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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235199/adaptation-of-the-bone-marrow-stroma-in-hematopoietic-malignancies-current-concepts-and-models
#1
REVIEW
Ben Doron, Mithila Handu, Peter Kurre
The bone marrow stroma maintains hematopoiesis and coordinately regulates regenerative responses through dynamic interactions with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Recent studies indicate that stromal components in the bone marrow of leukemia patients undergo a process of successive adaptation that in turn exerts dramatic effects on the hematopoietic stem cell compartment and promotes leukemic drug resistance. Functional changes in discrete marrow stromal populations can therefore be considered an aspect of leukemia biogenesis in that they create an aberrant, self-reinforcing microenvironment...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235128/-love-builds-brains-representations-of-attachment-and-children-s-brain-development-in-parenting-education-material
#2
Glenda Wall
A focus on early brain development has come to dominate expert child rearing advice over the past two decades. Recent scholars have noted a reinvigoration of the concept of attachment in this advice and changes in the ways that attachment is framed and understood. The extent to which the concept of attachment is drawn on, the way it is framed, and the consequences for mothers, families and parent-child relationships is examined through a discursive analysis of a current Canadian parental education campaign...
December 12, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233367/electronic-cigarette-use-knowledge-and-perceptions-among-health-professional-students
#3
Amy M Franks, William A Hawes, Keith R McCain, Nalin Payakachat
INTRODUCTION: Our study evaluated the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, knowledge, and perceptions of health professional students enrolled in one of five colleges at a single academic health center. METHODS: A 56-item survey was conducted to examine the use, knowledge, and perceptions of e-cigarettes among health professional students. An e-cigarette knowledge score was calculated according to correct responses to eight true-false survey items, with possible scores ranging from zero to eight points...
November 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233302/validation-of-a-motivation-survey-tool-for-pharmacy-students-exploring-a-link-to-professional-identity-development
#4
Martina F Mylrea, Tarun Sen Gupta, Beverley D Glass
INTRODUCTION: Self-determination theory (SDT), which describes a continuum of motivation regulators, is proposed as an appropriate framework to study pharmacy student motivation. The aim was to develop a Pharmacy Motivation Scale (Pharm-S) to determine motivation regulators in undergraduate students and explore a possible link to professional identity development. METHODS: The Pharm-S was adapted from the SDT-based, Sports Motivation Scale (SMS-II), and administered to undergraduate students in an Australian pharmacy course...
September 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232884/practicing-dentists-self-efficacy-and-associated-factors-in-managing-the-treatment-of-adults-with-mental-and-physical-disabilities-an-exploratory-cross-sectional-study-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#5
Sakher AlQahtani, Ebtissam Zakaria Murshid, Hani Talal Fadel, Saba Kassim
Background: Provision of oral healthcare to adults with mental and physical disabilities (AMPD) remains a challenging area across various healthcare systems. The present study aimed to assess self-reported efficacy and investigate factors associated with self-efficacy in the management of AMPD among practicing dentists in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A pilot-tested, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of 1000 dentists. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed on the collected responses...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232617/shared-reality-in-interpersonal-relationships
#6
REVIEW
Susan M Andersen, Elizabeth Przybylinski
Close relationships afford us opportunities to create and maintain meaning systems as shared perceptions of ourselves and the world. Establishing a sense of mutual understanding allows for creating and maintaining lasting social bonds, and as such, is important in human relations. In a related vein, it has long been known that knowledge of significant others in one's life is stored in memory and evoked with new persons-in the social-cognitive process of 'transference'-imbuing new encounters with significance and leading to predictable cognitive, evaluative, motivational, and behavioral consequences, as well as shifts in the self and self-regulation, depending on the particular significant other evoked...
November 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231999/gant-61-and-gdc-0449-induce-apoptosis-of-prostate-cancer-stem-cells-through-a-gli-dependent-mechanism
#7
Wangxia Tong, Lei Qiu, Meng Qi, Jianbing Liu, Kaihui Hu, Wenxiong Lin, Yan Huang, Junsheng Fu
Aberrant reactivation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway promotes prostate cancer (PC) growth and progression by regulating cancer-related genes through its downstream effectors GLI1 and GLI2. Therefore, targeting the SHH-GLI pathway provides an alternative approach to avoid cancer progression. The aim of this study was to delineate the underlying molecular mechanisms by which GDC-0449 (a SMO receptor inhibitor) and GANT-61 (a GLI transcription factor inhibitor) regulate cellular proliferation and self-renewal in human PC stem cells (ProCSCs)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231147/neuroendocrine-and-metabolic-disorders-in-bulimia-nervosa
#8
Walter Milano, Anna Capasso
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bulimia nervosa, is an eating disorder characterized by excessive influence of weight and body shape on the levels of self-esteem, with pervasive feelings of failure and inadequacy. The eating is characterized by the presence of episodes of uncontrolled eating (Binge), during which the person ingests mass wide variety of foods and the feeling of not being able to stop eating. This review focuses on the metabolic and hormonal alterations in the in bulimia nervosa...
December 11, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230914/delta-like-4-activates-notch3-to-regulate-self-renewal-in-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells
#9
SiewHui Low, Josephine L Barnes, Peter S Zammit, Jonathan R Beauchamp
Notch signalling is essential to maintain skeletal muscle stem cells in quiescence. The precise roles of the different Notch receptors are, however, incompletely defined. Here we demonstrate a role for Notch3 in the self-renewal of muscle stem cells. We found that Notch3 is active in quiescent C2C12 reserve cells, and Notch3 over-expression and knockdown studies in C2C12 and primary satellite cells reveal a role in self-renewal. The Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4) is expressed by newly formed myotubes and interaction with this ligand is sufficient to maintain Notch3 activity in quiescent C2C12 reserve cells to prevent activation and progression into the cell cycle...
December 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230888/the-status-of-support-for-cannabis-regulation-in-uruguay-4-years-after-reform-evidence-from-public-opinion-surveys
#10
José Miguel Cruz, Maria Fernanda Boidi, Rosario Queirolo
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The objective of this study was to measure the public support for marijuana legalisation in Uruguay, both overall and in its provisions, in nearly 4 years after its implementation. DESIGN AND METHODS: Three separate cross-national surveys were conducted in early 2014, late 2015 and mid-2017 with national representative samples of adults. The first study was carried out during the initial months of implementation of the law and used face-to-face interviews (N = 1490); the second survey was conducted using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (N = 703); and the third study (N = 1515), using face-to-face interviews, was completed just before the implementation of pharmacy sales...
December 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230856/the-role-of-the-assessment-policy-in-the-relation-between-learning-and-performance
#11
Rob Kickert, Karen M Stegers-Jager, Marieke Meeuwisse, Peter Prinzie, Lidia R Arends
CONTEXT: Optimising student learning and academic performance is a continuous challenge for medical schools. The assessment policy may influence both learning and performance. Previously, the joint contribution of self-regulated learning (SRL) and participation in scheduled learning activities towards academic performance has been reported. However, little is known about the relationships between SRL, participation and academic performance under different assessment policies. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate differences in average scores of SRL, participation and academic performance of students under two assessment policies: (i) a conjunctive lower stakes, lower performance standard (old) assessment policy and (ii) a compensatory higher stakes, higher performance standard (new) assessment policy...
December 11, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230700/disclosure-is-inadequate-as-a-solution-to-managing-conflicts-of-interest-in-human-research
#12
Helene Jacmon
Disclosure is a common response to conflicts of interest; it is intended to expose the conflict to scrutiny and enable it to be appropriately managed. For disclosure to be effective the receiver of the disclosure needs to be able to use the information to assess how the conflict may impact on their interests and then implement a suitable response. The act of disclosure also creates an expectation of self-regulation, as the person with the conflicting interests will be mindful of their own potential biases and aware that their decisions may be monitored...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230328/circadian-rhythm-disturbances-in-mood-disorders-insights-into-the-role-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#13
REVIEW
Chelsea A Vadnie, Colleen A McClung
Circadian rhythm disturbances are a common symptom among individuals with mood disorders. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), in the ventral part of the anterior hypothalamus, orchestrates physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms. The SCN consists of self-sustaining oscillators and receives photic and nonphotic cues, which entrain the SCN to the external environment. In turn, through synaptic and hormonal mechanisms, the SCN can drive and synchronize circadian rhythms in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral tissues...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230181/calvarial-suture-derived-stem-cells-and-their-contribution-to-cranial-bone-repair
#14
REVIEW
Daniel H Doro, Agamemnon E Grigoriadis, Karen J Liu
In addition to the natural turnover during life, the bones in the skeleton possess the ability to self-repair in response to injury or disease-related bone loss. Based on studies of bone defect models, both processes are largely supported by resident stem cells. In the long bones, the source of skeletal stem cells has been widely investigated over the years, where the major stem cell population is thought to reside in the perivascular niche of the bone marrow. In contrast, we have very limited knowledge about the stem cells contributing to the repair of calvarial bones...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230069/value-based-standards-guide-sexism-inferences-for-self-and-others
#15
Chelsea Mitamura, Lynnsey Erickson, Patricia G Devine
People often disagree about what constitutes sexism, and these disagreements can be both socially and legally consequential. It is unclear, however, why or how people come to different conclusions about whether something or someone is sexist. Previous research on judgments about sexism has focused on the perceiver's gender and attitudes, but neither of these variables identifies comparative standards that people use to determine whether any given behavior (or person) is sexist. Extending Devine and colleagues' values framework (Devine, Monteith, Zuwerink, & Elliot, 1991; Plant & Devine, 1998), we argue that, when evaluating others' behavior, perceivers rely on the morally-prescriptive values that guide their own behavior toward women...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229777/crystal-structure-of-the-flif-flig-complex-from-helicobacter-pylori-yields-insight-into-the-assembly-of-the-motor-ms-c-ring-in-the-bacterial-flagellum
#16
Chaolun Xue, Kwok Ho Lam, Huawei Zhang, Kailei Sun, Sai Hang Lee, Xin Chen, Shannon Wing Ngor Au
The bacterial flagellar motor is a self-assembling supramolecular nanodevice. Its spontaneous biosynthesis is initiated by the insertion of the MS ring protein FliF into the inner membrane, followed by attachment of the switch protein FliG. Assembly of this multiprotein complex is tightly regulated to avoid nonspecific aggregation, but the molecular mechanisms governing flagellar assembly are unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of the cytoplasmic domain of FliF complexed with the N-terminal domain of FliG (FliFC-FliGN) from the bacterium Helicobacter pylori Within this complex, FliFC interacted with FliGN through extensive hydrophobic contacts similar to those observed in the FliFC-FliGN structure from the thermophile Thermotoga maritima, indicating conservation of the FliFC-FliGN interaction across bacterial species...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229728/cas9-enhances-bacterial-virulence-by-repressing-the-regr-transcriptional-regulator-in-streptococcus-agalactiae
#17
Ke Ma, Qing Cao, Su Luo, Zhaofei Wang, Guangjin Liu, Chengping Lu, Yongjie Liu
Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated cas genes have been demonstrated to regulate self-genes and virulence in many pathogens. In this study, we found that inactivation of cas9 caused reduced adhesion and intracellular survival of the piscine Streptococcus agalactiae strain GD201008-001 and significantly decreased the virulence of this strain in zebrafish and mice. Further investigation indicated that the regR transcriptional regulator was upregulated in the Δcas9 mutant...
December 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229706/causal-evidence-for-learning-dependent-frontal-lobe-contributions-to-cognitive-control
#18
Paul S Muhle-Karbe, Jiefeng Jiang, Tobias Egner
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) plays a central role in the prioritization of sensory input based on task-relevance. Such top-down control of perception is of fundamental importance in goal-directed behavior, but can also be costly when deployed excessively, necessitating a mechanism that regulates control engagement to align it with changing environmental demands. We have recently introduced the "flexible control model," which explains this regulation as resulting from a self-adjusting reinforcement-learning mechanism that infers latent statistical structure in dynamic task environments to predict forthcoming states...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229655/new-zealand-policy-experts-appraisal-of-interventions-to-reduce-smoking-in-young-adults-a-qualitative-investigation
#19
Jude Ball, Janet Hoek, El Shadan Tautolo, Heather Gifford
OBJECTIVES: Reducing smoking in young adults, particularly young Māori and Pacific, is vital for reducing tobacco harm and health inequalities in New Zealand (NZ). We investigated how NZ policy experts appraised the feasibility and likely effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce smoking prevalence among 18-24 year olds. DESIGN: We used a qualitative design, conducting semistructured interviews and applying thematic analysis. PARTICIPANTS: We interviewed 15 key informants, including politicians, senior policy analysts and leading tobacco control advocates...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229016/sequences-of-maladaptation-preadolescent-self-regulation-adolescent-negative-social-interactions-and-young-adult-psychopathology
#20
Odilia M Laceulle, René Veenstra, Wilma A M Vollebergh, Johan Ormel
This study aims to test whether adolescent negative social interactions mediate the relation between early adolescent self-regulatory capacities and young adult psychopathology, using a fully prospective mediation model. Data were derived from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a large population cohort of Dutch adolescents (n = 962). At age 11, three indicators of self-regulation were assessed: low frustration, high effortful control, and high response inhibition. Negative social interactions between ages 11 and 22 were captured twice using the Event History Calendar...
December 12, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
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