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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889265/manganese-and-the-insulin-igf-signaling-network-in-huntington-s-disease-and-other-neurodegenerative-disorders
#1
Miles R Bryan, Aaron B Bowman
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease resulting in motor impairment and death in patients. Recently, several studies have demonstrated insulin or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) treatment in models of HD, resulting in potent amelioration of HD phenotypes via modulation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. Administration of IGF and insulin can rescue microtubule transport, metabolic function, and autophagy defects, resulting in clearance of Huntingtin (HTT) aggregates, restoration of mitochondrial function, amelioration of motor abnormalities, and enhanced survival...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782906/differentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-into-neuronal-by-resveratrol
#2
Ya-Wei Geng, Zhen Zhang, Ming-Yue Liu, Wei-Ping Hu
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been proposed as a promising source of stem cells in nerve regeneration due to their close embryonic origin and ease of harvest. Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenolic and possesses many biological functions such as anti-inflammatory activity and protection against atherosclerosis and neuroprotective activities. There is increasing evidence showing that RSV plays a pivotal role in neuron protection and neuronal differentiation. In this study, we isolated DPSCs from impacted third molars and investigated whether RSV induces neuronal differentiation of DPSCs...
August 7, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780388/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pi3k-modulates-manganese-homeostasis-and-manganese-induced-cell-signaling-in-a-murine-striatal-cell-line
#3
Miles R Bryan, Michael A Uhouse, Kristen D Nordham, Piyush Joshi, Daniel I R Rose, Michael T O'Brien, Michael Aschner, Aaron B Bowman
In a recent study, we found that blocking the protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) with the small molecule inhibitor (SMI) KU-55933 can completely abrogate Mn-induced phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 (p-p53) in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-differentiated striatal neuroprogenitors. However, in the immortalized mouse striatal progenitor cell line STHdh(Q7/Q7), a concentration of KU55933 far exceeding its IC50 for ATM was required to inhibit Mn-induced p-p53. This suggested an alternative signaling system redundant with ATM kinase for activating p53 in this cell line- one that was altered by KU55933 at these higher concentrations (i...
August 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743634/early-ciliary-and-prominin-1-dysfunctions-precede-neurogenesis-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#4
Tomás P Bachor, Jana Karbanová, Edgar Büttner, Vicente Bermúdez, Melisa Marquioni-Ramella, Peter Carmeliet, Denis Corbeil, Angela M Suburo
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is reaching epidemic conditions worldwide and increases the risk for cognition impairment and dementia. Here, we postulated that progenitors in adult neurogenic niches might be particularly vulnerable. Therefore, we evaluated the different components of the mouse subventricular zone (SVZ) during the first week after chemical induction of type 1 and type 2 diabetes-like (T1DM and T2DM) conditions. Surprisingly, only T2DM mice showed SVZ damage. The initial lesions were localized to ependymal cilia, which appeared disorientated and clumped together...
July 23, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713614/condition-medium-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-retinoic-acid-induces-the-transdifferentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-into-neuroglia-and-neural-like-cells
#5
Sara Haratizadeh, Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Shahram Darabi, Narges Karimi, Mehrdad Naghikhani, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi, Morteza Seifi
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains several molecules which are essential for neurogenesis. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are putatively neural crest cell-derived that can differentiate into neurons and glial cells under appropriate neurotrophic factors. The aim of this study was to induce differentiation of hDPSCs into neuroglial phenotypes using retinoic acid (RA) and CSF. The hDPSCs from an impacted third molar were isolated by mechanical and digestion and cultured. The cells have treated by 10(-7) µM RA (RA group) for 8 days, 10% CSF (CSF group) for 8 days and RA with CSF for 8 days (RA/CSF group)...
June 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674729/expression-of-a-sox1-overlapping-transcript-in-neural-differentiation-and-cancer-models
#6
Azaz Ahmad, Stephanie Strohbuecker, Cristina Tufarelli, Virginie Sottile
SOX1 is a member of the SOXB1 subgroup of transcription factors involved in early embryogenesis, CNS development and maintenance of neural stem cells. The structure and regulation of the human SOX1 locus has been less studied than that of SOX2, another member of the SOXB1 subgroup for which an overlapping transcript has been reported. Here we report that the SOX1 locus harbours a SOX1 overlapping transcript (SOX1-OT), and describe expression, splicing variants and detection of SOX1-OT in different stem and cancer cells...
July 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674431/9-cis-retinoic-acid-induces-neurorepair-in-stroke-brain
#7
Seong-Jin Yu, Mikko Airavaara, Kuo-Jen Wu, Brandon K Harvey, H S Liu, Yihong Yang, Alex Zacharek, Jieli Chen, Yun Wang
The purpose of this study was to examine the neurorestorative effect of delayed 9 cis retinoic acid (9cRA) treatment for stroke. Adult male rats received a 90-min right distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAo). Animals were separated into two groups with similar infarction sizes, based on magnetic resonance imaging on day 2 after dMCAo. 9cRA or vehicle was given via an intranasal route daily starting from day 3. Stroke rats receiving 9cRA post-treatment showed an increase in brain 9cRA levels and greater recovery in motor function...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658635/adipose-derived-stem-cell-sheets-functionalized-by-hybrid-baculovirus-for-prolonged-gdnf-expression-and-improved-nerve-regeneration
#8
Mu-Nung Hsu, Han-Tsung Liao, Kuei-Chang Li, Hwei-Hsien Chen, Tzu-Chen Yen, Pavel Makarevich, Yelena Parfyonova, Yu-Chen Hu
Peripheral nerve regeneration requires coordinated functions of supporting cells (e.g. Schwann cells) and neurotrophic factors such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), but nerve regeneration is usually far from complete. Here we constructed a Cre/loxP-based hybrid baculovirus (BV) vector which enabled intracellular formation of episomal DNA minicircle for effective transduction of rat adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and prolonged expression of functional GDNF capable of recruiting Schwann cells...
May 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646619/early-insights-into-zika-s-microcephaly-physiopathology-from-the-epicenter-of-the-outbreak-teratogenic-apoptosis-in-the-central-nervous-system
#9
Patricia Jungmann, Pedro Pires, Edward Araujo Júnior
Fetal infection by the Zika virus has been implicated in the exceptional rise in the number of microcephalic newborns recorded by the end of 2015 in Brazil. The mechanism by which this teratogenic effect is produced in the developing brain has not been fully established. Very early in the outbreak, we addressed this question by evaluating available initial data from a gestational and postnatal clinical investigation in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the subtractive dysmorphic brain malformations observed in Zika-related microcephaly are primarily due to the massive induction of apoptosis of neuroprogenitor cells...
September 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597690/dna-methylation-and-copy-number-variation-analyses-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neuroprogenitors-after-low-dose-decabromodiphenyl-ether-and-or-bisphenol-a-exposure
#10
L Du, W Sun, X M Li, X Y Li, W Liu, D Chen
The polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and bisphenol A (BPA) are environmental contaminants that can cross the placenta and exert toxicity in the developing fetal nervous system. Copy number variants (CNVs) play a role in a number of genetic disorders and may be implicated in BDE-209/BPA teratogenicity. In this study, we found that BDE-209 and/or BPA exposure decreased neural differentiation efficiency of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), although there was a >90% induction of neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) from exposed hESCs...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580093/photobiomodulation-and-the-brain-a-new-paradigm
#11
Madison Hennessy, Michael R Hamblin
Transcranial photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low level laser therapy (tLLLT) relies on the use of red/NIR light to stimulate, preserve and regenerate cells and tissues. The mechanism of action involves photon absorption in the mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase), and ion channels in cells leading to activation of signaling pathways, up-regulation of transcription factors, and increased expression of protective genes. We have studied PBM for treating traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice using a NIR laser spot delivered to the head...
January 2017: Journal of Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575744/decreased-neural-precursor-cell-pool-in-nadph-oxidase-2-deficiency-from-mouse-brain-to-neural-differentiation-of-patient-derived-ipsc
#12
Zeynab Nayernia, Marilena Colaianna, Natalia Robledinos-Antón, Eveline Gutzwiller, Frédérique Sloan-Béna, Elisavet Stathaki, Yousef Hibaoui, Antonio Cuadrado, Jürgen Hescheler, Marie-José Stasia, Tomo Saric, Vincent Jaquet, Karl-Heinz Krause
There is emerging evidence for the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the regulation of stem cells and cellular differentiation. Absence of the ROS-generating NADPH oxidase NOX2 in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients, predominantly manifests as immune deficiency, but has also been associated with decreased cognition. Here, we investigate the role of NOX enzymes in neuronal homeostasis in adult mouse brain and in neural cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). High levels of NOX2 were found in mouse adult neurogenic regions...
April 24, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506232/rp58-and-p27-kip1-coordinate-cell-cycle-exit-and-neuronal-migration-within-the-embryonic-mouse-cerebral-cortex
#13
Olivier Clément, Isabel Anne Hemming, Ivan Enghian Gladwyn-Ng, Zhengdong Qu, Shan Shan Li, Michael Piper, Julian Ik-Tsen Heng
BACKGROUND: During the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex, newborn postmitotic projection neurons are born from local neural stem cells and must undergo radial migration so as to position themselves appropriately to form functional neural circuits. The zinc finger transcriptional repressor Rp58 (also known as Znf238 or Zbtb18) is critical for coordinating corticogenesis, but its underlying molecular mechanism remains to be better characterised. FINDINGS: Here, we demonstrate that the co-expression of Rp58 and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p27(kip1) is important for E14...
May 15, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447573/improving-neurorepair-in-stroke-brain-through-endogenous-neurogenesis-enhancing-drugs
#14
Kuo-Jen Wu, Seongjin Yu, Jea-Young Lee, Barry Hoffer, Yun Wang
Stroke induces not only cell death but also neurorepair. De novo neurogenesis has been found in the subventricular zone(SVZ) of adult mammalian brain days after stroke. Most of these newly generated cells die shortly after the insult. Recent studies have shown that pharmacological manipulation can improve the survival of endogenous neuroprogenitor cells and neural regeneration in stroke rats. As these drugs target the endogenous reparative processes which occur days after stroke, they may provide a prolonged window for stroke therapy...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188805/sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-axis-mediates-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-induced-proliferation-and-survival-of-murine-auditory-neuroblasts
#15
Marina Bruno, Ilaria Maria Rizzo, Ricardo Romero-Guevara, Caterina Bernacchioni, Francesca Cencetti, Chiara Donati, Paola Bruni
Hearing loss affects millions of people in the world. In mammals the auditory system comprises diverse cell types which are terminally differentiated and with no regenerative potential. There is a tremendous research interest aimed at identifying cell therapy based solutions or pharmacological approaches that could be applied therapeutically alongside auditory devices to prevent hair cell and neuron loss. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a pleiotropic bioactive sphingolipid that plays key role in the regulation of many physiological and pathological functions...
May 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179565/high-resolution-imaging-of-cellular-dopamine-efflux-using-a-fluorescent-nanosensor-array
#16
Sebastian Kruss, Daniel P Salem, Lela Vuković, Barbara Lima, Emma Vander Ende, Edward S Boyden, Michael S Strano
Intercellular communication via chemical signaling proceeds with both spatial and temporal components, but analytical tools, such as microfabricated electrodes, have been limited to just a few probes per cell. In this work, we use a nonphotobleaching fluorescent nanosensor array based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) rendered selective to dopamine to study its release from PC12 neuroprogenitor cells at a resolution exceeding 20,000 sensors per cell. This allows the spatial and temporal dynamics of dopamine release, following K(+) stimulation, to be measured at exceedingly high resolution...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161493/lysine-acetylation-and-deacetylation-in-brain-development-and-neuropathies
#17
REVIEW
Alicia Tapias, Zhao-Qi Wang
Embryonic development is critical for the final functionality and maintenance of the adult brain. Brain development is tightly regulated by intracellular and extracellular signaling. Lysine acetylation and deacetylation are posttranslational modifications that are able to link extracellular signals to intracellular responses. A wealth of evidence indicates that lysine acetylation and deacetylation are critical for brain development and functionality. Indeed, mutations of the enzymes and cofactors responsible for these processes are often associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders...
February 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129596/tissue-engineering-the-mechanosensory-circuit-of-the-stretch-reflex-arc-with-human-stem-cells-sensory-neuron-innervation-of-intrafusal-muscle-fibers
#18
Xiufang Guo, Alisha Colon, Nesar Akanda, Severo Spradling, Maria Stancescu, Candace Martin, James J Hickman
Muscle spindles are sensory organs embedded in the belly of skeletal muscles that serve as mechanoreceptors detecting static and dynamic information about muscle length and stretch. Through their connection with proprioceptive sensory neurons, sensation of axial body position and muscle movement are transmitted to the central nervous system. Impairment of this sensory circuit causes motor deficits and has been linked to a wide range of diseases. To date, no defined human-based in vitro model of the proprioceptive sensory circuit has been developed...
April 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001759/transcranial-low-level-laser-light-therapy-for-brain-injury
#19
Connor Thunshelle, Michael R Hamblin
BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) is a possible treatment for brain injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We review the fundamental mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level and the effects on the brain are discussed. There are several contributing processes that have been proposed to lead to the beneficial effects of PBM in treating TBI such as stimulation of neurogenesis, a decrease in inflammation, and neuroprotection...
December 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864453/glial-cells-and-energy-balance
#20
REVIEW
Pilar Argente-Arizón, Santiago Guerra-Cantera, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Jesús Argente, Julie A Chowen
The search for new strategies and drugs to abate the current obesity epidemic has led to the intensification of research aimed at understanding the neuroendocrine control of appetite and energy expenditure. This intensified investigation of metabolic control has also included the study of how glial cells participate in this process. Glia, the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system, perform a wide spectrum of functions and are vital for the correct functioning of neurons and neuronal circuits...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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