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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437126/how-winning-changes-motivation-in-multiphase-competitions
#1
Szu-Chi Huang, Jordan Etkin, Liyin Jin
What drives motivation in multiphase competitions? Adopting a dynamic approach, this research examines how temporary standing-being ahead of (vs. behind) one's opponent-in a multiphase competition shapes subsequent motivation. Six competitions conducted in the lab and in the field demonstrate that the impact of being ahead on contestants' motivation depends on when (i.e., in which phase of the competition) contestants learn they are in the lead. In the early phase, contestants are concerned about whether they can win; being ahead increases motivation by making winning seem more attainable...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436438/spatiotemporally-and-sequentially-controlled-drug-release-from-polymer-gatekeeper-hollow-silica-nanoparticles
#2
L Palanikumar, M T Jeena, Kibeom Kim, Jun Yong Oh, Chaekyu Kim, Myoung-Hwan Park, Ja-Hyoung Ryu
Combination chemotherapy has become the primary strategy against cancer multidrug resistance; however, accomplishing optimal pharmacokinetic delivery of multiple drugs is still challenging. Herein, we report a sequential combination drug delivery strategy exploiting a pH-triggerable and redox switch to release cargos from hollow silica nanoparticles in a spatiotemporal manner. This versatile system further enables a large loading efficiency for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs inside the nanoparticles, followed by self-crosslinking with disulfide and diisopropylamine-functionalized polymers...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436345/evidence-that-polygenic-risk-for-psychotic-disorder-is-expressed-in-the-domain-of-neurodevelopment-emotion-regulation-and-attribution-of-salience
#3
J van Os, Y van der Steen, Md A Islam, S Gülöksüz, B P Rutten, C J Simons
BACKGROUND: The liability-threshold model of psychosis risk predicts stronger phenotypic manifestation of the polygenic risk score (PRS) in the healthy relatives of patients, as compared with healthy comparison subjects. METHODS: First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder (871 siblings and 812 parents) and healthy comparison subjects (n = 523) were interviewed three times in 6 years. Repeated measures of two psychosis phenotypes, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE; self-report - subscales of positive, negative and depressive symptoms) and the Structured Interview for Schizotypy - Revised (SIS-R; clinical interview - subscales of positive and negative schizotypy), were examined for association with PRS...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436236/put-two-and-two-together-to-make-the-most-of-physical-activity-and-healthy-nutrition-a-longitudinal-online-study-examining-cross-behavioural-mechanisms-in-multiple-health-behaviour-change
#4
Juliane Paech, Sonia Lippke
Recommendations for physical activity and for fruit and vegetable intake are often not translated into action due to deficits in self-regulatory strategies. The present study examines the interplay of intention, intergoal facilitation, action and coping planning and self-regulation in facilitating physical activity and healthy nutrition. In an online study, intentions and behaviours were assessed at baseline, intergoal facilitation and planning at 4-week follow-up, self-regulation, physical activity and nutrition at 6-month follow-up in a non-clinical sample...
April 23, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436141/microrna-10b-regulates-the-renewal-of-spermatogonial-stem-cells-through-kruppel-like-factor-4
#5
Jiang Li, Xiang Liu, Xiaopeng Hu, Geng G Tian, Wenzhi Ma, Xiuying Pei, Yanrong Wang, Ji Wu
MicroRNAs (miRs) are functionally important in spermatogenesis, which is the self-renewal or differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Here, we report a novel role for miR-10b in regulating the self-renewal of mouse SSCs. We showed that miR-10b was highly expressed in mouse SSCs in vitro and enhanced SSC proliferation. Knockdown of miR-10b significantly increased the apoptosis of SSCs compared with controls. Kruppel-like factor 4 was found to be a target gene of miR-10b in the enhancement of SSC proliferation...
April 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436127/tip110-deletion-impaired-embryonic-and-stem-cell-development-involving-down-regulation-of-stem-cell-factors-nanog-oct4-and-sox2
#6
Amanda Whitmill, Ying Liu, Khalid Amine Timani, Yinghua Niu, Johnny J He
HIV-1 Tat-interacting protein of 110 kDa, Tip110, plays important roles in multiple biological processes. In this study, we aimed to characterize the function of Tip110 in embryonic development. Transgenic mice lacking expression of a functional Tip110 gene (Tip110(-/-) ) died post-implantation, and Tip110(-/-) embryos exhibited developmental arrest between 8.5 and 9.5 days post coitum. However, in vitro cultures of Tip110(-/-) embryos showed that Tip110 loss did not impair embryo growth from the zygote to the blastocyst...
April 24, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435162/self-regulation-and-household-routines-at-age-three-and-obesity-at-age-eleven-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-uk-millennium-cohort-study
#7
S E Anderson, A Sacker, R C Whitaker, Y Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To examine, in a population-based cohort of three-year-old children, the association between self-regulation and exposure to the household routines of regular bedtime, regular mealtime, and limits on watching television/video; and to determine whether self-regulation and these routines predict the risk of obesity at age 11. METHODS: Analyses included 10 955 children in the nationally-representative UK Millennium Cohort Study. When children were age 3, parents reported whether children had a regular bedtime and mealtime and the amount of television/video watched...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434825/rna-binding-proteins-in-human-oogenesis-balancing-differentiation-and-self-renewal-in-the-female-fetal-germline
#8
Roseanne Rosario, Andrew J Childs, Richard A Anderson
Primordial germ cells undergo three significant processes on their path to becoming primary oocytes: the initiation of meiosis, the formation and breakdown of germ cell nests, and the assembly of single oocytes into primordial follicles. However at the onset of meiosis, the germ cell becomes transcriptionally silenced. Consequently translational control of pre-stored mRNAs plays a central role in coordinating gene expression throughout the remainder of oogenesis; RNA binding proteins are key to this regulation...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434131/knowing-how-and-knowing-why-testing-the-effect-of-instruction-designed-for-cognitive-integration-on-procedural-skills-transfer
#9
Jeffrey J H Cheung, Kulamakan M Kulasegaram, Nicole N Woods, Carol-Anne Moulton, Charlotte V Ringsted, Ryan Brydges
Transfer is a desired outcome of simulation-based training, yet evidence for how instructional design features promote transfer is lacking. In clinical reasoning, transfer is improved when trainees experience instruction integrating basic science explanations with clinical signs and symptoms. To test whether integrated instruction has similar effects in procedural skills (i.e., psychomotor skills) training, we studied the impact of instruction that integrates conceptual (why) and procedural (how) knowledge on the retention and transfer of simulation-based lumbar puncture (LP) skill...
April 22, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434108/emotional-eating-binge-eating-and-animal-models-of-binge-type-eating-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Robert Turton, Rayane Chami, Janet Treasure
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this paper is to review the role that hedonic factors, emotions and self-regulation systems have over eating behaviours from animal models to humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence has been found to suggest that for some high-risk individuals, obesity/binge eating may develop as an impulsive reaction to negative emotions that over time becomes a compulsive habit. Animal models highlight the neural mechanisms that might underlie this process and suggest similarities with substance use disorders...
April 22, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433890/il-37-induces-autophagy-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-by-inhibiting-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#11
Ting-Ting Li, Di Zhu, Tong Mou, Zhen Guo, Jun-Liang Pu, Qing-Song Chen, Xu-Fu Wei, Zhong-Jun Wu
Autophagy is an intracellular "self-eating" process that is closely related to inflammation and cellular immunity. New studies indicate that autophagy is also involved in tumor suppression. The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-37 (IL-37) has been shown to have tumor-suppressive abilities in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Notably, autophagy appears to play a dual role in the development of HCC and may be involved in both tumorigenesis and tumor suppression. However, the potential role of IL-37 in autophagy is currently unknown...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432781/cognitive-functioning-and-emotion-processing-in-breast-cancer-survivors-and-controls-an-erp-pilot-study
#12
Janine Wirkner, Mathias Weymar, Andreas Löw, Carmen Hamm, Anne-Marie Struck, Clemens Kirschbaum, Alfons O Hamm
Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is a very emotionally aversive and stressful life event, which can lead to impaired cognitive functioning and mental health. Breast cancer survivors responding with repressive emotion regulation strategies often show less adaptive coping and adverse outcomes. We investigated cognitive functioning and neural correlates of emotion processing using ERPs. Self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and fatigue, as well as hair cortisol as an index of chronic stress, were assessed...
April 22, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432534/individual-differences-in-adolescents-emotional-reactivity-across-relationship-contexts
#13
Emily C Cook, Bethany L Blair, Cheryl Buehler
Understanding individual differences in adolescents' ability to regulate emotions within interpersonal relationships is paramount for healthy development. Thus, the effect of individual vulnerabilities (depressive affect, social anxiety, self-blame, and coping efficacy problems) on the transmission of emotional reactivity in response to conflict from family to peers (friends and romantic partners) was prospectively examined across six waves of data in a community-based sample of 416 adolescents (Mage Wave 1 = 11...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432093/diversity-of-integrative-and-conjugative-elements-of-streptococcus-salivarius-and-their-intra-and-interspecies-transfer
#14
Narimane Dahmane, Virginie Libante, Florence Charron-Bourgoin, Eric Guédon, Gérard Guédon, Nathalie Leblond-Bourget, Sophie Payot
Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) are widespread chromosomal mobile genetic elements, which can transfer autonomously by conjugation in bacteria. Thirteen ICEs with a conjugation module closely related to that of ICESt3 of Streptococcus thermophilus were characterized in Streptococcus salivarius by whole genome sequencing. Sequence comparison highlighted ICE evolution by shuffling of 3 different integration/excision modules (for integration in the 3' end of fda, rpsI or rpmG genes) with the conjugation module of the ICESt3 subfamily...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432009/the-lateral-hypothalamus-to-lateral-habenula-projection-but-not-the-ventral-pallidum-to-lateral-habenula-projection-regulates-voluntary-ethanol-consumption
#15
Chandni Sheth, Teri M Furlong, Kristen A Keefe, Sharif A Taha
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region implicated in aversive processing via negative modulation of midbrain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) systems. Given the role of the LHb in inhibiting DA and 5-HT systems, it is thought to be involved in various psychiatric pathologies, including drug addiction. In support, it has been shown that LHb plays a critical role in cocaine- and ethanol-related behaviors, most likely by mediating drug-induced aversive conditioning. In our previous work, we showed that LHb lesions increased voluntary ethanol consumption and operant ethanol self-administration and blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol self-administration...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431547/the-effectiveness-of-asking-behaviors-among-9-11-year-old-children-in-increasing-home-availability-and-children-s-intake-of-fruit-and-vegetables-results-from-the-squire-s-quest-ii-self-regulation-game-intervention
#16
Ann DeSmet, Yan Liu, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Tom Baranowski, Debbe Thompson
BACKGROUND: Home environment has an important influence on children's fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption, but children may in turn also impact their home FV environment, e.g. by asking for FV. The Squire's Quest II serious game intervention aimed to increase asking behaviors to improve home FV availability and children's FV intake. This study's aims were to assess: 1) did asking behaviors at baseline predict home FV availability at baseline (T0) (RQ1); 2) were asking behaviors and home FV availability influenced by the intervention (RQ2); 3) did increases in asking behaviors predict increased home FV availability (RQ3); and 4) did increases in asking behaviors and increases in home FV availability mediate increases in FV intake among children (RQ4)? METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a study using a randomized controlled trial, with 4 groups (each n = 100 child-parent dyads)...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431359/reconstruction-of-microbial-community-structures-as-evidences-for-soil-redox-coupled-reductive-dechlorination-of-pcp-in-a-mangrove-soil
#17
Yan Xu, Yan He, Xianjin Tang, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
The aim was to investigate the influence of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the soil microbial communities and the coupled mechanism between PCP reductive dechlorination and soil redox under anaerobic condition. Accordingly, a slurry incubation experiment was carried out in which bacterial and archaeal communities were detected by MiSeq amplicon sequencing. The original microbial community balance was gradually disrupted and new microbial structure was reconstructed subsequently through self-regulation and acclimation during PCP transformation, coupling with the changes of soil biogeochemical redox dynamics...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431192/a-personal-connection-promoting-positive-attitudes-towards-teaching-and-learning
#18
Heidi L Lujan, Stephen E DiCarlo
Students' attitudes towards teaching and learning must be addressed with the same seriousness and effort as we address content. Establishing a personal connection and addressing our students' basic psychological needs will produce positive attitudes towards teaching and learning and develop life-long learners. It will also promote constructive student-teacher relationships that have a profound influence on our students' approach towards school. To begin this process, consider the major tenets of the Self-Determination Theory...
April 21, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430193/self-propelled-supramolecular-nanomotors-with-temperature-responsive-speed-regulation
#19
Yingfeng Tu, Fei Peng, Xiaofeng Sui, Yongjun Men, Paul B White, Jan C M van Hest, Daniela A Wilson
Self-propelled catalytic micro- and nanomotors have been the subject of intense study over the past few years, but it remains a continuing challenge to build in an effective speed-regulation mechanism. Movement of these motors is generally fully dependent on the concentration of accessible fuel, with propulsive movement only ceasing when the fuel consumption is complete. Here we report a demonstration of control over the movement of self-assembled stomatocyte nanomotors via a molecularly built, stimulus-responsive regulatory mechanism...
May 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430042/control-without-controllers-toward-a-distributed-neuroscience-of-executive-control
#20
Benjamin R Eisenreich, Rei Akaishi, Benjamin Y Hayden
Executive control refers to the regulation of cognition and behavior by mental processes and is a hallmark of higher cognition. Most approaches to understanding its mechanisms begin with the assumption that our brains have anatomically segregated and functionally specialized control modules. The modular approach is intuitive: Control is conceptually distinct from basic mental processing, so an organization that reifies that distinction makes sense. An alternative approach sees executive control as self-organizing principles of a distributed organization...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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