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PTSD risk factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917443/alternative-models-of-dsm-5-ptsd-examining-diagnostic-implications
#1
Siobhan Murphy, Maj Hansen, Ask Elklit, Yoke Yong Chen, Siti Raudzah Ghazali, Mark Shevlin
The factor structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively debated with evidence supporting the recently proposed seven-factor Hybrid model. However, despite myriad studies examining PTSD symptom structure few have assessed the diagnostic implications of these proposed models. This study aimed to generate PTSD prevalence estimates derived from the 7 alternative factor models and assess whether pre-established risk factors associated with PTSD (e.g., transportation accidents and sexual victimisation) produce consistent risk estimates...
September 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914809/perception-of-radiation-risk-as-a-predictor-of-mid-term-mental-health-after-a-nuclear-disaster-the-fukushima-health-management-survey
#2
Itaru Miura, Masato Nagai, Masaharu Maeda, Mayumi Harigane, Senta Fujii, Misari Oe, Hirooki Yabe, Yuriko Suzuki, Hideto Takahashi, Tetsuya Ohira, Seiji Yasumura, Masafumi Abe
Predictive factors including risk perception for mid-term mental health after a nuclear disaster remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived radiation risk and other factors at baseline and mid-term mental health after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster of 2011 in Japan. A mail-based questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2012 and January 2013. Mental health status was assessed using the K6 scale. Psychological distress over the 2-year period was categorized into the following four groups: chronic, recovered, resistant, or worsened...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903795/rapid-triage-of-mental-health-risk-in-emergency-medical-workers-findings-from-typhoon-haiyan
#3
Lauren Sylwanowicz, Merritt Schreiber, Craig Anderson, Carlos Primero D Gundran, Emelie Santamaria, Jaifred Christian F Lopez
OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability of a novel responder mental health self-triage system to predict post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in emergency medical responders after a disaster. METHODS: Participants in this study responded to Typhoon Haiyan, which struck the Philippines in November 2013. They completed the Psychological Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (PsySTART) responder triage tool, the PTSD Checklist (PCL-5) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) shortly after responding to this disaster...
September 14, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898109/factors-associated-with-type-ii-trauma-in-occupational-groups-working-with-traumatised-children-a-systematic-review
#4
Clara A M Sage, Samantha K Brooks, Neil Greenberg
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that "Type II trauma" (TTT) - repeated exposure to traumatic events - can lead to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). TTT frequently occurs in occupational groups working with children who are themselves victims of trauma. AIM: To conduct a systematic review identifying risk factors for/protective factors against TTT-associated mental ill-health in employees working with traumatised children and explore how this type of work impacts upon social functioning...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895451/risk-factors-for-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-subsequent-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-mental-health-disorders-among-us-army-soldiers
#5
Dennis Edward Scofield, Susan P Proctor, Joseph R Kardouni, Owen T Hill, Craig J McKinnon
To determine the association of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with subsequent Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and mental health disorders (MHD) and the intervening role of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD). This matched case-control study utilized the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database (TAIHOD) to analyze Soldiers' (N=1,261,297) medical encounter data between 2002 and 2011. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes were used to identify: mTBI (following CDC surveillance definition for mTBI), MHD (ICD-9 codes for depression and anxiety, excluding PTSD), PTSD (ICD-9 309...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888667/preimmunization-with-a-heat-killed-preparation-of-mycobacterium-vaccae-enhances-fear-extinction-in-the-fear-potentiated-startle-paradigm
#6
James H Fox, James E Hassell, Philip H Siebler, Mathew R Arnold, Andrew K Lamb, David G Smith, Heidi E W Day, Tessa M Smith, Emma M Simmerman, Alexander A Outzen, Kaley S Holmes, Christopher J Brazell, Christopher A Lowry
The hygiene hypothesis or "Old Friends" hypothesis proposes that inflammatory diseases are increasing in modern urban societies, due in part to reduced exposure to microorganisms that drive immunoregulatory circuits, and a failure to terminate inappropriate inflammatory responses. Inappropriate inflammation is also emerging as a risk factor for trauma-related, anxiety, and affective disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized as persistent re-experiencing of the trauma after a traumatic experience...
September 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888350/anterior-cingulate-cortex-grey-matter-volume-abnormalities-in-adolescents-with-ptsd-after-childhood-sexual-abuse
#7
Mirjam A Rinne-Albers, J Nienke Pannekoek, Marie-José van Hoof, Natasja D van Lang, Francien Lamers-Winkelman, Serge A Rombouts, Nic J van der Wee, Robert R Vermeiren
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) substantially increase the risk of later psychiatric and somatic pathology. While neurobiological factors are likely to play a mediating role, specific insights are lacking. The scarce neuroimaging studies in traumatised pediatric populations have provided inconsistent results, potentially due to the inclusion of different types of trauma. To further improve our understanding of the neurobiology of pediatric psychotrauma, this study seeks to investigate abnormalities in grey matter volume (GMV) in a homogeneous group of adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the relationship between GMV and symptom severity...
September 6, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885358/comorbidity-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-anxiety-in-flood-survivors-prevalence-and-shared-risk-factors
#8
Wenjie Dai, Atipatsa C Kaminga, Hongzhuan Tan, Jieru Wang, Zhiwei Lai, Xin Wu, Yuan Xiong, Jing Deng, Aizhong Liu
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety are both prevalent in trauma-related populations. However, comorbidity of these 2 psychiatric disorders has not been investigated in flood survivors. This study aimed to estimate the extent to which PTSD and anxiety co-occur in flood survivors, and identify shared risk factors for PTSD only and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety.Individuals who experienced Dongting Lake flood in 1998 were enrolled in this study using stratified and systematic random sampling method...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871848/personality-characteristics-and-individual-factors-associated-with-ptsd-in-firefighters-one-month-after-extended-wildfires
#9
Constantin Psarros, Christos Theleritis, Nikolaos Kokras, Dimitris Lyrakos, Angelos Koborozos, Olga Kakabakou, Georgios Tzanoulinos, Panagiota Katsiki, Joanna Despoina Bergiannaki
BACKGROUND: Firefighters participate in activities with intense physical and psychological stress and are constantly at risk to develop various psychopathological reactions. AIMS: To investigate psychological reactions in firefighters one month after devastating wildfires in Greece, during August 2007, which lead to the devastation of large areas and the death of 43 people among whom three were firefighters. METHODS: One month after the wildfires, a joint task force of mental health clinicians was organized in order to provide psychological support and to investigate the psychological consequences of wildfires to firefighters...
September 5, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861023/the-role-of-ptsd-in-bi-directional-intimate-partner-violence-in-military-and-veteran-populations-a-research-review
#10
REVIEW
Gabriela Misca, Mary Ann Forgey
Evidence supporting the higher prevalence of PTSD linked to combat-related trauma in military personnel and veteran populations is well-established. Consequently, much research has explored the effects that combat related trauma and the subsequent PTSD may have on different aspects of relationship functioning and adjustment. In particular, PTSD in military and veterans has been linked with perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV). New research and theoretical perspectives suggest that in order to respond effectively to IPV, a more accurate understanding of the direction of the violence experienced within each relationship is critical...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857823/perceived-and-post-traumatic-stress-are-associated-with-decreased-learning-memory-and-fluency-in-hiv-infected-women
#11
Leah H Rubin, Judith A Cook, Gayle Springer, Kathleen M Weber, Mardge H Cohen, Eileen M Martin, Victor G Valcour, Lorie Benning, Christine Alden, Joel Milam, Kathryn Anastos, Mary A Young, Deborah R Gustafson, Erin E Sundermann, Pauline M Maki
OBJECTIVE: Psychological risk factors (PRFs) are associated with impaired learning and memory in HIV-infected (HIV+) women. We determined the dynamic nature of the effects of PRFs and HIV serostatus on learning and memory over time. DESIGN: Multi-center, prospective cohort study METHODS:: Every two years between 2009 and 2013 (3 times), 646 HIV+ and 300 demographically-similar HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study completed neuropsychological (NP) testing and questionnaires measuring PRFs (perceived stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms)...
August 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846873/what-role-do-nightmares-play-in-suicide-a-brief-exploration
#12
REVIEW
Caitlin E Titus, Katrina J Speed, Patricia M Cartwright, Christopher W Drapeau, Yeseul Heo, Michael R Nadorff
The suicide rate in the United States has climbed each year for more than a decade, highlighting the need for greater understanding of, and prevention strategies for suicidal behavior. Nightmares have been shown to be associated with suicidal behavior independent of several psychiatric risk factors for suicide, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The specific role of nightmares in contributing to suicide remains unclear due to the difficulty in delineating causal factors...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843079/investigating-the-role-of-hopelessness-in-the-relationship-between-ptsd-symptom-change-and-suicidality
#13
Joseph W Boffa, Savannah L King, Gustavo Turecki, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: This study served as an initial investigation of the role hopelessness may play in the relationship between PTSD symptom change and suicide intent, among a trauma-exposed, treatment-seeking sample. We explored whether the effect of PTSD symptom change on self-reported likelihood of a future suicide attempt (FSA) varies as a function of pre-treatment hopelessness, and whether reductions in hopelessness serve as a mechanism through which PTSD symptom change influences FSA likelihood...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837943/low-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-rate-in-chinese-in-beijing-china
#14
Yingjun Xi, Runsen Chen, Fang Yan, Xin Ma, Jeffrey J Rakofsky, Lirong Tang, Hongli Guo, Xiaomei Wu, Xiaoqiang Li, Hong Zhu, Xiaobing Guo, Yang Yang, Peng Li, Xindong Cao, Haiying Li, Zhenbo Li, Ping Wang, Qiuyue Xu, Yilang Tang, Matthew R Broome
OBJECT: There have been significantly fewer community-based, epidemiological studies focusing on PTSD and its socio-demographic correlates among the Chinese than Western populations. METHOD: The multistage household cluster random sampling method was used to select participants from18 districts and counties in Beijing; a total of 16,032 participants were assessed; face-to-face interviews and data collection was conducted using the semi-structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders-Patient Edition (SCID-I/P)...
July 4, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834207/covering-traumatic-news-stories-factors-associated-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-among-journalists
#15
River J Smith, Susan Drevo, Elana Newman
The current study examined personal and environmental factors that placed 167 U.S. journalists from diverse media organizations at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after covering work-related traumatic stories. These factors included exposure to traumatic stressors in their personal lives, work-related traumatic stressors, and general organizational stressors. Further, personality attributes and coping styles associated with risk and resiliency were examined. Regression analyses identified avoidant emotional coping, higher levels of perceived organizational stressors, intensity of exposure to work-related traumatic stressors, and personal trauma history as statistically significant risk factors for PTSD...
August 22, 2017: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833952/comt-val158met-polymorphism-links-to-altered-fear-conditioning-and-extinction-are-modulated-by-ptsd-and-childhood-trauma
#16
Jessica Deslauriers, Dean T Acheson, Adam X Maihofer, Caroline M Nievergelt, Dewleen G Baker, Mark A Geyer, Victoria B Risbrough
BACKGROUND: Risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is thought to be mediated by gene × environment (G × E) interactions that affect core cognitive processes such as fear learning. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism has been associated with risk for PTSD and impaired fear inhibition. We used a large, relatively homogenous population to (1) replicate previous findings of poor fear inhibition in COMT Met/Met carriers with PTSD; (2) determine if COMT association with fear inhibition is moderated by childhood trauma (CT), an environmental risk factor for PTSD; and (3) determine if COMT is associated with altered fear processes after recent exposure to combat trauma...
August 18, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832408/reproductive-coercion-among-women-living-with-hiv-an-unexplored-risk-factor-for-negative-sexual-and-mental-health-outcomes
#17
Jocelyn C Anderson, Karen Trister Grace, Elizabeth Miller
BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy is prevalent among women living with HIV, and is associated with poor health outcomes for women and babies. Reproductive coercion may be one unexplored mechanism for this elevated risk. METHODS: Past year reproductive coercion data were obtained via self-reported survey from a sample of women receiving HIV specialty care in Baltimore, MD. RESULTS: Eleven of the 67 women (16.4%) included in the sample reported past year reproductive coercion...
August 21, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821837/risk-factors-for-chronic-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-development-one-year-after-vaginal-delivery-a-prospective-observational-study
#18
Loïc Sentilhes, Françoise Maillard, Stéphanie Brun, Hugo Madar, Benjamin Merlot, François Goffinet, Catherine Deneux-Tharaux
Our study aimed to assess the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth one year after vaginal delivery and to identify characteristics of women and deliveries associated with it. Questionnaires were mailed a year after delivery to 1103 women with prospectively collected delivery and postpartum data, including a question on day 2 assessing their experience of childbirth. PTSD was assessed a year later by the Impact of Event and Traumatic Event Scales; 22 women (4.2%, 95%CI 2.7-6.3%) met the PTSD diagnostic criteria and 30 (5...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820053/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-stress-resilience-and-implications-for-the-aged-population
#19
Charlène Faye, Josephine C Mcgowan, Christine A Denny, Denis J David
Stress is a common reaction to an environmental adversity, but a dysregulation of the stress response can lead to psychiatric illnesses such as major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders. Yet, not all individuals exposed to stress will develop psychiatric disorders; those with enhanced stress resilience mechanisms have the ability to adapt successfully to stress without developing persistent psychopathology. Notably, the potential to enhance stress resilience in at-risk populations may prevent the onset of stress-induced psychiatric disorders...
August 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818717/the-effect-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-on-the-risk-of-developing-prescription-opioid-use-disorder-results-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions-iii
#20
Ahmed N Hassan, Bernard Le Foll, Sameer Imtiaz, Jürgen Rehm
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of baseline post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and each symptoms cluster on the risk of developing opioid use disorder (OUD) in those exposed to opioid painkillers and to assess the effect of comorbid PTSD and OUD on functioning, OUD severity, and treatment seeking compared with individuals with OUD only. METHODS: We obtained data from 4025 individuals exposed to opioid painkillers from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III...
August 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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