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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188805/sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-axis-mediates-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-induced-proliferation-and-survival-of-murine-auditory-neuroblasts
#1
Marina Bruno, Ilaria Maria Rizzo, Ricardo Romero-Guevara, Caterina Bernacchioni, Francesca Cencetti, Chiara Donati, Paola Bruni
Hearing loss affects millions of people in the world. In mammals the auditory system comprises diverse cell types which are terminally differentiated and with no regenerative potential. There is a tremendous research interest aimed at identifying cell therapy based solutions or pharmacological approaches that could be applied therapeutically alongside auditory devices to prevent hair cell and neuron loss. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a pleiotropic bioactive sphingolipid that plays key role in the regulation of many physiological and pathological functions...
May 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179565/high-resolution-imaging-of-cellular-dopamine-efflux-using-a-fluorescent-nanosensor-array
#2
Sebastian Kruss, Daniel P Salem, Lela Vuković, Barbara Lima, Emma Vander Ende, Edward S Boyden, Michael S Strano
Intercellular communication via chemical signaling proceeds with both spatial and temporal components, but analytical tools, such as microfabricated electrodes, have been limited to just a few probes per cell. In this work, we use a nonphotobleaching fluorescent nanosensor array based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) rendered selective to dopamine to study its release from PC12 neuroprogenitor cells at a resolution exceeding 20,000 sensors per cell. This allows the spatial and temporal dynamics of dopamine release, following K(+) stimulation, to be measured at exceedingly high resolution...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161493/lysine-acetylation-and-deacetylation-in-brain-development-and-neuropathies
#3
REVIEW
Alicia Tapias, Zhao-Qi Wang
Embryonic development is critical for the final functionality and maintenance of the adult brain. Brain development is tightly regulated by intracellular and extracellular signaling. Lysine acetylation and deacetylation are posttranslational modifications that are able to link extracellular signals to intracellular responses. A wealth of evidence indicates that lysine acetylation and deacetylation are critical for brain development and functionality. Indeed, mutations of the enzymes and cofactors responsible for these processes are often associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders...
February 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129596/tissue-engineering-the-mechanosensory-circuit-of-the-stretch-reflex-arc-with-human-stem-cells-sensory-neuron-innervation-of-intrafusal-muscle-fibers
#4
Xiufang Guo, Alisha Colon, Nesar Akanda, Severo Spradling, Maria Stancescu, Candace Martin, James J Hickman
Muscle spindles are sensory organs embedded in the belly of skeletal muscles that serve as mechanoreceptors detecting static and dynamic information about muscle length and stretch. Through their connection with proprioceptive sensory neurons, sensation of axial body position and muscle movement are transmitted to the central nervous system. Impairment of this sensory circuit causes motor deficits and has been linked to a wide range of diseases. To date, no defined human-based in vitro model of the proprioceptive sensory circuit has been developed...
April 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001759/transcranial-low-level-laser-light-therapy-for-brain-injury
#5
Connor Thunshelle, Michael R Hamblin
BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) is a possible treatment for brain injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We review the fundamental mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level and the effects on the brain are discussed. There are several contributing processes that have been proposed to lead to the beneficial effects of PBM in treating TBI such as stimulation of neurogenesis, a decrease in inflammation, and neuroprotection...
December 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864453/glial-cells-and-energy-balance
#6
REVIEW
Pilar Argente-Arizón, Santiago Guerra-Cantera, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Jesús Argente, Julie A Chowen
The search for new strategies and drugs to abate the current obesity epidemic has led to the intensification of research aimed at understanding the neuroendocrine control of appetite and energy expenditure. This intensified investigation of metabolic control has also included the study of how glial cells participate in this process. Glia, the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system, perform a wide spectrum of functions and are vital for the correct functioning of neurons and neuronal circuits...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784329/netrin1-dcc-signaling-promotes-neuronal-migration-in-the-dorsal-spinal-cord
#7
Harald J Junge, Andrea R Yung, Lisa V Goodrich, Zhe Chen
BACKGROUND: Newborn neurons often migrate before undergoing final differentiation, extending neurites, and forming synaptic connections. Therefore, neuronal migration is crucial for establishing neural circuitry during development. In the developing spinal cord, neuroprogenitors first undergo radial migration within the ventricular zone. Differentiated neurons continue to migrate tangentially before reaching the final positions. The molecular pathways that regulate these migration processes remain largely unknown...
October 26, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720902/targeted-differentiation-of-regional-ventral-neuroprogenitors-and-related-neuronal-subtypes-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Liankai Chi, Beibei Fan, Kunshan Zhang, Yanhua Du, Zhongliang Liu, Yujiang Fang, Zhenyu Chen, Xudong Ren, Xiangjie Xu, Cizhong Jiang, Siguang Li, Lin Ma, Liang Gao, Ling Liu, Xiaoqing Zhang
Embryoid body (EB) formation and adherent culture (AD) paradigms are equivalently thought to be applicable for neural specification of human pluripotent stem cells. Here, we report that sonic hedgehog-induced ventral neuroprogenitors under EB conditions are fated to medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), while the AD cells mostly adopt a floor-plate (FP) fate. The EB-MGE later on differentiates into GABA and cholinergic neurons, while the AD-FP favors dopaminergic neuron specification. Distinct developmental, metabolic, and adhesion traits in AD and EB cells may potentially account for their differential patterning potency...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717805/the-na-hco3-co-transporter-is-protective-during-ischemia-in-astrocytes
#9
Hang Yao, Priti Azad, Huiwen W Zhao, Juan Wang, Orit Poulsen, Beatriz C Freitas, Alysson R Muotri, Gabriel G Haddad
The sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (NBC) is the major bicarbonate-dependent acid-base transporter in mammalian astrocytes and has been implicated in ischemic brain injury. A malfunction of astrocytes could have great impact on the outcome of stroke due to their participation in the formation of blood-brain barrier, synaptic transmission, and electrolyte balance in the human brain. Nevertheless, the role of NBC in the ischemic astrocyte death has not been well understood. In this work, we obtained skin biopsies from healthy human subjects and had their fibroblasts grown in culture and reprogrammed into human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644129/differentiation-of-spermatogonia-stem-cells-into-functional-mature-neurons-characterized-with-differential-gene-expression
#10
Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Hossein Azizi, Thomas Skutella, Mansoureh Movahedin, Fereshteh Pourabdolhossein, Amir Shojaei, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi
Transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, ESCs are not usable clinically due to immunological and ethical limitations. The identification of an alternative safe cell source opens novel options via autologous transplantation in neuro-regeneration circumventing these problems. Here, we examined the neurogenic capacity of embryonic stem-like cells (ES-like cells) derived from the testis using neural growth factor inducers and utilized them to generate functional mature neurons...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550713/myeloperoxidase-inhibition-increases-neurogenesis-after-ischemic-stroke
#11
HyeonJu Kim, Ying Wei, Ji Yong Lee, Yue Wu, Yi Zheng, Michael A Moskowitz, John W Chen
The relationship between inflammation and neurogenesis in stroke is currently not well understood. Focal ischemia enhances cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic regions, including the subventricular zone (SVZ), dentate gyrus, as well as the non-neurogenic striatum, and cortex in the ischemic hemisphere. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a potent oxidizing enzyme secreted during inflammation by activated leukocytes, and its enzymatic activity is highly elevated after stroke. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of MPO activity by a specific irreversible inhibitor, 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH) (MPO(-/-) mice) can increase neurogenesis after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534418/late-maternal-folate-supplementation-rescues-from-methyl-donor-deficiency-associated-brain-defects-by-restoring-let-7-and-mir-34-pathways
#12
Andréa Geoffroy, Racha Kerek, Grégory Pourié, Déborah Helle, Jean-Louis Guéant, Jean-Luc Daval, Carine Bossenmeyer-Pourié
The micronutrients folate and vitamin B12 are essential for the proper development of the central nervous system, and their deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a wide range of disorders. They act as methyl donors in the one-carbon metabolism which critically influences epigenetic mechanisms. In order to depict further underlying mechanisms, we investigated the role of let-7 and miR-34, two microRNAs regulated by methylation, on a rat model of maternal deficiency. In several countries, public health policies recommend periconceptional supplementation with folic acid...
August 17, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503289/mutations-in-cit-encoding-citron-rho-interacting-serine-threonine-kinase-cause-severe-primary-microcephaly-in-humans
#13
Ranad Shaheen, Amal Hashem, Ghada M H Abdel-Salam, Fatima Al-Fadhli, Nour Ewida, Fowzan S Alkuraya
Primary microcephaly is a clinical phenotype in which the head circumference is significantly reduced at birth due to abnormal brain development, primarily at the cortical level. Despite the marked genetic heterogeneity, most primary microcephaly-linked genes converge on mitosis regulation. Two consanguineous families segregating the phenotype of severe primary microcephaly, spasticity and failure to thrive had overlapping autozygomes in which exome sequencing identified homozygous splicing variants in CIT that segregate with the phenotype within each family...
October 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459581/pde4-inhibition-by-rolipram-promotes-neuronal-differentiation-in-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
I-Seul Joe, Goang-Won Cho
Increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) can promote axonal elongation and facilitate neuronal repair, while decreased cAMP is associated with losses in neuronal regenerative capacity. Rolipram, which upregulates intracellular cAMP by blocking phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) enzyme activity, can mitigate diverse neurological disorders. In this study, we investigated whether rolipram induces neuronal differentiation of human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). Rolipram-treated MSCs (Roli-MSCs) had significantly increased expression of the neuroprogenitor proteins Nestin, Musashi, GFAP, and Sox-2...
August 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412681/zika-virus-as-a-causative-agent-for-primary-microencephaly-the-evidence-so-far
#15
REVIEW
Bor Luen Tang
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with congenital microcephaly and peripheral neuropathy. The ongoing epidemic has triggered swift responses in the scientific community, and a number of recent reports have now confirmed a causal relationship between ZIKV infection and birth defect. In particular, ZIKV has been shown to be capable of compromising and crossing the placental barrier and infect the developing fetal brain, resulting in the demise and functional impairment of neuroprogenitor cells critical for fetal cortex development...
September 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27308604/a-mycn-mrn-complex-axis-controls-replication-stress-for-the-safe-expansion-of-neuroprogenitor-cells
#16
Marialaura Petroni, Giuseppe Giannini
DNA replication must be tightly regulated to ensure accurate duplication of the genome and its transfer to the daughter cells. When these regulatory mechanisms fail, replicative stress and DNA damage ensue, eventually leading to cell cycle inhibition or cell death. We have recently uncovered that MYCN-dependent expansion of neuroprogenitor cells is accompanied by replication stress, which is restrained by the MRN complex, a direct transcriptional target of the MYCN proto-oncogene.
March 2016: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245352/epigenetic-dysregulation-in-the-developing-down-syndrome-cortex
#17
Nady El Hajj, Marcus Dittrich, Julia Böck, Theo F J Kraus, Indrajit Nanda, Tobias Müller, Larissa Seidmann, Tim Tralau, Danuta Galetzka, Eberhard Schneider, Thomas Haaf
Using Illumina 450K arrays, 1.85% of all analyzed CpG sites were significantly hypermethylated and 0.31% hypomethylated in fetal Down syndrome (DS) cortex throughout the genome. The methylation changes on chromosome 21 appeared to be balanced between hypo- and hyper-methylation, whereas, consistent with prior reports, all other chromosomes showed 3-11 times more hyper- than hypo-methylated sites. Reduced NRSF/REST expression due to upregulation of DYRK1A (on chromosome 21q22.13) and methylation of REST binding sites during early developmental stages may contribute to this genome-wide excess of hypermethylated sites...
August 2, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197793/the-dna-damage-response-molecule-mcph1-in-brain-development-and-beyond
#18
REVIEW
Xiaoqian Liu, Zhong-Wei Zhou, Zhao-Qi Wang
Microcephalin (MCPH1) is identified as being responsible for the neurodevelopmental disorder primary microcephaly type 1, which is characterized by a smaller-than-normal brain size and mental retardation. MCPH1 has originally been identified as an important regulator of telomere integrity and of cell cycle control. Genetic and cellular studies show that MCPH1 controls neurogenesis by coordinating the cell cycle and the centrosome cycle and thereby regulating the division mode of neuroprogenitors to prevent the exhaustion of the progenitor pool and thereby microcephaly...
July 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030982/human-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-derived-neuroprogenitors-display-differential-degrees-of-susceptibility-to-bh3-mimetics-abt-263-wehi-539-and-abt-199
#19
Carolina Paola García, Guillermo Agustín Videla Richardson, Nicolás Alexis Dimopoulos, Damián Darío Fernandez Espinosa, Santiago Gabriel Miriuka, Gustavo Emilio Sevlever, Leonardo Romorini, María Elida Scassa
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are hypersensitive to genotoxic stress and display lower survival ability relative to their differentiated progeny. Herein, we attempted to investigate the source of this difference by comparing the DNA damage responses triggered by the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, in hESCs, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and hESCs-derived neuroprogenitors (NP). We observed that upon camptothecin exposure pluripotent stem cells underwent apoptosis more swiftly and at a higher rate than differentiated cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023675/towards-quantitative-molecular-mapping-of-cells-by-raman-microscopy-using-afm-for-decoupling-molecular-concentration-and-cell-topography
#20
Radu Boitor, Faris Sinjab, Stephanie Strohbuecker, Virginie Sottile, Ioan Notingher
Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) is a non-invasive technique for imaging live cells in vitro. However, obtaining quantitative molecular information from Raman spectra is difficult because the intensity of a Raman band is proportional to the number of molecules in the sampled volume, which depends on the local molecular concentration and the thickness of the cell. In order to understand these effects, we combined RMS with atomic force microscopy (AFM), a technique that can measure accurately the thickness profile of the cells...
June 23, 2016: Faraday Discussions
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