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Hanna Benoni
The current study proposes that top-down attentional prioritization of salient items may produce the so-called stimulus-driven capture. To test this proposal, the " expectation-based paradigm " was designed on the basis of a visual search task. In Experiment 1, a task-irrelevant singleton frame was presented at the same location in 70% of the trials. The target was either presented at chance level within the singleton location, or away from it. In line with the singleton capture phenomenon, participants were faster in identifying the target when it appeared in the singleton location compared to non-singleton locations...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mikko Lähteenmäki, Jaakko Kauramäki, Disa A Sauter, Lauri Nummenmaa
Recent work has challenged the previously widely accepted belief that affective processing does not require awareness and can be carried out with more limited resources than semantic processing. This debate has focused exclusively on visual perception, even though evidence from both human and animal studies suggests that existence for nonconscious affective processing would be physiologically more feasible in the auditory system. Here we contrast affective and semantic processing of nonverbal emotional vocalizations under different levels of awareness in three experiments, using explicit (two-alternative forced choice masked affective and semantic categorization tasks, Experiments 1 and 2) and implicit (masked affective and semantic priming, Experiment 3) measures...
March 5, 2018: Emotion
Simon Jung, Roland Wiest, Jan Gralla, Richard McKinley, Heinrich Mattle, David Liebeskind
Blood supply to the brain is secured by an extensive collateral circulation system, which can be divided into primary routes, i.e., the Circle of Willis, and secondary routes, e.g., collaterals from the external to the internal carotid artery and leptomeningeal collaterals. Collateral flow is the basis for acute stroke treatment, since neurones will only survive long enough to be rescued with reperfusion therapies if there is sufficient collateral flow. Poor collateral flow is associated with worse outcome and faster growth of larger infarcts in acute stroke treatment...
December 12, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
Cristiana Paul, David M Brady
CONTEXT: Three natural forms of vitamin B12 are commercially available: methylcobalamin (MeCbl), adenosylcobalamin (AdCbl), and hydroxycobalamin (OHCbl), all of which have been shown in clinical studies to improve vitamin B12 status. They are bioidentical to the B12 forms occurring in human physiology and animal foods. In contrast, cyanocobalamin (CNCbl), a synthetic B12 compound used for food fortification and in some supplements, occurs only in trace amounts in human tissues as a result of cyanide intake from smoking or other sources...
February 2017: Integrative Medicine
A Schober, F Sterz, H Herkner, C Wallmueller, C Weiser, P Hubner, C Testori
BACKGROUND: In refractory cardiac arrest, with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for more than 30 min, chances of survival are small. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is an option for certain patients with cardiac arrest. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of patients selected for ECPR. METHODS: Anonymised data of adult patients suffering refractory cardiac arrest, transported with ongoing CPR to an ED of a tertiary care centre between 2002 and 2012 were analysed...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Jane Abbott, Janet Berrington, Ursula Bowler, Elaine Boyle, Jon Dorling, Nicholas Embleton, Edmund Juszczak, Alison Leaf, Louise Linsell, Samantha Johnson, Kenny McCormick, William McGuire, Tracy Roberts, Ben Stenson
BACKGROUND: In the UK, 1-2% of infants are born very preterm (<32 weeks of gestation) or have very low birth weight (<1500 g). Very preterm infants are initially unable to be fed nutritional volumes of milk and therefore require intravenous nutrition. Milk feeding strategies influence several long and short term health outcomes including growth, survival, infection (associated with intravenous nutrition) and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC); with both infection and NEC being key predictive factors of long term disability...
January 28, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
Lisa D Levine, Katheryne L Downes, Michal A Elovitz, Samuel Parry, Mary D Sammel, Sindhu K Srinivas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of four commonly used induction methods. METHODS: This randomized trial compared four induction methods: misoprostol alone, Foley alone, misoprostol-cervical Foley concurrently, and Foley-oxytocin concurrently. Women undergoing labor induction with full-term (37 weeks of gestation or greater), singleton, vertex-presenting gestations, with no contraindication to vaginal delivery, intact membranes, Bishop score 6 or less, and cervical dilation 2 cm or less were included...
December 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jeffrey Cummings, Paul S Aisen, Bruno DuBois, Lutz Frölich, Clifford R Jack, Roy W Jones, John C Morris, Joel Raskin, Sherie A Dowsett, Philip Scheltens
The global impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) continues to increase, and focused efforts are needed to address this immense public health challenge. National leaders have set a goal to prevent or effectively treat AD by 2025. In this paper, we discuss the path to 2025, and what is feasible in this time frame given the realities and challenges of AD drug development, with a focus on disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). Under the current conditions, only drugs currently in late Phase 1 or later will have a chance of being approved by 2025...
September 20, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
David Alais, Shannon M Locke, Johahn Leung, Erik Van der Burg
We tested whether fast flicker can capture attention using eight flicker frequencies from 20-96 Hz, including several too high to be perceived (>50 Hz). Using a 480 Hz visual display rate, we presented smoothly sampled sinusoidal temporal modulations at: 20, 30, 40, 48, 60, 69, 80, and 96 Hz. We first established flicker detection rates for each frequency. Performance was at or near ceiling until 48 Hz and dropped sharply to chance level at 60 Hz and above. We then presented the same flickering stimuli as pre-cues in a visual search task containing five elements...
2016: Scientific Reports
Lynn M Matrisian, Jordan D Berlin
Upper gastrointestinal malignancies comprise half of the deadliest cancers as defined by those with a 5-year survival rate less than 50%. Using pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) as an example, we retrospectively evaluated the success of phase III clinical trials, examined the current landscape of clinical trials, and identified emerging areas that foretell the future for this disease. Pancreatic and liver cancers are on the rise and will be the second and third leading causes of cancer deaths in 2030. A total of 35 different agents or combinations have been tested in randomized phase III clinical trials for patients with advanced PAC over the past 25 years, but only 11% have been incorporated into clinical practice...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Brandon M Wellington, Michael D Leveritt, Vincent G Kelly
CONTEXT: Repeat-high-intensity efforts (RHIEs) have recently been shown to occur at critical periods of rugby league matches. PURPOSE: To examine the effect that caffeine has on RHIE performance in rugby league players. METHODS: Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 11 semiprofessional rugby league players (age 19.0 ± 0.5 y, body mass 87.4 ± 12.9 kg, height 178.9 ± 2.6 cm) completed 2 experimental trials that involved completing an RHIE test after either caffeine (300 mg caffeine) or placebo (vitamin H) ingestion...
February 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Stephen Hantus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy emergencies include acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. Their prognosis depends on the etiology of the seizures and the time spent in status epilepticus. This review discusses the current perspective on the diagnosis and treatment of status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures in the intensive care unit. RECENT FINDINGS: Current data on the treatment of status epilepticus emphasize early treatment over the choice of antiepileptic drug...
February 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Kyle A Davis, Marta A Miyares, Eric Dietrich
PURPOSE: The safety and efficacy of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel in the setting of secondary stroke prevention are reviewed. SUMMARY: Antiplatelet therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of numerous vascular events, especially in the setting of secondary prevention. DAPT with aspirin and another antiplatelet agent such as clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor has become the main stay of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) management...
October 1, 2015: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Amanda Kaufmann, Brian Hitsman, Patricia M Goelz, Anna Veluz-Wilkins, Sonja Blazekovic, Lindsay Powers, Frank T Leone, Peter Gariti, Rachel F Tyndale, Robert A Schnoll
BACKGROUND: In samples from controlled randomized clinical trials, a smoker's rate of nicotine metabolism, measured by the 3-hydroxycotinine to cotinine ratio (NMR), predicts response to transdermal nicotine. Replication of this relationship in community-based samples of treatment-seeking smokers may help guide the implementation of the NMR for personalized treatment for nicotine dependence. METHODS: Data from a community-based sample of treatment seeking smokers (N=499) who received 8weeks of transdermal nicotine and 4 behavioral counseling sessions were used to evaluate associations between the NMR and smoking cessation...
December 2015: Addictive Behaviors
Andrea Savarino, Iart Luca Shytaj
The restoration of the immune system prompted by antiretroviral therapy (ART) has allowed drastically reducing the mortality and morbidity of HIV infection. However, one main source of clinical concern is the persistence of immune hyperactivation in individuals under ART. Chronically enhanced levels of T-cell activation are associated with several deleterious effects which lead to faster disease progression and slower CD4(+) T-cell recovery during ART. In this article, we discuss the rationale, and review the results, of the use of antimalarial quinolines, such as chloroquine and its derivative hydroxychloroquine, to counteract immune activation in HIV infection...
June 18, 2015: Retrovirology
Leslie A Hulvershorn, Tom A Hummer, Rena Fukunaga, Ellen Leibenluft, Peter Finn, Melissa A Cyders, Amit Anand, Lauren Overhage, Allyson Dir, Joshua Brown
Risky decision-making, particularly in the context of reward-seeking behavior, is strongly associated with the presence of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, there has been little research on the neural substrates underlying reward-related decision-making in drug-naïve youth who are at elevated risk for SUDs. Participants comprised 23 high-risk (HR) youth with a well-established SUD risk phenotype and 27 low-risk healthy comparison (HC) youth, aged 10-14. Participants completed the balloon analog risk task (BART), a task designed to examine risky decision-making, during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Daniele Generali, Mara Ardine, Carla Strina, Manuela Milani, Maria Rosa Cappelletti, Laura Zanotti, Michela Forti, Francesca Bedussi, Mario Martinotti, Vito Amoroso, Sandra Sigala, Edda Simoncini, Alfredo Berruti, Alberto Bottini
Breast cancer represents a heterogeneous group of diseases with varied biological features, behavior, and response to therapy; thus, management of breast cancer relies on the availability of robust predictive and prognostic factors to support therapy decision-making. Traditionally, neoadjuvant treatment for breast cancer was preserved for locally advanced, converting an inoperable to a surgical resectable cancer. Neoadjuvant trials, additionally, offer: 1) the opportunity to evaluate new treatment options in a faster way and with fewer patients than large adjuvant trials; 2) to identify and validate the prognostic and predictive value of a marker with its association with clinical outcome in relation to the administered treatment...
May 2015: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
Ian Rollo, George Homewood, Clyde Williams, James Carter, Vicky L Goosey-Tolfrey
This study investigated the influence of mouth rinsing a carbohydrate solution on self-selected intermittent variable-speed running performance. Eleven male amateur soccer players completed a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) on 2 occasions separated by 1 wk. The modified LIST allowed the self-selection of running speeds during Block 6 of the protocol (75-90 min). Players rinsed and expectorated 25 ml of noncaloric placebo (PLA) or 10% maltodextrin solution (CHO) for 10 s, routinely during Block 6 of the LIST...
December 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Selene Siqueira da Cunha Nogueira, Iurianny Karla Fernandes, Thaise Silva Oliveira Costa, Sérgio Luiz Gama Nogueira-Filho, Michael Mendl
The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) is an endangered species whose bold anti-predator behaviour in comparison to related species may increase its vulnerability to hunting and predation. We used a judgement bias test to investigate whether captive peccaries that had recently experienced a trapping event made more 'pessimistic' decisions under ambiguity. If so, this would indicate (i) that the procedure may induce a negative affective state and hence have welfare implications, and (ii) that the species is able to adopt a cautious response style despite its bold phenotype...
2015: PloS One
Mikko Lähteenmäki, Jukka Hyönä, Mika Koivisto, Lauri Nummenmaa
Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures...
April 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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