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PTSD risk factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781946/co-occurrence-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-cardiovascular-disease-among-ethnic-racial-groups-in-the-united-states
#1
Carmen Vidal, Ruth Polo, Kiara Alvarez, Irene Falgas-Bague, Ye Wang, Benjamin Lê Cook, Margarita Alegría
OBJECTIVE: Trauma and/or symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been linked to the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the exact mechanism has not been determined. We examine if the risk of CVD is different among those who have a history of trauma without PTSD symptoms, those who have experienced trauma and developed any symptoms of PTSD, and those with a PTSD diagnosis. Furthermore, we examine whether this association varies across ethnic/racial groups. METHODS: We used two datasets that form part of the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) - the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)...
May 17, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779964/childhood-trauma-and-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#2
Rachel L Loewy, Sarah Corey, Felix Amirfathi, Sawsan Dabit, Daniel Fulford, Rahel Pearson, Jessica P Y Hua, Danielle Schlosser, Barbara K Stuart, Daniel H Mathalon, Sophia Vinogradov
As a risk factor for psychosis, childhood trauma rates are elevated in the clinical-high-risk (CHR) syndrome compared to the general population. However, it is unknown whether trauma is typically experienced in childhood or adolescence/young adulthood, whether it occurred prior to CHR syndrome onset, and how severe trauma relates to presenting symptoms. In this study, we examined the relationship of trauma history to symptoms and functioning in individuals diagnosed with the CHR syndrome on the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (N = 103)...
May 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779458/predictors-of-housing-instability-in-women-who-have-experienced-intimate-partner-violence
#3
Emily N Adams, Hannah M Clark, Maria M Galano, Sara F Stein, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, Sandra Graham-Bermann
Although one in four women in the United States experience severe intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetimes and are at greater risk for homelessness and housing insecurity than women who have not experienced IPV, the factors increasing the vulnerability of women with an IPV history to housing instability have not been examined. This cross-sectional study utilized baseline data from interviews with 218 IPV-exposed women from diverse ethnoracial backgrounds participating with their children in the Kids' Club and the Mom's Empowerment Program, joint interventions designed to improve outcomes in families who have experienced IPV...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777319/what-does-sex-have-to-do-with-it-the-role-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Sara L Kornfield, Liisa Hantsoo, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the neurobiological aspects of sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically focusing on the physiological responses to trauma and presents evidence supporting hormone and neurosteroid/peptide differences from both preclinical and clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: While others have suggested that trauma type or acute emotional reaction are responsible for women's disproportionate risk to PTSD, neither of these explanations fully accounts for the sex differences in PTSD...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757318/use-of-protective-behavioral-strategies-among-young-adult-veteran-marijuana-users
#5
Eric R Pedersen, Margo C Villarosa-Hurlocker, Mark A Prince
Young adult veterans are at risk for problematic marijuana use and associated consequences, which is partially due to their high rates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and problematic substance use. Veterans tend to endorse more severe and chronic mental health symptoms compared to their civilian counterparts and they identify marijuana use as a method to cope with their symptoms. Given the prevalence of marijuana use among veterans in the community and in clinical settings, it is important to explore the factors that may help minimize harm associated with use for those that choose to use the drug...
January 2018: Cannabis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753254/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-depression-and-suicidal-ideation-in-veterans-results-from-the-mind-your-heart-study
#6
Melanie B Arenson, Mary A Whooley, Thomas C Neylan, Shira Maguen, Thomas J Metzler, Beth E Cohen
Veterans with PTSD or depression are at increased risk for suicidal ideation. However, few studies have examined that risk in those with comorbid PTSD and depression, instead focusing on these disorders individually. This study investigates the association of suicidal ideation with comorbid PTSD and depression and examines the role of military and psychosocial covariates. We evaluated 746 veterans using the CAPS to assess PTSD and the PHQ-9 to measure depression and suicidal ideation. Covariates were assessed via validated self-report measures...
April 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747143/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-related-to-postpartum-haemorrhage-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Tjitske R Zaat, Minouk E van Steijn, Jiska M de Haan-Jebbink, Miranda Olff, Claire A I Stramrood, Mariëlle G van Pampus
In some cases childbirth leads to negative psychological responses such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a common and major complication of childbirth, which occasionally requires emergency hysterectomy in severe cases. Patients often describe these complications as a traumatic experience. It is unknown whether PPH is a risk factor for developing PTSD. In this systematic review we summarize the current knowledge about the association between PPH with or without emergency hysterectomy and posttraumatic stress symptoms or PTSD...
May 2, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745889/potentially-traumatic-events-ptsd-and-post-traumatic-stress-spectrum-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia
#8
Ciro Conversano, Claudia Carmassi, Carlo A Bertelloni, Laura Marchi, Tommaso Micheloni, Manuel G Carbone, Giovanni Pagni, Claudia Tagliarini, Gabriele Massimetti, Laura M Bazzichi, Liliana Dell'Osso
OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FM) is defined as a severe, chronic, non-articular rheumatic condition characterised by widespread musculoskeletal pain, hyperalgesia and generalised tender points, in the absence of inflammatory or structural musculoskeletal abnormalities. Pain is the predominant symptom, allodynia and hyperalgesia are common signs. Extreme fatigue, impaired cognition and non-restorative sleeping difficulties coexist in addition to other somatic symptoms. Several studies suggest there is a meaningful relationship between FM and the psychological symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
April 24, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745295/development-and-predictors-of-psychological-outcomes-following-the-2008-earthquake-in-iceland-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#9
Edda Bjork Thordardottir, Hulda Gudmundsdottir, Berglind Gudmundsdottir, Anna Margrét Hrólfsdóttir, Thor Aspelund, Arna Hauksdottir
AIMS: On 29 May 2008, an earthquake struck in South Iceland. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of post-traumatic stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms among exposed inhabitants during the first year following the earthquake, as well as predictors for symptomology. METHODS: This was a longitudinal cohort study based on a sample that was randomly selected from the earthquake-stricken area ( n = 1301). Participants answered a questionnaire assessing demographic and disaster-related factors 2 months after the earthquake...
May 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738444/the-effects-of-trauma-with-or-without-ptsd-on-the-transgenerational-dna-methylation-alterations-in-human-offsprings
#10
REVIEW
Nagy A Youssef, Laura Lockwood, Shaoyong Su, Guang Hao, Bart P F Rutten
Exposure to psychological trauma is a strong risk factor for several debilitating disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Besides the impact on mental well-being and behavior in the exposed individuals, it has been suggested that psychological trauma can affect the biology of the individuals, and even have biological and behavioral consequences on the offspring of exposed individuals. While knowledge of possible epigenetic underpinnings of the association between exposure to trauma and risk of PTSD has been discussed in several reviews, it remains to be established whether trauma-induced epigenetic modifications can be passed from traumatized individuals to subsequent generations of offspring...
May 8, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734229/understanding-resilience-and-preventing-and-treating-ptsd
#11
Sarah R Horn, Adriana Feder
Resilience is defined as the dynamic ability to adapt successfully in the face of adversity, trauma, or significant threat. Some of the key early studies of resilience were observational studies in children. They were followed by research in adults, studies testing interventions to promote resilience in different populations, and a recent upsurge of studies on the underlying genomic and neurobiological mechanisms. Neural and molecular studies in preclinical models of resilience are also increasingly identifying active stress adaptations in resilient animals...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728960/psychosocial-difficulties-in-adolescents-nine-months-after-a-railway-accident
#12
Martine Hugron, Magali Dufour, Stéphane Guay, Natacha Brunelle, Joël Tremblay, Adèle Morvannou, Danielle Leclerc, Marie-Marthe Cousineau, Michel Rousseau, Djamal Berbiche
A railway accident which occurred in Lac-Megantic in Quebec, Canada, caused disruption for an entire community. This study examines the psychosocial difficulties in a group of exposed adolescents aged between 11 to 17, nine months after the tragedy. The analyses were conducted on a sample of 515 adolescents, attending high school, and living near the impact area. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mental health problems (depression, anxiety), and problem use of alcohol or drugs prevalence were estimated...
May 4, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723020/effects-of-social-support-and-resilient-coping-on-violent-behavior-in-military-veterans
#13
Elizabeth E Van Voorhees, H Ryan Wagner, Jean C Beckham, Daniel W Bradford, Lydia C Neal, Walter E Penk, Eric B Elbogen
Violence toward others has been identified as a serious postdeployment adjustment problem in a subset of Iraq- and Afghanistan-era veterans. In the current study, we examined the intricate links between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), commonly cited psychosocial risk and protective factors, and violent behavior using a national randomly selected longitudinal sample of Iraq- and Afghanistan-era United States veterans. A total of 1,090 veterans from the 50 United States and all United States military branches completed 2 waves of self-report survey-data collection 1 year apart (retention rate = 79%)...
May 2018: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709774/allostatic-load-a-theoretical-model-for-understanding-the-relationship-between-maternal-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-adverse-birth-outcomes
#14
Li Yang, Marie-Anne Sanon Rosemberg, Julia S Seng
BACKGROUND: Adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth and low birth weight are significant public health concerns and contribute to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Studies have increasingly been exploring the predictive effects of maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on adverse birth outcomes. However, the biological mechanisms by which maternal PTSD affects birth outcomes are not well understood. Allostatic load refers to the cumulative dysregulations of the multiple physiological systems as a response to multiple social-ecological levels of chronic stress...
April 10, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708267/preventative-and-restorative-safety-behaviors-effects-on-exposure-treatment-outcomes-and-risk-for-future-anxious-symptoms
#15
Jason T Goodson, Gerald J Haeffel
OBJECTIVES: Two studies investigated the differential effect of preventative and restorative safety behaviors on the treatment and development of anxiety and depression. METHOD: Study 1 investigated the impact of preventative and restorative safety behaviors in prolonged exposure therapy among US veterans with PTSD (N = 95). Study 2 was a 3-month prospective study investigating preventative and restorative safety behaviors as risk factors for anxious and depressive symptoms in a non-clinical sample (N = 84)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707166/pre-deployment-dissociation-and-personality-as-risk-factors-for-post-deployment-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-danish-soldiers-deployed-to-afghanistan
#16
Beatriz Ponce de León, Søren Andersen, Karen-Inge Karstoft, Ask Elklit
Objective : This study investigated whether pre-deployment dissociation was associated with previously identified post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom trajectories from before to 2.5 years after military deployment. Furthermore, it examined whether the tendency to dissociate, pre-deployment personality factors, conceptualized by the Big Five model, and previous trauma represented independent risk factors for post-deployment PTSD symptoms. Method : This prospective study included the entire team of 743 soldiers from the Danish Contingent of the International Security Assistance Force 7 deployed to Afghanistan in 2009...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701494/change-in-body-mass-index-within-the-first-year-post-injury-a-va-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-model-systems-study
#17
Racine Marcus Brown, Xinyu Tang, Laura E Dreer, Simon Driver, Mary Jo Pugh, Aaron M Martin, Tamara McKenzie-Hartman, Timothy Shea, Marc A Silva, Risa Nakase-Richardson
OBJECTIVE: To describe change in body mass index (BMI) and weight classification 1-year post- traumatic brain injury (TBI) among Veterans and service members. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: VA Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers. PARTICIPANTS: Veterans and service members (N = 84) enrolled in VA Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (VA TBIMS) study with BMI scores at enrollment and 1-year post-injury...
April 27, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698922/suicidal-ideation-and-behavior-in-us-veterans-with-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder
#18
Philip D Harvey, Kelly Posner, Nallakkandi Rajeevan, Kseniya V Yershova, Mihaela Aslan, John Concato
OBJECTIVE: Using data from a Department of Veterans Affairs study of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar I disorder (BP), we evaluated lifetime risks for suicidal ideation and behavior. We were interested in the prevalence and correlates of these outcomes, in populations of patients with severe mental illness (SMI), who have not been compared directly in previous studies despite data on high risk in each group separately. METHOD: Data were collected on demographic factors, medical and psychiatric comorbidity, cognitive and functional status, and lifetime suicidal ideation or behavior in a study of veterans with SZ (N = 3942) or BP (N = 5414)...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698016/association-between-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-lack-of-exercise-poor-diet-obesity-and-co-occuring-smoking-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Carissa van den Berk-Clark, Scott Secrest, Jesse Walls, Ellen Hallberg, Patrick J Lustman, F David Schneider, Jeffrey F Scherrer
OBJECTIVES: Research has shown that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases the risk of development of cardiometabolic disease (CMD) including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Whether PTSD is also associated with behavioral risk factors (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking and obesity) for CMD, is less clear. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched to obtain papers published between 1980-2016. Studies were reviewed for quality using the Quality of Cohort screen...
May 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695184/risk-and-protective-factors-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-among-african-american-women-living-with-hiv
#20
Eaden Andu, Brad H Wagenaar, Chris G Kemp, Paul E Nevin, Jane M Simoni, Michele Andrasik, Susan E Cohn, Audrey L French, Deepa Rao
We sought to examine risk and protective factors for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among African American women living with HIV. This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomized trial of an HIV stigma reduction intervention. We examined data from two-hundred and thirty-nine African American women living with HIV. We examined whether age, marital status, level of education, internalized HIV-related stigma, and social support as potential protective and risk factors for PTSD symptoms using logistic regression...
April 26, 2018: AIDS Care
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