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James Adams, Daniel P Howsmon, Uwe Kruger, Elizabeth Geis, Eva Gehn, Valeria Fimbres, Elena Pollard, Jessica Mitchell, Julie Ingram, Robert Hellmers, David Quig, Juergen Hahn
INTRODUCTION: A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. METHODS: In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field...
2017: PloS One
Koichi Okuda, Kenichi Nakajima, Shinro Matsuo, Chisato Kondo, Masayoshi Sarai, Yoriko Horiguchi, Takahiro Konishi, Masahisa Onoguchi, Takeshi Shimizu, Seigo Kinuya
BACKGROUND: Image acquisition by short-time single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) has been made feasible by IQ·SPECT. The aim of this study was to generate normal databases (NDBs) of thallium-201 ((201)Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging for IQ·SPECT, and characterize myocardial perfusion distribution. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively enrolled 159 patients with a low likelihood of cardiac diseases from four hospitals in Japan. All patients underwent short-time (201)Tl myocardial perfusion IQ·SPECT with or without attenuation and scatter correction (ACSC) in either supine or prone position...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Adrian Howansky, Boyu Peng, Anthony R Lubinsky, Wei Zhao
PURPOSE: Pulse height spectroscopy has been used by investigators to deduce the imaging properties of scintillators. Pulse height spectra (PHS) are used to compute the Swank factor, which describes the variation in scintillator light output per x-ray interaction. The spread in PHS measured below the K-edge is related to the optical component of the Swank factor, i.e. variations in light escape efficiency from different depths of x-ray interaction in the scintillator, denoted ɛ (z)Optimizing scintillators for medical imaging applications requires understanding of these optical properties, as they determine tradeoffs between parameters such as x-ray absorption, light yield, and spatial resolution...
December 31, 2016: Medical Physics
Kangkana Sarkar, Susanta Lahiri, Kamalika Sen
When radioisotopes are injected to human body, instantly free radicals are generated due to the interaction of ionizing radiation with water and fluids present in the body. The vehicle carrying radionuclides into human body should therefore be designed in a way which could also eliminate or reduce such possibilities. For the first time we have used free radical scavenger hesperidin, a polyphenolic compound having a benzo-γ-pyrone with a benzene ring moiety for extraction of no-carrier added (NCA) (200,203)Pb and (200,201,202)Tl...
December 18, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Masaru Ishihara, Yasuyo Taniguchi, Masahisa Onoguchi, Takayuki Shibutani
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the optimal thallium 201 chloride (thallium-201) dose using a novel ultrafast cardiac gamma camera with cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) solid-state semiconductor detectors (D-SPECT). METHODS AND RESULTS: The optimal thallium-201 dose for obtaining left ventricular (LV) myocardial counts was determined from a phantom study. Consecutive 292 patients underwent stress myocardial perfusion imaging with a thallium-201 injection. Stress test comprised exercise or pharmacological (adenosine) provocation...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Hongmao Sun, Ruili Huang, Menghang Xia, Sampada Shahane, Noel Southall, Yuhong Wang
Drug-induced QT prolongation leads to life-threatening cardiotoxicity, mostly through blockage of the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) encoded potassium ion (K(+) ) channels. The hERG channel is one of the most important antitargets to be addressed in the early stage of drug discovery process, in order to avoid more costly failures in the development phase. Using a thallium flux assay, 4,323 molecules were screened for hERG channel inhibition in a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format...
December 21, 2016: Molecular Informatics
Satoshi Kurisu, Yoji Sumimoto, Hiroki Ikenaga, Noriaki Watanabe, Ken Ishibashi, Yoshihiro Dohi, Yukihiro Fukuda, Yasuki Kihara
The myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography synchronized with the electrocardiogram (gated SPECT) has been widely used for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions using Quantitative gated SPECT. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-frame and 16-frame thallium-201 (Tl-201) gated SPECT for determining LV systolic and diastolic parameters. The study population included 42 patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent gated SPECT by clinical indication...
December 17, 2016: Heart and Vessels
S N Mantsevich
Thallium bromide iodide crystal also known as KRS-5 is the well known material used in far infrared radiation applications for optical windows and lenses fabrication. The main advantage of this material is the transparency in wide band of wavelengths from 0.53 to 50μm. Despite such advantages as transparency and large acousto-optic figure of merit values, KRS-5 is rarely used in acousto-optics. Nevertheless this material seems to be promising for far infrared acousto-optic applications. The acoustic and acousto-optic properties of KRS-5 needed for the full use in optoelectronics are not well understood to date...
March 2017: Ultrasonics
Catherine Nisse, Romuald Tagne-Fotso, Mike Howsam, Camille Richeval, Laurence Labat, Ariane Leroyer
BACKGROUND: The assessment of human chemical risks related to occupational or environmental exposure to pollutants requires the use of both accurate exposure indicators and reference values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the blood and urinary levels of various metals and metalloids in a sample of adults aged 20-59 years of the general population of Northern France, a formerly heavily industrialised area that retains some industrial activity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2008 and 2010, enrolling 2000 residents of Northern France...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Mamer S Rosario, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Akihiko Takeuchi, Shinji Miwa, Hiroyuki Inatani, Takashi Higuchi, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: Infected schwannoma has been reported, this being one of the four cases published in the literature. Infected schwannoma has proven to be a tough diagnostic challenge to the treating tumor surgeon, mimicking infectious entities and most essentially, a malignant tumor. CASE PRESENTATION: The authors report the case of a 64-year-old male with a soft tissue mass in his right gluteal area that presented initially with right leg pain, then later with signs of inflammation on the tumor area...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Francesco Sgarangella, Giuseppe Bitti, Maria Caterina Suelzu, Pietro Desini, Patrizia Piras, Gianuario Fiori, Maurizio Cossu, Giannina Chessa
OBJECTIVES: to assess concentration levels of dioxins, PCBs, and chemical elements in sheep milk produced in areas close to the Italian contaminated site (CS) located in the North-West of Sardinia (Southern Italy), named «Aree industriali di Porto Torres e discarica di Calancoi» (i.e., industrial areas of Porto Torres and landfill of Calancoi). DESIGN: monitoring plan of environmental contaminants on zootechnical productions based on analysis of dioxins, PCBs, heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb), and other elements (As, Be, Cr, Ni, Tl , Zn) in sheep bulk milk...
November 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Navneet Sharma, Himanshu Ojha, Dharam Pal Pathak, Rajeev Goel, Rakesh Kumar Sharma
AIMS: p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene loaded nanoemulsion has been designed, characterized and evaluated for skin decontamination of radionuclides of interest in nuclear and radiological emergencies. Further, nanoemulsion was evaluated for Ex-vivo complexation, skin permeation, interaction and cytodermal toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex-vivo skin complexation studies were conducted using High-resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICPMS)...
January 1, 2017: Life Sciences
Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard, Ahmad Zare Javid, Maryam Ravanbakhsh, Zahra Ramezani, Mehdi Ahmadi, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali, Shirin Ardeshirzadeh
Heavy metals with high bioaccumulation capacity are considered as important contaminants and may be available in high concentrations in environment and biota samples. The main aim of this study was to determine the concentration of nickel and thallium in Cynoglossus arel fish in Musa estuary. Sixty-seven fish samples were collected from Musa estuary during five intervals of 15 days in summer 2013. After biometric measurements, the concentrations of nickel and thallium were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer...
November 14, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lourdes Infantes, Rosa M Claramunt, Dionisia Sanz, Ibon Alkorta, José Elguero
The introduction of poly(1H-pyrazolyl)borate anions, better known as scorpionates, as negatively charged ligands for a great diversity of metal cations has had a tremendous influence in coordination chemistry. The structures of two salts of tetrakispyrazolylborate, namely [tetrakis(3-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)borato]thallium(I), [Tl(C36H28BN8)], and catena-poly[potassium-[μ2-tetrakis(3-cyclopropyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)borato]], [K(C24H28BN8)]n, have been determined at 296 K in the monoclinic P21/c and C2/c space groups, respectively...
November 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Eric R Sirianni, Daniel C Cummins, Glenn P A Yap, Klaus H Theopold
Scorpionate (or trispyrazolylborate) ligands have seen much structural variation due to the relative ease of modifying their electronic and steric effects. Second-generation scorpionates were created by increasing the bulk in the 3-position of the pyrazole (pz) ring. A new class of third-generation scorpionates was obtained by modifying the remaining boron substituent. A series of thallium(I) and cobalt(II) complexes of the ferrocenyltris(3-R-pyrazolyl)borate ligand [FcTp(R); R = isopropyl ((i)Pr) or tert-butyl ((t)Bu)] have been synthesized in order to expand the range of redox-active third-generation scorpionates...
November 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Kiyoshi Fujisawa, Masaya Shimizu, Robert K Szilagyi
Tris(pyrazolyl)borate (scorpionate) ligands can be considered as the most prolific ligands in contemporary coordination chemistry due to the availability of various steric and electronic substituents at the pyrazolyl rings that allow fine-tuning of the open-coordination site for metal centres. The thallium(I) complexes of anionic tridentate-chelating scorpionate ligands, namely [tris(3-mesityl-5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))hydroborato]thallium(I) monohydrate, [Tl(C39H46BN6)]·H2O, (I), and [bis(3-mesityl-5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))(5-mesityl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))hydroborato]thallium(I), [Tl(C39H46BN6)], (II), show a {Tl(I)N3} coordination, with average Tl(I)-N bond lengths of 2...
November 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Yang Du, Yaohu Lei, Xin Liu, Jianheng Huang, Zhigang Zhao, Jinchuan Guo, Ji Li, Hanben Niu
Grating interferometry is advantageous over conventional x-ray absorption imaging because it enables the detection of samples constituted by low atomic number elements (low-Z materials). Therefore, it has a potential application in biological science and medical diagnostics. The grating interferometry has some critical optics components such as absorption gratings which are conventionally manufactured by the lithography, electroplating, and molding (LIGA) technique and employing gold as the absorbent material in it...
December 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Prassana K Dadi, Nicholas Catin Vierra, Emily L Days, Matthew Dickerson, Paige N Vinson, C David Weaver, David A Jacobson
The two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channel TREK-2 serves to modulate plasma membrane potential in dorsal root ganglia c-fiber nociceptors, which tunes electrical excitability and nociception. Thus, TREK-2 activators are considered a potential therapeutic target for treating pain; however, there are currently no selective pharmacological tools for TREK-2 channels. Here we report the identification of the first TREK-2 selective activators using a high-throughput fluorescence-based thallium (Tl(+)) flux screen (HTS)...
November 2, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Xiaoliu Huangfu, Chengxue Ma, Jun Ma, Qiang He, Chun Yang, Jin Jiang, Yaan Wang, Zhengsong Wu
Thallium (Tl) is an element of high toxicity and significant accumulation in human body. There is an urgent need for the development of appropriate strategies for trace Tl removal in drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the efficiency and mechanism of trace Tl (0.5 μg/L) removal by conventional coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO2) were explored in simulated water and two representative surface waters (a river water and a reservoir water obtained from Northeast China). Experimental results showed that nMnO2 significantly improve Tl(I) removal from selected waters...
February 2017: Chemosphere
Bozena Karbowska
Thallium is released into the biosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources. It is generally present in the environment at low levels; however, human activity has greatly increased its content. Atmospheric emission and deposition from industrial sources have resulted in increased concentrations of thallium in the vicinity of mineral smelters and coal-burning facilities. Increased levels of thallium are found in vegetables, fruit and farm animals. Thallium is toxic even at very low concentrations and tends to accumulate in the environment once it enters the food chain...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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