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Jeffrey Cummings, Paul S Aisen, Bruno DuBois, Lutz Frölich, Clifford R Jack, Roy W Jones, John C Morris, Joel Raskin, Sherie A Dowsett, Philip Scheltens
The global impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) continues to increase, and focused efforts are needed to address this immense public health challenge. National leaders have set a goal to prevent or effectively treat AD by 2025. In this paper, we discuss the path to 2025, and what is feasible in this time frame given the realities and challenges of AD drug development, with a focus on disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). Under the current conditions, only drugs currently in late Phase 1 or later will have a chance of being approved by 2025...
2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
David Alais, Shannon M Locke, Johahn Leung, Erik Van der Burg
We tested whether fast flicker can capture attention using eight flicker frequencies from 20-96 Hz, including several too high to be perceived (>50 Hz). Using a 480 Hz visual display rate, we presented smoothly sampled sinusoidal temporal modulations at: 20, 30, 40, 48, 60, 69, 80, and 96 Hz. We first established flicker detection rates for each frequency. Performance was at or near ceiling until 48 Hz and dropped sharply to chance level at 60 Hz and above. We then presented the same flickering stimuli as pre-cues in a visual search task containing five elements...
2016: Scientific Reports
Lynn M Matrisian, Jordan D Berlin
Upper gastrointestinal malignancies comprise half of the deadliest cancers as defined by those with a 5-year survival rate less than 50%. Using pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) as an example, we retrospectively evaluated the success of phase III clinical trials, examined the current landscape of clinical trials, and identified emerging areas that foretell the future for this disease. Pancreatic and liver cancers are on the rise and will be the second and third leading causes of cancer deaths in 2030. A total of 35 different agents or combinations have been tested in randomized phase III clinical trials for patients with advanced PAC over the past 25 years, but only 11% have been incorporated into clinical practice...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Brandon M Wellington, Michael D Leveritt, Vincent G Kelly
PURPOSE: Repeat high intensity efforts have recently been shown to occur at critical periods of rugby league matches. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that caffeine has on repeat high intensity effort performance in rugby league players. METHODS: Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, eleven semi-professional rugby league players (age 19.0±0.5 years, body mass 87.4±12.9kg and height 178.9±2.6cm) completed two experimental trials which involved completing a repeat high intensity effort (RHIE) test following either caffeine (300mg caffeine) or placebo (vitamin H) ingestion...
May 18, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Stephen Hantus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy emergencies include acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. Their prognosis depends on the etiology of the seizures and the time spent in status epilepticus. This review discusses the current perspective on the diagnosis and treatment of status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures in the intensive care unit. RECENT FINDINGS: Current data on the treatment of status epilepticus emphasize early treatment over the choice of antiepileptic drug...
February 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Kyle A Davis, Marta A Miyares, Eric Dietrich
PURPOSE: The safety and efficacy of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel in the setting of secondary stroke prevention are reviewed. SUMMARY: Antiplatelet therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of numerous vascular events, especially in the setting of secondary prevention. DAPT with aspirin and another antiplatelet agent such as clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor has become the main stay of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) management...
October 1, 2015: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Amanda Kaufmann, Brian Hitsman, Patricia M Goelz, Anna Veluz-Wilkins, Sonja Blazekovic, Lindsay Powers, Frank T Leone, Peter Gariti, Rachel F Tyndale, Robert A Schnoll
BACKGROUND: In samples from controlled randomized clinical trials, a smoker's rate of nicotine metabolism, measured by the 3-hydroxycotinine to cotinine ratio (NMR), predicts response to transdermal nicotine. Replication of this relationship in community-based samples of treatment-seeking smokers may help guide the implementation of the NMR for personalized treatment for nicotine dependence. METHODS: Data from a community-based sample of treatment seeking smokers (N=499) who received 8weeks of transdermal nicotine and 4 behavioral counseling sessions were used to evaluate associations between the NMR and smoking cessation...
December 2015: Addictive Behaviors
Andrea Savarino, Iart Luca Shytaj
The restoration of the immune system prompted by antiretroviral therapy (ART) has allowed drastically reducing the mortality and morbidity of HIV infection. However, one main source of clinical concern is the persistence of immune hyperactivation in individuals under ART. Chronically enhanced levels of T-cell activation are associated with several deleterious effects which lead to faster disease progression and slower CD4(+) T-cell recovery during ART. In this article, we discuss the rationale, and review the results, of the use of antimalarial quinolines, such as chloroquine and its derivative hydroxychloroquine, to counteract immune activation in HIV infection...
2015: Retrovirology
Leslie A Hulvershorn, Tom A Hummer, Rena Fukunaga, Ellen Leibenluft, Peter Finn, Melissa A Cyders, Amit Anand, Lauren Overhage, Allyson Dir, Joshua Brown
Risky decision-making, particularly in the context of reward-seeking behavior, is strongly associated with the presence of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, there has been little research on the neural substrates underlying reward-related decision-making in drug-naïve youth who are at elevated risk for SUDs. Participants comprised 23 high-risk (HR) youth with a well-established SUD risk phenotype and 27 low-risk healthy comparison (HC) youth, aged 10-14. Participants completed the balloon analog risk task (BART), a task designed to examine risky decision-making, during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Daniele Generali, Mara Ardine, Carla Strina, Manuela Milani, Maria Rosa Cappelletti, Laura Zanotti, Michela Forti, Francesca Bedussi, Mario Martinotti, Vito Amoroso, Sandra Sigala, Edda Simoncini, Alfredo Berruti, Alberto Bottini
Breast cancer represents a heterogeneous group of diseases with varied biological features, behavior, and response to therapy; thus, management of breast cancer relies on the availability of robust predictive and prognostic factors to support therapy decision-making. Traditionally, neoadjuvant treatment for breast cancer was preserved for locally advanced, converting an inoperable to a surgical resectable cancer. Neoadjuvant trials, additionally, offer: 1) the opportunity to evaluate new treatment options in a faster way and with fewer patients than large adjuvant trials; 2) to identify and validate the prognostic and predictive value of a marker with its association with clinical outcome in relation to the administered treatment...
May 2015: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
Ian Rollo, George Homewood, Clyde Williams, James Carter, Vicky L Goosey-Tolfrey
This study investigated the influence of mouth rinsing a carbohydrate solution on self-selected intermittent variable-speed running performance. Eleven male amateur soccer players completed a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) on 2 occasions separated by 1 wk. The modified LIST allowed the self-selection of running speeds during Block 6 of the protocol (75-90 min). Players rinsed and expectorated 25 ml of noncaloric placebo (PLA) or 10% maltodextrin solution (CHO) for 10 s, routinely during Block 6 of the LIST...
December 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Selene Siqueira da Cunha Nogueira, Iurianny Karla Fernandes, Thaise Silva Oliveira Costa, Sérgio Luiz Gama Nogueira-Filho, Michael Mendl
The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) is an endangered species whose bold anti-predator behaviour in comparison to related species may increase its vulnerability to hunting and predation. We used a judgement bias test to investigate whether captive peccaries that had recently experienced a trapping event made more 'pessimistic' decisions under ambiguity. If so, this would indicate (i) that the procedure may induce a negative affective state and hence have welfare implications, and (ii) that the species is able to adopt a cautious response style despite its bold phenotype...
2015: PloS One
Mikko Lähteenmäki, Jukka Hyönä, Mika Koivisto, Lauri Nummenmaa
Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures...
April 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Chien-Te Wu, Sébastien M Crouzet, Simon J Thorpe, Michele Fabre-Thorpe
Earlier studies suggested that the visual system processes information at the basic level (e.g., dog) faster than at the subordinate (e.g., Dalmatian) or superordinate (e.g., animals) levels. However, the advantage of the basic category over the superordinate category in object recognition has been challenged recently, and the hierarchical nature of visual categorization is now a matter of debate. To address this issue, we used a forced-choice saccadic task in which a target and a distractor image were displayed simultaneously on each trial and participants had to saccade as fast as possible toward the image containing animal targets based on different categorization levels...
January 2015: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Christine Simmonds-Moore
Ninety-five participants (32 believers, 30 disbelievers and 33 neutral believers in the paranormal) participated in an experiment comprising one visual and one auditory block of trials. Each block included one ESP, two degraded stimuli and one random trial. Each trial included 8 screens or epochs of "random" noise. Participants entered a guess if they perceived a stimulus or changed their mind about stimulus identity, rated guesses for confidence and made notes during each trial. Believers and disbelievers did not differ in the number of guesses made, or in their ability to detect degraded stimuli...
August 2014: Consciousness and Cognition
Kerstin Dittrich, David Kellen, Christoph Stahl
In research investigating Stroop or Simon effects, data are typically analyzed at the level of mean response time (RT), with results showing faster responses for compatible than for incompatible trials. However, this analysis provides only limited information as it glosses over the shape of the RT distributions and how they may differ across tasks and experimental conditions. These limitations have encouraged the analysis of RT distributions using delta plots. In the present review, we aim to bring together research on distributional properties of auditory and visual interference effects...
2014: Psychological Research
David A Cook, Felicity Enders, Jane A Linderbaum, Dale Zwart, Farrell J Lloyd
BACKGROUND: Effective knowledge translation at the point of care requires that clinicians quickly find correct answers to clinical questions, and that they have appropriate confidence in their answers. Web-based knowledge resources can facilitate this process. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate a novel Web-based knowledge resource in comparison with other available Web-based resources, using outcomes of accuracy, time, and confidence. METHODS: We conducted a controlled, crossover trial involving 59 practicing clinicians...
2014: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan, Rose Anorlu, Ghislain Sangwa-Lugoma, Lynette A Denny
The availability of both human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and alternative screening tests has greatly improved the prospects of cervical cancer prevention in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The inclusion of HPV vaccine in the portfolio of new vaccines offered by the Gobal Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) to GAVI-eligible countries has vastly improved the chances of introducing HPV vaccination. Further investments to improve vaccine storage, distribution and delivery infrastructure and human resources of the Extended Programme of Immunization will substantially contribute to the faster introduction of HPV vaccination in SSA countries through both school- and campaign-based approaches...
December 29, 2013: Vaccine
Simon P Gampenrieder, Gabriel Rinnerthaler, Richard Greil
Traditionally, neoadjuvant treatment for breast cancer was preserved for locally advanced and inflammatory disease, converting an inoperable to a surgical resectable cancer. In recent years, neoadjuvant therapy has become an accepted treatment option also for lower tumor stages in order to increase the rate of breast conserving therapy and to reduce the extent of surgery. Furthermore, treatment response can be monitored, and therefore, patient compliance may be increased. Neoadjuvant trials, additionally, offer the opportunity to evaluate new treatment options in a faster way and with fewer patients than large adjuvant trials...
2013: Journal of Oncology
I Abubakar, L Pimpin, C Ariti, R Beynon, P Mangtani, J A C Sterne, P E M Fine, P G Smith, M Lipman, D Elliman, J M Watson, L N Drumright, P F Whiting, E Vynnycky, L C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that the duration of protection by bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) may exceed previous estimates with potential implications for estimating clinical and cost-efficacy. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the protection and duration of protection provided by BCG vaccination against tuberculosis, explore how this protection changes with time since vaccination, and examine the reasons behind the variation in protection and the rate of waning of protection...
September 2013: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
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