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PTSD risk factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444848/biologically-meaningful-scents-a-framework-for-understanding-predator-prey-research-across-disciplines
#1
Michael H Parsons, Raimund Apfelbach, Peter B Banks, Elissa Z Cameron, Chris R Dickman, Anke S K Frank, Menna E Jones, Ian S McGregor, Stuart McLean, Dietland Müller-Schwarze, Elisa E Sparrow, Daniel T Blumstein
Fear of predation is a universal motivator. Because predators hunt using stealth and surprise, there is a widespread ability among prey to assess risk from chemical information - scents - in their environment. Consequently, scents often act as particularly strong modulators of memory and emotions. Recent advances in ecological research and analytical technology are leading to novel ways to use this chemical information to create effective attractants, repellents and anti-anxiolytic compounds for wildlife managers, conservation biologists and health practitioners...
April 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443054/childbirth-induced-posttraumatic-stress-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#2
REVIEW
Sharon Dekel, Caren Stuebe, Gabriella Dishy
Background: Posttraumatic stress related with the childbirth experience of full-term delivery with health outcomes has been recently documented in a growing body of studies. The magnitude of this condition and the factors that might put a woman at risk for developing childbirth-related postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder (PP-PTSD) symptoms are not fully understood. Methods: In this systematic review of 36 articles representing quantitative studies of primarily community samples, we set to examine PP-PTSD prevalence rates and associated predictors with a focus on the role of prior PTSD and time since childbirth...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438513/rapid-response-impulsivity-predicts-depression-and-ptsd-symptomatology-at-1-year-follow-up-in-blast-exposed-service-members
#3
James M Bjork, Thomas K Burroughs, Laura M Franke, Treven C Pickett, Sade E Johns, F Gerard Moeller, William C Walker
OBJECTIVE: To determine if elevated rapid-response impulsivity following blast exposure (as a putative marker of ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) damage) is predictive of future elevated affective symptomatology in blast-exposed service members. DESIGN: Longitudinal design with neurocognitive testing at initial assessment and one-year follow-up assessment of psychiatric symptomatology by telephone interview. SETTING: Veterans Administration medical centers and post-deployment assessment centers at military bases...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432794/posttraumatic-stress-and-anxiety-in-patients-with-an-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-trajectories-and-vulnerability-factors
#4
M Habibović, J Denollet, S S Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is first-line treatment for the primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Despite the unequivocal medical benefits, living with an ICD may affect patients' psychological functioning and general well-being. We examined the trajectories of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety in patients with an ICD and the vulnerability factors associated with an increased risk of symptoms of PTSD and anxiety...
April 22, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430712/apolipoprotein-e-variants-and-genetic-susceptibility-to-combat-related-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#5
Yang Roby
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has recently been studied as a risk factor for association with developing combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the military population. These studies have yielded inconsistent findings. The present study carried out a meta-analysis to establish whether the APOE polymorphism confers increased susceptibility to combat-related PTSD. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, and Google Scholar were searched for potential publications relating to patients with PTSD in military settings with combat exposure...
April 18, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425019/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-and-problematic-overeating-behaviors-in-young-men-and-women
#6
Susan M Mason, Patricia A Frazier, S Bryn Austin, Bernard L Harlow, Benita Jackson, Nancy C Raymond, Janet W Rich-Edwards
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a risk factor for obesity, but the range of behaviors that contribute to this association are not known. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between self-reported PTSD symptoms in 2007, with and without comorbid depression symptoms, and three problematic overeating behaviors in 2010, and to estimate the associations of PTSD-related overeating behaviors with obesity. METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses included 7438 male (n = 2478) and female (n = 4960) participants from the Growing Up Today Study (mean age 22-29 years in 2010)...
April 19, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412526/birth-setting-labour-experience-and-postpartum-psychological-distress
#7
Anna L MacKinnon, Lisa Yang, Nancy Feeley, Ian Gold, Barbara Hayton, Phyllis Zelkowitz
OBJECTIVE: although psychosocial risk factors have been identified for postpartum depression (PPD) and perinatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the role of labour- and birth-related factors remains unclear. The present investigation explored the impact of birth setting, subjective childbirth experience, and their interplay, on PPD and postpartum PTSD. METHOD: in this prospective longitudinal cohort study, three groups of women who had vaginal births at a tertiary care hospital, a birthing center, and those transferred from the birthing centre to the tertiary care hospital were compared...
March 31, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411575/the-risk-factors-of-possible-ptsd-in-individuals-exposed-to-a-suicide-attack-in-turkey
#8
Altan Eşsizoğlu, Ali Ercan Altınöz, Harun Olcay Sonkurt, Murat Can Kaya, Ferdi Köşger, Cem Kaptanoğlu
The aims of this study were to determine both the rate of possible PTSD in individuals who were exposed to a suicide attack in Ankara, Turkey, and the factors that relate to the elevated risk for PTSD in individuals who survived that suicide attack. The researchers carried out the study with 93 participants who had attended a meeting held in Ankara on October 10, 2015. Participants completed a sociodemographic information form, the Traumatic Stress Symptom Checklist (TSSC), the Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Influence of Perceived Societal Attitudes Questionnaire (IPSAQ)...
April 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398343/large-scale-interaction-effects-reveal-missing-heritability-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#9
H J Woo, C Yu, K Kumar, J Reifman
Genetic susceptibility factors behind psychiatric disorders typically contribute small effects individually. A possible explanation for the missing heritability is that the effects of common variants are not only polygenic but also non-additive, appearing only when interactions within large groups are taken into account. Here, we tested this hypothesis for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) disease risks, and identified genetic factors shared with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When considered independently, few single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome-wide significance...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396969/psychological-and-behavioral-moderators-of-the-relationship-between-trauma-severity-and-hiv-transmission-risk-behavior-among-msm-with-a-history-of-childhood-sexual-abuse
#10
Abigail W Batchelder, Peter P Ehlinger, Michael S Boroughs, Jillian C Shipherd, Steven A Safren, Gail H Ironson, Conall O'Cleirigh
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can be associated with condomless sex among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, the impact of moderating factors on the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and condomless sex is poorly understood. We examined whether PTSD symptom severity was associated with condomless sex among MSM with CSA histories, and whether substance dependence, self-esteem, and distress tolerance moderated that relationship (n = 288)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392485/prefrontal-endocannabinoids-stress-controllability-and-resilience-a-hypothesis
#11
REVIEW
Nicholas B Worley, Matthew N Hill, John P Christianson
Stressor exposure is a predisposing risk factor for many psychiatric conditions such as PTSD and depression. However, stressors do not influence all individuals equally and in response to an identical stressor some individuals may be vulnerable while others are resilient. While various biological and behavioral factors contribute to vulnerability versus resilience, an individual's degree of control over the stressor is among the most potent. Even with only one experience with control over stress, behavioral control has been shown to have acute and long-lasting stress-mitigating effects...
April 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388453/the-theoretical-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-subjective-traumatic-outlook-sto-questionnaire
#12
Yuval Palgi, Amit Shrira, Menachem Ben-Ezra
The present study aimed to develop the theoretical construct and examine the psychometric properties of a new scale for measuring subjective traumatic outlook (STO) among individuals exposed to traumatic events. The main idea behind this construct is to assess individual differences in the way people exposed to traumatic experiences subjectively perceive their trauma. Using four samples, we conducted five studies that examine the new questionnaire's exploratory/confirmatory factor analysis (EFA/CFA), test-retest reliability, and construct validity...
March 29, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372459/a-clinical-update-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-burn-injury-survivors
#13
Loyola McLean, Runsen Chen, Julia Kwiet, Jeffrey Streimer, John Vandervord, Rachel Kornhaber
OBJECTIVES: Burn injuries are complex traumatic events carrying high risks of acute physical and psychosocial morbidity. With greater survival, clinical and research attention has turned to psychosocial recovery outcomes and risk factors. It is timely to summarise current issues in post-traumatic disorders after burn injury for mental health and integrative care clinicians. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common outcome of severe burn injury. There are difficulties in delivering current best practice treatments to many survivors especially those in rural and remote areas and those with comorbidities...
March 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365535/a-systematic-review-of-the-usefulness-of-pre-employment-and-pre-duty-screening-in-predicting-mental-health-outcomes-amongst-emergency-workers
#14
REVIEW
Ruth E Marshall, Josie S Milligan-Saville, Philip B Mitchell, Richard A Bryant, Samuel B Harvey
Despite a lack of proven efficacy, pre-employment or pre-duty screening, which alleges to test for vulnerability to PTSD and other mental health disorders, remains common amongst emergency services. This systematic review aimed to determine the usefulness of different factors in predicting mental disorder amongst emergency workers and to inform practice regarding screening procedures. Systematic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE to identify cohort studies linking pre-employment or pre-duty measures in first responders with later mental health outcomes...
March 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364364/possible-reversal-of-ptsd-related-dna-methylation-by-sympathetic-blockade
#15
REVIEW
Eugene G Lipov, Kenneth Candido, Elspeth C Ritchie
Studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level increase is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk. BDNF may be a "missing-link" that mediates the interaction between genetics, environment, and the sympathetic system. Trauma has been shown to induce DNA methylation that in turn can increase BDNF concentration due to increased gene expression. Therapies that focus on the reduction of beta-NGF (BNGF) levels may impact PTSD symptoms. The focus of this paper is to discuss possible effect of stellate ganglion block (SGB) on epigenetic changes noted with PTSD mediated by BDNF and NGF...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359007/physical-comorbidities-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-australian-vietnam-war-veterans
#16
Sarah C McLeay, Wendy M Harvey, Madeline Nm Romaniuk, Darrell Hg Crawford, David M Colquhoun, Ross McD Young, Miriam Dwyer, John M Gibson, Robyn A O'Sullivan, Graham Cooksley, Christopher R Strakosch, Rachel M Thomson, Joanne Voisey, Bruce R Lawford
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the prevalence of physical comorbidities in Australian Vietnam War veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is higher than in trauma-exposed veterans without PTSD. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional analysis of the health status (based on self-reported and objective clinical assessments) of 298 Australian Vietnam War veterans enrolled by the Gallipoli Medical Research Institute (Brisbane) during February 2014 - July 2015, of whom 108 were confirmed as having had PTSD and 106 served as trauma-exposed control participants...
April 3, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352237/reduced-freezing-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-patients-while-watching-affective-pictures
#17
Iro Fragkaki, Karin Roelofs, John Stins, Ruud A Jongedijk, Muriel A Hagenaars
Besides fight and flight responses, animals and humans may respond to threat with freezing, a response characterized by bradycardia and physical immobility. Risk assessment is proposed to be enhanced during freezing to promote optimal decision making. Indeed, healthy participants showed freezing-like responses to threat cues. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients are characterized by hypervigilance and increased threat responsiveness. We propose that threat responses will be characterized by decreased freezing in PTSD, eliminating possibilities for rejecting cognitive distortions, such as harm expectancy, and thereby contributing to the maintenance of the disorder...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350563/predicting-the-mental-health-and-functioning-of-torture-survivors
#18
Suzan J Song, Andrew Subica, Charles Kaplan, Wietse Tol, Joop de Jong
The psychological effects of war represent a growing public health concern as more refugees and asylum seekers migrate across borders. This study investigates whether sociodemographic, premigration and postmigration, and psychosocial factors predict adverse psychiatric symptoms in refugees and asylum seekers exposed to torture (N = 278). Hierarchical linear regressions revealed that female sex, older age, and unstable housing predicted greater severity of anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341697/risk-factors-for-persistence-of-lower-respiratory-symptoms-among-community-members-exposed-to-the-2001-world-trade-center-terrorist-attacks
#19
Hannah T Jordan, Stephen M Friedman, Joan Reibman, Roberta M Goldring, Sara A Miller Archie, Felix Ortega, Howard Alper, Yongzhao Shao, Carey B Maslow, James E Cone, Mark R Farfel, Kenneth I Berger
OBJECTIVES: We studied the course of lower respiratory symptoms (LRS; cough, wheeze or dyspnoea) among community members exposed to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks during a period of 12-13 years following the attacks, and evaluated risk factors for LRS persistence, including peripheral airway dysfunction and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Non-smoking adult participants in a case-control study of post-9/11-onset LRS (exam 1, 2008-2010) were recruited for follow-up (exam 2, 2013-2014)...
March 24, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340108/cigarette-smoking-and-musculoskeletal-pain-severity-among-male-and-female-afghanistan-iraq-era-veterans
#20
Kimberly T Green, Sarah M Wilson, Paul A Dennis, Jennifer J Runnals, Rebecca A Williams, Lori A Bastian, Jean C Beckham, Eric A Dedert, Harold S Kudler, Kristy Straits-Tröster, Jennifer M Gierisch, Patrick S Calhoun
Objective.:  Cigarette smoking and musculoskeletal pain are prevalent among Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system users. These conditions frequently co-occur; however, there is limited empirical information specific to Afghanistan/Iraq era veterans. The present study sought to examine gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking and moderate to severe musculoskeletal pain in US veterans with Afghanistan/Iraq era service. Methods.:  A random sample of 5,000 veterans with service after November 11, 2001, participated in a survey assessing health care needs and barriers to care...
March 14, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
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