences of target genes, preferentially those involved in differentiation, energy expenditure and lipid metabolism...
May 2003: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Seunghee Lee, Dong-Kee Lee, Eunho Choi, Jae W Lee
Insulin-induced gene-1 (Insig-1) and its homolog Insig-2 encode closely related proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum that block proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins, membrane-bound transcription factors that activate synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids in animal cells. These proteins also restrict lipogenesis in mature adipocytes and block differentiation of preadipocytes. Herein, we identified a novel 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] response element in the promoter region of Insig-2 gene, which specifically binds to the heterodimer of retinoid X receptor and vitamin D receptor (VDR) and directs VDR-mediated transcriptional activation in a 1,25-(OH)2D3-dependent manner...
February 2005: Molecular Endocrinology
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