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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914042/perfectionism-mediated-the-relationship-between-brain-structure-variation-and-negative-emotion-in-a-nonclinical-sample
#1
Di Wu, Kangcheng Wang, Dongtao Wei, Qunlin Chen, Xue Du, Junyi Yang, Jiang Qiu
In maladaptive respects, perfectionism reflects an individual's concern over making mistakes and doubting the quality of his or her own actions excessively, which would affect one's emotion. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms associated with the perfectionism and negative affect. In this study, voxel-based morphometry was performed to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in perfectionism, which was measured by the Chinese Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (CFMPS), in a large sample of nonclinical young adults...
December 2, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913593/higher-heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-vmpfc-activity-and-increased-resistance-to-temptation-in-dietary-self-control-challenges
#2
Silvia U Maier, Todd A Hare
: Higher levels of self-control in decision making have been linked to better psychosocial and physical health. A similar link to health outcomes has been reported for heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of physiological flexibility. Here, we sought to link these two, largely separate, research domains by testing the hypothesis that greater HRV would be associated with better dietary self-control in humans. Specifically, we examined whether total HRV at sedentary rest (measured as the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals, SDNN) can serve as a biomarker for the neurophysiological adaptability that putatively underlies self-controlled behavior...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913469/can-we-make-a-better-match-or-mismatch-with-kir-genotyping
#3
Rohtesh S Mehta, Katayoun Rezvani
Natural killer (NK) cell function is regulated by a fine balance between numerous activating and inhibitory receptors, of which killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are among the most polymorphic and comprehensively studied. KIRs allow NK cells to recognize downregulation or the absence of HLA class I molecules on target cells (known as missing-self), a phenomenon that is commonly observed in virally infected cells or cancer cells. Because KIR and HLA genes are located on different chromosomes, in an allogeneic environment such as after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor NK cells that express an inhibitory KIR for an HLA class I molecule that is absent on recipient targets (KIR/KIR-ligand mismatch), can recognize and react to this missing self and mediate cytotoxicity...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912816/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-role-in-dental-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Xueli Mao, Yao Liu, Chider Chen, Songtao Shi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been discovered in almost every organ and tissue. MSCs are a heterogeneous population of cells with the capacity to self-renew and show multilineage differentiation. MSCs possess immunomodulatory properties by regulating multiple types of immune cells. They are emerging as a promising therapeutic agent, and have been widely used for cell-based tissue regeneration and immune therapies. A further understanding of the biological characteristics of MSCs is a prerequisite to develop more efficient MSC-based therapies...
January 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912128/time-to-grow-circadian-regulation-of-growth-and-metabolism-in-photosynthetic-organisms
#5
REVIEW
Santiago Mora-García, María José de Leone, Marcelo Yanovsky
Circadian clocks are molecular devices that help adjust organisms to periodic environmental changes. Although formally described as self-sustaining oscillators that are synchronized by external cues and produce defined outputs, it is increasingly clear that physiological processes not only are regulated by, but also regulate the function of the clock. We discuss three recent examples of the intimate relationships between the function of the clock, growth and metabolism in photosynthetic organisms: the daily tracking of sun by sunflowers, the fine computations plants and cyanobacteria perform to manage carbon reserves and prevent starvation, and the changes in clock parameters that went along with domestication of tomato...
November 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912085/pdgfa-makes-thin-skin-thicker-molecular-regulation-of-adipose-progenitor-maintenance
#6
Shingo Kajimura
Adipocyte progenitor proliferation and self-renewal contribute to adipose tissue maintenance; however, the regulatory circuits of these processes are less understood. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Rivera-Gonzalez et al. (2016) show that PDGFA, which acts through PI3K-Akt pathways, plays a vital role in the proliferation and maintenance of adipocyte progenitors in dermal adipose tissues.
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911279/microrna-101-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-human-glioblastoma-by-targeting-sox9
#7
Nan Liu, Lei Zhang, Zhen Wang, Yingduan Cheng, Pengxing Zhang, Xin Wang, Weihong Wen, Hongwei Yang, Hui Liu, Weilin Jin, Yongsheng Zhang, Yanyang Tu
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant tumors originating in the brain parenchyma. At present, GBM patients have a poor prognosis despite the continuous progress in therapeutic technologies including surgery, radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and chemotherapy. Recent studies revealed that miR-101 was remarkably down-regulated in kinds of human cancers and was associated with aggressive tumor cell proliferation and stem cell self-renewal. Data also showed that miR-101 was down-regulated in primary glioma samples and cell lines, but the underlying molecular mechanism of the deregulation of miR-101 in glioma remained largely unknown...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911185/self-regulation-and-social-pressure-reduce-prejudiced-responding-and-increase-motivation-to-be-non-prejudiced
#8
Steven G Buzinski, Michael B Kitchens
Self-regulation constrains the expression of prejudice, but when self-regulation falters, the immediate environment can act as an external source of prejudice regulation. This hypothesis derives from work demonstrating that external controls and internal self-regulation can prompt goal pursuit in the absence of self-imposed controls. Across four studies we found support for this complementary model of prejudice regulation. In Study 1, self-regulatory fatigue resulted in less motivation to be non-prejudiced, compared to a non-fatigued control...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910766/natural-igm-and-the-development-of-b-cell-mediated-autoimmune-diseases
#9
Trang T T Nguyen, Nicole Baumgarth
Most serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) is "natural IgM", which is produced apparently spontaneously by a distinct subset of B cells requiring no exogenous antigenic or microbial stimuli. Natural IgM is an evolutionarily conserved molecule and reacts with a variety of epitopes expressed on both self- and non-self antigens. It has long been understood that secreted (s) IgM contributes to the removal of altered self-antigens, such as apoptotic and dying cells. As we outline in this review, it is thought that this sIgM housekeeping function removes potential triggers of autoresponse induction...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910261/borderline-personality-disorder-features-emotion-dysregulation-and-non-suicidal-self-injury-preliminary-findings-in-a-sample-of-community-dwelling-italian-adolescents
#10
Antonella Somma, Carla Sharp, Serena Borroni, Andrea Fossati
In order to assess the relationships among borderline personality disorder features, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and emotion dysregulation, 122 community-dwelling Italian adolescents were administered by the Italian translations of the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children-11, the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Regression models showed that both Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory (DSHI) and DERS scores significantly predicted Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children-11 total score; moreover, the DSHI total score significantly predicted the DERS total score...
December 2, 2016: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909729/self-renewal-molecular-mechanisms-of-colorectal-cancer-stem-cells
#11
Tianhui Pan, Jinghong Xu, Yongliang Zhu
Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog-Gli (HH-GLI), specific roles mediated by cell surface markers and micro-environmental factors are involved in the regulation of self-renewal...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909707/in-vitro-study-of-the-host-responses-to-model-biomaterials-via-a-fibroblast-macrophage-co-culture-system
#12
Guoying Zhou, Andrea Liedmann, Chandralekha Chatterjee, Thomas Groth
Surface properties are believed to play important roles in initial inflammatory and subsequent wound healing/fibrotic responses after implantation of biomaterials. To investigate the surface property effect in mediating these host responses, we used an in vitro fibroblast/macrophage co-culture model established with a cell migration chamber, and a series of self-assembling monolayers (SAMs) bearing different terminal groups as model surfaces to study the effect of surface properties on macrophage fusion, fibroblast attachment, spreading morphology, proliferation, outgrowth, as well as pro-(interleukin-6) and anti-(interleukin-10) inflammatory cytokine production, expression of ED-A fibronectin (FN) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)...
December 2, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#13
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909421/metacognition-and-perspective-taking-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-mini-review
#14
REVIEW
Elodie Bertrand, Jesus Landeira-Fernandez, Daniel C Mograbi
Metacognition refers to the monitoring and regulation of cognitive processes and its impairment can lead to a lack of self-awareness of deficits, or anosognosia. In the context of different neurological and psychiatric disorders (e.g., traumatic brain injury, dementia, and schizophrenia), studies have shown that patients who present impairments in metacognitive abilities may be able to recognize such difficulties in others and in themselves when exposed to material in a third-person perspective. Considering that metacognitive impairments are an important characteristic of dementia, especially in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), studies of the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking may be relevant to improve the quality of life of people with dementia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909417/defining-contemplative-science-the-metacognitive-self-regulatory-capacity-of-the-mind-context-of-meditation-practice-and-modes-of-existential-awareness
#15
Dusana Dorjee
The term 'contemplative' is now frequently used in the fast growing field of meditation research. Yet, there is no consensus regarding the definition of contemplative science. Meditation studies commonly imply that contemplative practices such as mindfulness or compassion are the subject of contemplative science. Such approach, arguably, contributes to terminological confusions in the field, is not conducive to the development of an overarching theory in contemplative science, and overshadows its unique methodological features...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909404/prefrontal-cortex-activity-is-associated-with-biobehavioral-components-of-the-stress-response
#16
Muriah D Wheelock, Nathaniel G Harnett, Kimberly H Wood, Tyler R Orem, Douglas A Granger, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Contemporary theory suggests that prefrontal cortex (PFC) function is associated with individual variability in the psychobiology of the stress response. Advancing our understanding of this complex biobehavioral pathway has potential to provide insight into processes that determine individual differences in stress susceptibility. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during a variation of the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST) in 53 young adults. Salivary cortisol was assessed as an index of the stress response, trait anxiety was assessed as an index of an individual's disposition toward negative affectivity, and self-reported stress was assessed as an index of an individual's subjective psychological experience...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909104/loss-of-plasticity-in-the-d2-accumbens-pallidal-pathway-promotes-cocaine-seeking
#17
J A Heinsbroek, D N Neuhofer, W C Griffin, G S Siegel, A-C Bobadilla, Y M Kupchik, P W Kalivas
Distinct populations of D1- and D2-dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs) comprise the nucleus accumbens, and activity in D1-MSNs promotes, while activity in D2-MSNs inhibits motivated behaviors. We used chemogenetics to extend D1-/D2-MSN cell specific regulation to cue-reinstated cocaine seeking in a mouse model of self-administration and relapse, and found that either increasing activity in D1-MSNs or decreasing activity in D2-MSNs augmented cue-induced reinstatement. Both D1- and D2-MSNs provide substantial GABAergic innervation to the ventral pallidum, and chemogenetic inhibition of ventral pallidal neurons blocked the augmented reinstatement elicited by chemogenetic regulation of either D1- or D2-MSNs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909060/cd6-regulates-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-injury-by-modulating-natural-igm-producing-b1a-cell-self-renewal
#18
Gospel Enyindah-Asonye, Yan Li, Wei Xin, Nora Singer, Neetu Gupta, John Fung, Feng Lin
Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a relatively common pathological condition that can lead to multi-organ failure and mortality. Regulatory mechanism for this disease is poorly understood, although it is established that circulating pathogenic natural IgM, which is primarily produced by B1a cells outside of the peritoneal cavity, are integrally involved. CD6 was originally identified as a marker for T cells and later found to be present on some subsets of B cells in humans, however, whether CD6 plays any role in intestinal I/R induced injury and if so, what are the underlying mechanisms, remain unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909026/student-buy-in-to-active-learning-in-a-college-science-course
#19
Andrew J Cavanagh, Oriana R Aragón, Xinnian Chen, Brian Couch, Mary Durham, Aiyana Bobrownicki, David I Hanauer, Mark J Graham
The benefits of introducing active learning in college science courses are well established, yet more needs to be understood about student buy-in to active learning and how that process of buy-in might relate to student outcomes. We test the exposure-persuasion-identification-commitment (EPIC) process model of buy-in, here applied to student (n = 245) engagement in an undergraduate science course featuring active learning. Student buy-in to active learning was positively associated with engagement in self-regulated learning and students' course performance...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908109/perturbation-of-hydration-layer-in-solvated-proteins-by-external-electric-and-electromagnetic-fields-insights-from-non-equilibrium-molecular-dynamics
#20
Prithwish K Nandi, Zdenek Futera, Niall J English
Given the fundamental role of water in governing the biochemistry of enzymes, and in regulating their wider biological activity (e.g., by local water concentration surrounding biomolecules), the influence of extraneous electric and electromagnetic (e/m) fields thereon is of central relevance to biophysics and, more widely, biology. With the increase in levels of local and atmospheric microwave-frequency radiation present in modern life, as well as other electric-field exposure, the impact upon hydration-water layers surrounding proteins, and biomolecules generally, becomes a particularly pertinent issue...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
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