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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028563/exploring-the-relationship-between-online-buyers-and-sellers-of-image-and-performance-enhancing-drugs-ipeds-quality-issues-trust-and-self-regulation
#1
Katinka van de Ven, Rosa Koenraadt
BACKGROUND: Online drug markets are expanding the boundaries of drug supply including the sale and purchase of image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). However, the role of the internet in IPED markets, and in particular the ways in which these substances are supplied via the surface web, has rarely been considered. This article examines the online IPED market in order to inform drug policy and to provide a nuanced understanding of retailers involved, particularly exploring the relationship between buyers and sellers...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028369/toll-like-receptors-significance-ligands-signaling-pathways-and-functions-in-mammals
#2
Mallenahally Kusha Vidya, V Girish Kumar, Veerasamy Sejian, Madiajagan Bagath, Govindan Krishnan, Raghavendra Bhatta
This review attempts to cover the implication of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) in controlling immune functions with emphasis on their significance, function, regulation and expression patterns. The tripartite TLRs are type I integral transmembrane receptors that are involved in recognition and conveying of pathogens to the immune system. These paralogs are located on cell surfaces or within endosomes. The TLRs are found to be functionally involved in the recognition of self and non-self-antigens, maturation of DCs and initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune responses as they bridge the innate and adaptive immunity...
October 13, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027233/dysregulated-cellular-functions-and-cell-stress-pathways-provide-critical-cues-for-activating-and-targeting-natural-killer-cells-to-transformed-and-infected-cells
#3
REVIEW
David H Raulet, Assaf Marcus, Laurent Coscoy
Natural killer (NK) cells recognize and kill cancer cells and infected cells by engaging cell surface ligands that are induced preferentially or exclusively on these cells. These ligands are recognized by activating receptors on NK cells, such as NKG2D. In addition to activation by cell surface ligands, the acquisition of optimal effector activity by NK cells is driven in vivo by cytokines and other signals. This review addresses a developing theme in NK cell biology: that NK-activating ligands on cells, and the provision of cytokines and other signals that drive high effector function in NK cells, are driven by abnormalities that arise from transformation or the infected state...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027226/efferocytosis-of-dying-cells-differentially-modulate-immunological-outcomes-in-tumor-microenvironment
#4
REVIEW
Sushil Kumar, David Calianese, Raymond B Birge
Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an integral part of tissue homeostasis in complex organisms, allowing for tissue turnover, repair, and renewal while simultaneously inhibiting the release of self antigens and danger signals from apoptotic cell-derived constituents that can result in immune activation, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Unlike cells in culture, the physiological fate of cells that die by apoptosis in vivo is their rapid recognition and engulfment by phagocytic cells (a process called efferocytosis)...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027223/inflammatory-cell-death-in-intestinal-pathologies
#5
REVIEW
Deepika Sharma, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
The intestinal tract is a site of intense immune cell activity that is poised to mount an effective response against a pathogen and yet maintain tolerance toward commensal bacteria and innocuous dietary antigens. The role of cell death in gut pathologies is particularly important as the intestinal epithelium undergoes self-renewal every 4-7 days through a continuous process of cell death and cell division. Cell death is also required for removal of infected, damaged, and cancerous cells. Certain forms of cell death trigger inflammation through release of damage-associated molecular patterns...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027218/cell-death-and-immunity-in-cancer-from-danger-signals-to-mimicry-of-pathogen-defense-responses
#6
REVIEW
Abhishek D Garg, Patrizia Agostinis
The immunogenicity of cancer cells is an emerging determinant of anti-cancer immunotherapy. Beyond developing immunostimulatory regimens like dendritic cell-based vaccines, immune-checkpoint blockers, and adoptive T-cell transfer, investigators are beginning to focus on the immunobiology of dying cancer cells and its relevance for the success of anticancer immunotherapies. It is currently accepted that cancer cells may die in response to anti-cancer therapies through regulated cell death programs, which may either repress or increase their immunogenic potential...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026083/chemical-signal-activation-of-an-organocatalyst-enables-control-over-soft-material-formation
#7
Fanny Trausel, Chandan Maity, Jos M Poolman, D S J Kouwenberg, Frank Versluis, Jan H van Esch, Rienk Eelkema
Cells can react to their environment by changing the activity of enzymes in response to specific chemical signals. Artificial catalysts capable of being activated by chemical signals are rare, but of interest for creating autonomously responsive materials. We present an organocatalyst that is activated by a chemical signal, enabling temporal control over reaction rates and the formation of materials. Using self-immolative chemistry, we design a deactivated aniline organocatalyst that is activated by the chemical signal hydrogen peroxide and catalyses hydrazone formation...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025390/partitioning-of-functional-gene-expression-data-using-principal-points
#8
Jaehee Kim, Haseong Kim
BACKGROUND: DNA microarrays offer motivation and hope for the simultaneous study of variations in multiple genes. Gene expression is a temporal process that allows variations in expression levels with a characterized gene function over a period of time. Temporal gene expression curves can be treated as functional data since they are considered as independent realizations of a stochastic process. This process requires appropriate models to identify patterns of gene functions. The partitioning of the functional data can find homogeneous subgroups of entities for the massive genes within the inherent biological networks...
October 12, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024951/bans-of-who-class-i-pesticides-in-bangladesh-suicide-prevention-without-hampering-agricultural-output
#9
Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury, Gourab Dewan, Vasundhara R Verma, Duleeka W Knipe, Ishrat Tahsin Isha, M Abul Faiz, David J Gunnell, Michael Eddleston
Background: Pesticide self-poisoning is a major problem in Bangladesh. Over the past 20-years, the Bangladesh government has introduced pesticide legislation and banned highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) from agricultural use. We aimed to assess the impacts of pesticide bans on suicide and on agricultural production. Methods: We obtained data on unnatural deaths from the Statistics Division of Bangladesh Police, and used negative binomial regression to quantify changes in pesticide suicides and unnatural deaths following removal of WHO Class I toxicity HHPs from agriculture in 2000...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024846/attentional-control-and-executive-functioning-in-school-aged-children-linking-self-regulation-and-parenting-strategies
#10
Andrea M Spruijt, Marielle C Dekker, Tim B Ziermans, Hanna Swaab
Good parenting strategies can shape children's neurocognitive development, yet little is known about the nature of this relation in school-aged children and whether this association shifts with age. We aimed to investigate the relation between parenting strategies observed during a home visit and children's performance-based attentional control and executive functioning (N=98, aged 4-8years). Linear and curvilinear regression analyses showed that children of parents who were more supportive, were less intrusive, and asked more open-ended questions displayed better inhibitory control...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024784/causal-role-of-noradrenaline-in-the-timing-of-internally-generated-saccades-in-monkeys
#11
Tomoki W Suzuki, Masaki Tanaka
We recently found that when monkeys performed an oculomotor version of the time production task, the trial-by-trial latency of self-timed saccades was negatively correlated with pupil diameter just before the delay period (Suzuki et al., 2016). Since pupil diameter has been shown to correlate with neuronal activity in the locus coeruleus, the level of noradrenaline (NA) in the brain might regulate the subjective passage of time. To examine this, we orally administered a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (reboxetine, 0...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024760/rna-processing-in-the-male-germline-mechanisms-and-implications-for-fertility
#12
REVIEW
Julien M D Legrand, Robin M Hobbs
Mammalian spermatogenesis is a tightly coordinated process that gives rise to mature spermatozoa capable of fertilising an ovum during sexual reproduction. A population of stem and progenitor cells known as undifferentiated spermatogonia enables continual spermatogenesis throughout life. A complex transcriptional network that balances self-renewal of spermatogonia with their timely differentiation in order to maintain constant fertility regulates this process. Importantly, post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays a critical role in spermatogenesis, necessitated by the profound genetic and morphological changes that occur during meiosis and sperm maturation...
October 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024545/role-of-substrate-biomechanics-in-controlling-stem-cell-fate-implications-in-regenerative-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Laura Macri-Pellizzeri, Elena M De-Juan-Pardo, Felipe Prosper, Beatriz Pelacho
Tissue-specific stem cells reside in a specialized environment known as the niche. The niche plays a central role in the regulation of cell behavior and, through the concerted action of soluble molecules, supportive somatic cells and extracellular matrix-components, directs stem cells to proliferate, differentiate or remain quiescent. Great efforts have been done to decompose and separately analyze the contribution of these cues in the in vivo environment. Specifically, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix influence many aspects of cell behavior, including self-renewal and differentiation...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024459/phosphate-responsive-biomimetic-nanofluidic-diodes-regulated-by-polyamine-phosphate-interactions-insights-into-their-functional-behavior-from-theory-and-experiment
#14
Gonzalo Pérez-Mitta, Waldemar A Marmisollé, Alberto G Albesa, María Eugenia Toimil-Molares, Christina Trautmann, Omar Azzaroni
There is currently high interest in developing nanofluidic devices whose iontronic output is defined by biological interactions. The fabrication of a phosphate responsive nanofluidic diode by using the biological relevant amine-phosphate interactions is shown. The fabrication procedure includes the modification of a track-etched asymmetric (conical) nanochannel with polyallylamine (PAH) by electrostatic self-assembly. PAH is the arcaetypical model of polyamine and it is further used to address the nanochannels with phosphate responsivity...
October 12, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024338/regulating-dna-self-assembly-by-dna-surface-interactions
#15
Longfei Liu, Yulin Li, Yong Wang, Jianwei Zheng, Chengde Mao
DNA self-assembly provides a powerful approach for preparation of nanostructures. It is often studied in bulk solution and only involves DNA-DNA interactions. When confined onto surfaces, DNA-surface interaction becomes an additional, important factor to DNA self-assembly. However, how DNA-surface interaction influence on DNA self-assembly is not well studied. In this study, we have shown that weak DNA-DNA interaction can be stabilized by DNA-surface interaction to allow large DNA nanostructures to form. In addition, the assembly can be conducted isothermally at room temperature in as short as 5 seconds...
October 11, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024237/sterol-content-in-the-artificial-diet-of-mythimna-separata-affects-the-metabolomics-of-arma-chinensis-fallou-as-determined-by-proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#16
Yi Guo, Chen-Xi Liu, Li-Sheng Zhang, Meng-Qing Wang, Hong-Yin Chen
Insects cannot synthesize sterols and must obtain them from plants. Therefore, reducing plant sterol content or changing sterol type might be an effective pest control strategy. However, the impacts of these changes on pests' natural predators remain unknown. Here, we fed artificial diets with reduced sterol content to Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and investigated the effects on its natural predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Reduced sterol content in M. separata (MS1, MS2, and MS5) was achieved by feeding them artificial diets prepared from a feed base subjected to one, two, or five cycles of sterol extractions, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024225/snail-mediated-cancer-stem-cell-like-phenotype-in-human-cne2-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cell
#17
Shan Peng, Cheng Wu, Wei Sun, Dongbo Liu, Min Luo, Beibei Su, Linli Zhang, Qi Mei, Guoqing Hu
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype, which has been proven to play a critical role in invasion and metastasis of many kinds of cancers, has also been reported to be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Snail, a potent repressor of E-cadherin expression, was found to have a function to regulate the aforementioned processes. METHODS: In the current study, expression of putative CSCs biomarkers and the ratio of CSC-like CNE2 (cancer cell line) in total CNE2 were measured, and CSC-like characteristics were analyzed with tumor-sphere self-renewal and colony-forming assays...
October 12, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024063/influence-of-ration-composition-on-nutritive-and-digestive-variables-in-captive-giraffes-giraffa-camelopardalis-indicating-the-appropriateness-of-feeding-practice
#18
I Gussek, C Große-Brinkhaus, K-H Südekum, J Hummel
The nutrition of captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), a browsing ruminant, is challenging because browse availability is limited in zoos and rations need to be composed of compensatory feeds. In this study, ration composition for giraffes in 12 German zoos was documented and linked to animal variables that indicate suitability of nutrition. Rations differed in proportion of ration items and chemical composition resulting in various grades of accordance with feeding recommendations. An estimated daily metabolisable energy (ME) intake (MEI; mean ± SD) of 0...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023773/motive-goal-congruence-moderates-the-use-of-automatic-self-regulation
#19
Florian Müller, Klaus Rothermund
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the fit between individuals' motives and goal properties predicts efficiency of implicit self-regulation. METHOD: Participants'(German university students, mean age = 22, 64% female) implicit motives measurement (Multi-Motive-Grid) was followed by assessment of implicit self-regulation in differently framed tasks. In Study 1 (N = 45), positive implicit evaluations of stimuli relating to an achievement goal (studying) were used as an indicator of implicit self-regulation...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023506/exopolysaccharides-regulate-calcium-flow-in-cariogenic-biofilms
#20
Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Muth M Varenganayil, Alan W Decho, Tuomas Waltimo, Olivier Braissant
Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium...
2017: PloS One
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