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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634363/long-term-health-outcomes-in-patients-with-prader-willi-syndrome-a-nationwide-cohort-study-in-denmark
#1
E Hedgeman, S P Ulrichsen, S Carter, N C Kreher, K P Malobisky, M M Braun, J Fryzek, M S Olsen
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare congenital disease that affects growth, sexual development, cognitive function and behavior. Individuals exhibit food preoccupation and hyperphagia, which may lead to obesity with premature morbidity and mortality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the risk of venous thromboembolisms (VTE), myocardial infarction, pulmonary hypertension, sleep apnea, depression, anxiety and all-cause mortality among persons with PWS as compared to an age- and sex-matched general population cohort...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624847/the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis-implications-for-schizophrenia-and-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain
#2
REVIEW
S Kanji, T M Fonseka, V S Marshe, V Sriretnakumar, M K Hahn, D J Müller
With the emergence of knowledge implicating the human gut microbiome in the development and regulation of several physiological systems, evidence has accumulated to suggest a role for the gut microbiome in psychiatric conditions and drug response. A complex relationship between the enteric nervous system, the gut microbiota and the central nervous system has been described which allows for the microbiota to influence and respond to a variety of behaviors and psychiatric conditions. Additionally, the use of pharmaceuticals may interact with and alter the microbiota to potentially contribute to adverse effects of the drug...
June 17, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623911/moderate-mental-illness-as-a-predictor-of-chronic-disease-prevention-and-screening
#3
Ginetta Salvalaggio, Christopher Meaney, Rahim Moineddin, Eva Grunfeld, Donna Manca
BACKGROUND: Primary care plays a pivotal role in the provision of both mental health care and chronic disease prevention and screening (CDPS). Unfortunately, moderate mental illness (MMI) is associated with poorer general health outcomes. Part of this burden of illness may be due to reduced CDPS uptake. The Building on the Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention in Primary Care (BETTER) trial recruited 777 participants ages 40-65 from 32 family practice panels, of whom 135 (18...
June 17, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623010/-influence-of-the-working-conditions-on-sickness-absence-due-to-common-diseases
#4
Manuel Vaquero-Álvarez, Esther Álvarez-Theurer, Manuel Romero Saldaña
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the importance of the working environment in sickness absence, as well as to show possible relationships with clinical-work variables. DESIGN: A descriptive observational study. SITE: Medical Inspection of an Andalusian province. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1016 workers on certified sick leave due to a common illness. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: A self-report questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, profession, activity, risk assessment, and perceived occupational cause, on patients who voluntarily gave their consent when they were reviewed during 2015...
June 13, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622206/bupropion-augmentation-in-a-case-of-compulsive-buying-disorder
#5
Gianna Sepede, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Fiori, Massimo Di Giannantonio
BACKGROUND: Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is a condition characterized by excessive preoccupations, impulses, and behaviors regarding buying, resulting in serious psychological, social, and financial problems. Even though it has not been included in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, "behavioral addictions" section, CBD is a hot topic in current clinical psychiatry, because of its relevant prevalence (at least 5% in adult populations) and severe effect on quality of life...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620285/the-evidence-for-altered-bdnf-expression-in-the-brain-of-rats-reared-or-housed-in-social-isolation-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Jana Murínová, Nataša Hlaváčová, Magdaléna Chmelová, Igor Riečanský
There is evidence that development and maintenance of neural connections are disrupted in major mental disorders, which indicates that neurotrophic factors could play a critical role in their pathogenesis. Stress is a well-established risk factor for psychopathology and recent research suggests that disrupted signaling via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be involved in mediating the negative effects of stress on the brain. Social isolation of rats elicits chronic stress and is widely used as an animal model of mental disorders such as schizophrenia and depression...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616860/insomnia-as-a-precipitating-factor-in-new-onset-mental-illness-a-systematic-review-of-recent-findings
#7
REVIEW
Wilfred R Pigeon, Todd M Bishop, Kelsey M Krueger
PURPOSE: We aimed to systematically review recent publications (01/2014-03/2017) with longitudinal designs allowing for the assessment of the prospective risk of insomnia on new onset mental illness in key conditions: anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, and suicide. RECENT FINDINGS: A literature yielded 1859 unique articles meeting search criteria were identified; 16 articles met all selection criteria and reviewed with some studies reporting on more than one mental health outcome...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616666/the-role-of-psychosomatic-medicine-in-intensive-care-units
#8
REVIEW
Heidemarie Abrahamian, Diana Lebherz-Eichinger
Critically ill patients, their relatives, and intensive care staff are consistently exposed to stress. The principal elements of this exceptional burden are confrontation with a life-threatening disease, specific environmental conditions at the intensive care unit, and the social characteristics of intensive care medicine. The short- and long-term consequences of these stressors include a feeling of helplessness, distress, anxiety, depression, and even posttraumatic stress disorders. Not only the patients, but also their relatives and intensive care staff are at risk of developing such psychopathologies...
June 14, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615771/comparative-study-of-psychiatric-manifestations-among-type-i-and-type-ii-diabetic-patients
#9
Rupesh Chaudhary, Pankaj Kumar, Akhil Chopra, Sandeep Chabbra, Parminder Singh
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depressive disorders belong to the most common psychiatric disorders worldwide. They are generally seen in individuals who suffer from chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (DM). The prevalence of depression among diabetics ranges from 8.5% to 32.5%, while that for anxiety it is up to 30%. In this study, we try to compare the mental health problems faced by those with Type I and Type II DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients diagnosed with Type I diabetes (T1D) and Type II diabetes each presenting to Medicine and Endocrinology Department were assessed with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) for depression and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) for anxiety...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606869/predicting-mental-conditions-based-on-history-of-present-illness-in-psychiatric-notes-with-deep-neural-networks
#10
Tung Tran, Ramakanth Kavuluru
BACKGROUND: Applications of natural language processing to mental health notes are not common given the sensitive nature of the associated narratives. The CEGS N-GRID 2016 Shared Task in Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) changed this scenario by providing the first set of neuropsychiatric notes to participants. This study summarizes our efforts and results in proposing a novel data use case for this dataset as part of the third track in this shared task. OBJECTIVE: We explore the feasibility and effectiveness of predicting a set of common mental conditions a patient has based on the short textual description of patient's history of present illness typically occurring in the beginning of a psychiatric initial evaluation note...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606490/illuminating-the-clinical-significance-of-alexithymia-subtypes-a-cluster-analysis-of-alexithymic-traits-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#11
J Kajanoja, N M Scheinin, L Karlsson, H Karlsson, M Karukivi
BACKGROUND: Alexithymia is a personality construct involving difficulties identifying and verbalizing feelings, and an externally oriented thinking style. There is preliminary evidence for alexithymia subtypes that may carry different risk profiles for psychiatric illness. The aim of this study was to gain support for the existence of alexithymia subtypes and further characterize their clinical relevance. METHODS: To identify possible subtypes, a cluster analysis was conducted for individuals with high alexithymic traits (N=113)...
June 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605691/psychiatric-outcomes-associated-with-chronic-illness-in-adolescence-a-systematic-review
#12
Ann Marie Brady, Jessica Deighton, Stephen Stansfeld
Recent years have seen an increased focus on the high rates of psychiatric comorbidities in adults with chronic illness. This systematic review explored whether chronic illness in adolescents was similarly associated with poor psychiatric outcomes. The literature search identified 129 articles, only 5 of which were indicated to be at a low risk of methodological bias. Four of these articles found a strong relationship between asthma in adolescence and an increase in the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders, while the remaining article, which focused on diabetes mellitus, indicated similarly increased rates of psychiatric illness...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601722/simplifying-profiles-of-comorbidity-in-bipolar-disorder
#13
Lori R Eisner, Sheri L Johnson, Eric A Youngstrom, Jennifer G Pearlstein
BACKGROUND: Comorbid psychiatric symptoms in bipolar disorder (BD) predict poorer course of illness and treatment outcome. The sheer number of comorbid symptoms has thwarted developing treatments to address these comorbid concerns. The goal of this study was to develop a more parsimonious approach to understanding clusters of comorbid symptoms within BD. METHOD: Data were collected as part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with 43,093 participants using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV (AUDADIS-IV)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600645/acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-for-perinatal-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-development-of-an-inpatient-group-intervention
#14
REVIEW
Alexa Bonacquisti, Matthew J Cohen, Crystal Edler Schiller
Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for childbearing women. Current treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy, have demonstrated modest success in addressing perinatal psychiatric symptoms; however, additional treatment options are needed to address the limitations of current approaches, particularly for women experiencing moderate to severe perinatal mental illness during pregnancy or postpartum. We discuss the use of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) as a promising treatment approach that may be uniquely suited for perinatal women due to its emphasis of values, mindfulness, and acceptance; these psychological constructs notably address the significant psychiatric and behavioral health condition comorbidity, somatic symptoms, and stigma associated with perinatal mood and anxiety disorders...
June 10, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599173/attempts-at-memory-control-induce-dysfunctional-brain-activation-profiles-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-an-exploratory-fmri-study
#15
Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Marta Re, Filippo Cecchetto, Marco Garzitto, Sara Piccin, Carolina Bonivento, Marta Maieron, Serena D'Agostini, Matteo Balestrieri, Paolo Brambilla
Suppression of aversive memories through memory control has historically been proposed as a central psychological defense mechanism. Inability to suppress memories is considered a central psychological trait in several psychiatric disorders, including Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Yet, few studies have attempted the focused identification of dysfunctional brain activation profiles when patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorders attempt memory control. Using a well-characterized behavioral paradigm we studied brain activation profiles in a group of adult GAD patients and well-matched healthy controls (HC)...
May 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597357/health-care-needs-and-service-use-among-male-prison-inmates-in-the-united-states-a-multi-level-behavioral-model-of-prison-health-service-utilization
#16
Kathryn M Nowotny
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to apply Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use to men's prisons to assess the direct and indirect effects of inmate predisposing characteristics through multiple types of need. Also examined are the effects of prison-specific enabling factors and the variation in use of health services across prisons. This study uses a nationally representative U.S. sample of men incarcerated in state prisons (n = 8816) and generalized structural equation and multilevel modeling...
December 2017: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594216/using-the-maysi-2-to-identify-mental-disorder-among-latino-juvenile-offenders
#17
Jennifer Eno Louden, Tamara Kang, Elijah P Ricks, Lorae Marquez
Many juvenile justice agencies have adopted the Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory-Version 2 (MAYSI-2; Grisso & Barnum, 2006) to facilitate appropriate programming for young offenders with mental illness. Although Latinos are the fastest-growing ethnic group in the criminal justice system, there is scant research on the utility of the MAYSI-2 among Latino adolescents. The present study examined the utility of the MAYSI-2 in detecting diagnosable mental illness among 398 Latino and 60 European American adolescents in a juvenile justice agency...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588453/refining-the-role-of-5-ht-in-postnatal-development-of-brain-circuits
#18
REVIEW
Anne Teissier, Mariano Soiza-Reilly, Patricia Gaspar
Changing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) brain levels during critical periods in development has long-lasting effects on brain function, particularly on later anxiety/depression-related behaviors in adulthood. A large part of the known developmental effects of 5-HT occur during critical periods of postnatal life, when activity-dependent mechanisms remodel neural circuits. This was first demonstrated for the maturation of sensory brain maps in the barrel cortex and the visual system. More recently this has been extended to the 5-HT raphe circuits themselves and to limbic circuits...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583960/simulations-test-impact-of-education-employment-and-income-improvements-on-minority-patients-with-mental-illness
#19
Margarita Alegria, Robert E Drake, Hyeon-Ah Kang, Justin Metcalfe, Jingchen Liu, Karissa DiMarzio, Naomi Ali
Social determinants of health, such as poverty and minority background, severely disadvantage many people with mental disorders. A variety of innovative federal, state, and local programs have combined social services with mental health interventions. To explore the potential effects of such supports for addressing poverty and disadvantage on mental health outcomes, we simulated improvements in three social determinants-education, employment, and income. We used two large data sets: one from the National Institute of Mental Health that contained information about people with common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, and another from the Social Security Administration that contained information about people who were disabled due to severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder...
June 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577505/transdiagnostic-treatment-of-bipolar-disorder-and-comorbid-anxiety-using-the-unified-protocol-for-emotional-disorders-a-pilot-feasibility-and-acceptability-trial
#20
Kristen K Ellard, Emily E Bernstein, Casey Hearing, Ji Hyun Baek, Louisa G Sylvia, Andrew A Nierenberg, David H Barlow, Thilo Deckersbach
BACKGROUND: Comorbid anxiety in bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with greater illness severity, reduced treatment response, and greater impairment. Treating anxiety in the context of BD is crucial for improving illness course and outcomes. The current study examined the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral therapy, as an adjunctive treatment to pharmacotherapy for BD and comorbid anxiety disorders. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with BD and at least one comorbid anxiety disorder were randomized to pharmacotherapy treatment-as-usual (TAU) or TAU with 18 sessions of the UP (UP+TAU)...
September 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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