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Gadolinium deposition

Ali Yusuf Öner, Berrak Barutcu, Şükrü Aykol, Emin Turgut Tali
OBJECTIVES: There have been recent studies evaluating brain magnetic resonance imaging changes in patients with normal renal function, after intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Their findings were supported by histological evidence as well and brought a new vision concerning what needs to be learned to provide better patient care. In this report, we aim to present brain magnetic resonance imaging changes after intrathecal administration of a linear ionic agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine)...
October 13, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Nandor K Pinter, Joshua P Klein, Laszlo L Mechtler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent research on gadolinium deposit formation in the brain linked to contrast-enhanced MRI studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Human and animal studies have confirmed the presence of gadolinium in the brain following the serial administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents. This is a relatively new and growing field of research primarily driven by concerns regarding unknown and potentially harmful side effects of gadolinium-based contrast agents...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Heonjae Jeong, Jun Woo Kim, Joonsuk Park, Jihwan An, Tonghun Lee, Fritz B Prinz, Joon Hyung Shim
Nickel and ruthenium bimetallic catalysts were heterogeneously synthesized via atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as the anode of direct methanol solid oxide fuel cells (DMSOFCs) operating in a low-temperature range. The presence of highly dispersed ALD Ru islands over a porous Ni mesh was confirmed and the Ni/ALD Ru anode microstructure was observed. Fuel cell tests were conducted using Ni-only and Ni/ALD Ru anodes with approximately 350-μm-thick gadolinium-doped ceria electrolytes and platinum cathodes...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zaw Aung Khant, Toshinori Hirai, Yoshihito Kadota, Rie Masuda, Takanori Yano, Minako Azuma, Yukiko Suzuki, Kuniyuki Tashiro
We report a 34-year-old male who manifested T1 shortening of the cerebral cortices after more than 86 contrast-enhanced MRI studies. We observed high-signal intensity (SI) on T1-weighted images (T1WIs) not only in the globus pallidus, dentate nucleus, and pulvinar of thalamus, but also in the cortices of the pre- and post-central gyri and around the calcarine sulcus. High SI in the cerebral cortices was not clearly demonstrated on T1WI scans performed 11 years earlier. The high SI we observed in these areas of the brain corresponded to areas with a normal iron-deposition predilection...
October 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Nozomu Murata, Kiyoko Murata, Luis F Gonzalez-Cuyar, Kenneth Maravilla
Until recognition of the association of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) and gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA) in 2006, these agents were considered extremely safe and without major adverse effects. Even after the recognition of NSF, most physicians considered all GBCAs to be safe when used in patients with normal renal function. This belief has been called into question with the discovery by Kanda in 2014 that Gd is deposited in brain tissue in patients with normal kidney function. Since that initial report, there have been a number of important studies analyzing the effects of various GBCAs in brain using MR T1 signal intensity measurements and postmortem tissue analyses with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
October 5, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Laura Fernández, Maxim Ilyn, Ana Magaña, Lucia Vitali, José Enrique Ortega, Frederik Schiller
A trigon structure formed by submonolayer gadolinium deposition onto Au(111) is revealed as a robust growth template for Co nanodot arrays. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism measurements evidence that the Co nanoislands behave as independent magnetic entities with an out-of-plane easy axis of anisotropy and enhanced magnetic anisotropy values, as compared to other self-organized Co nanodot superlattices. The large strain induced by the lattice mismatch at the interface between Co and trigons is discussed as the main reason for the increased magnetic anisotropy of the nanoislands...
September 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Michael F Tweedle
The methodology and published work aimed at speciation of gadolinium based contrast agents in tissues is reviewed. The discussion focusses on the context of Gd deposited long term in tissue following administration of the contrast agents. Detection of Gd without identification of the chemical form detected is simple and straight forward using a variety of methods. Determination of the chemical form of Gd detected is far more complex and most method require inherently imperfect extraction steps that can alter the Gd chemical species detected...
September 30, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Joana Ramalho, Miguel Ramalho, Michael Jay, Lauren Burke, Richard C Semelka
GBCAs play an important role in the diagnostic evaluation of many patients. The safety of these agents has been once again questioned after gadolinium deposits were observed and measured in brain and bone of patients with normal renal function. This retention of gadolinium in the human body has been termed "gadolinium storage condition". The long- term and cumulative effects of retained gadolinium in the brain and elsewhere are not as yet understood. Recently, patients who report that they suffer from chronic symptoms secondary to gadolinium exposure and retention created gadolinium-toxicity on-line support groups...
September 27, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Joana Ramalho, Miguel Ramalho, Mamdoh AlObaidy, Richard C Semelka
Over the last 2years several studies have been published regarding gadolinium deposition in brain structures in patients with normal renal function after repeated administrations of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Most of the publications are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based retrospective studies, where gadolinium deposition may be indirectly measured by evaluating changes in T1 signal intensity (SI) in brain tissue, particularly in the dentate nucleus (DN) and/or globus pallidi (GP). The direct correlation between T1 signal changes and gadolinium deposition was validated by human pathology studies...
September 27, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Philipp Eisele, Angelika Alonso, Kristina Szabo, Anne Ebert, Melissa Ong, Stefan O Schoenberg, Achim Gass
Recently, several studies reported increased signal intensity (SI) in the dentate nucleus (DN) after repeated application of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), suggesting a deposition of gadolinium in this location. Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) frequently show increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier as part of the inflammatory process in the brain parenchyma, which theoretically might increase the risk of gadolinium deposition. In this retrospective study, we investigated a possible increasing SI in the DN after repeated administrations of the macrocyclic contrast agent gadoterate meglumine...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ludwig Schlemm, Claudia Chien, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Jan Dörr, Jens Wuerfel, Alexander U Brandt, Friedemann Paul, Michael Scheel
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have postulated an association between dentate nucleus T1 hyperintensity and multiple sclerosis (MS)-related progressive neurodegeneration. Therefore, MS patients have been excluded from most studies investigating brain deposition of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). OBJECTIVE: To study the hypothesis that dentate nucleus T1 hyperintensity in MS patients is associated with GBCA administration. METHODS: In a cohort of 97 MS patients, the dentate-to-pons signal intensity ratio (DPSIR) was calculated for 265 consecutive T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) scans (including sessions with and without the administration of GBCA)...
September 27, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Takuya Hinoda, Yasutaka Fushimi, Tomohisa Okada, Yoshiki Arakawa, Chunlei Liu, Akira Yamamoto, Tsutomu Okada, Kazumichi Yoshida, Susumu Miyamoto, Kaori Togashi
PURPOSE: Gadolinium deposition in dentate nucleus (DN) has been reported after serial administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Gadolinium complexes have paramagnetic properties; therefore, we evaluated susceptibility changes of gadolinium deposition in DN using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) for patients after serial administration of GBCAs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 48 patients with brain tumors, who had had serial GBCA administrations (GBCA group), and 48 healthy volunteers without any history of GBCA administrations (non-GBCA group) were enrolled in this study...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Alexander Radbruch
In December 2013, a groundbreaking study by Kanda et al. was published showing that the serial injection of gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCAs) is correlated with a signal intensity increase in the dentate nucleus (DN) and the globus pallidus (GP) on unenhanced T1 weighted MR images. Subsequent studies by Kanda et al. and McDonald et al. on brain tissue from deceased patients provided evidence that the reported signal intensity increase in the brain correlates with gadolinium deposits in the brain tissue...
September 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Houchun H Hu, Amber L Pokorney, Niccolo Stefani, Jonathan M Chia, Jeffrey H Miller
OBJECTIVE: We demonstrate the potential clinical utility of a 4D non-gadolinium dynamic angiography technique based on arterial spin-labeling called contrast inherent inflow enhanced multi-phase angiography (CINEMA) in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CINEMA was qualitatively compared to conventional time-of-flight (TOF) angiography in a cohort of 31 pediatric patients at 3 Tesla. RESULTS: CINEMA data were successfully acquired and reconstructed in all patients with no image artifacts...
September 13, 2016: Magma
Tomonori Kanda, Yudai Nakai, Hiroshi Oba, Keiko Toyoda, Kazuhiro Kitajima, Shigeru Furui
Gadolinium is highly toxic. Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) consist of gadolinium ions and a chelating agent that binds the gadolinium ion tightly in order not to manifest its toxicity. Knowledge regarding gadolinium deposition in patients with normal renal function has advanced dramatically. Since 2014, increasing attention has been given to residual gadolinium known to accumulate in the tissues of patients with normal renal function. High signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) in the dentate nucleus, globus pallidus, and pulvinar region of the thalamus correlate roughly with the number of previous GBCA administrations...
September 7, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
John P Prybylski, Erin Maxwell, Carla Coste-Sanchez, Michael Jay
The recent discovery of gadolinium (Gd) deposition in the brains of patients receiving Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) raises several important questions including by what mechanism Gd or GBCAs pass through the blood-brain barrier. Decades of research focused on the safety and stability of GBCAs have not identified any mechanism of uptake. Here we review findings of Gd deposition from human and animal data, and how distribution mechanisms elucidated for endogenous and toxic metals may explain entrance of Gd into the central nervous system...
August 28, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
David L Narotsky, Adam Castano, Jonathan W Weinsaft, Sabahat Bokhari, Mathew S Maurer
Amyloidosis is caused by extracellular deposition of abnormal protein fibrils, resulting in destruction of tissue architecture and impairment of organ function. The most common forms of systemic amyloidosis are light-chain and transthyretin-related (ATTR). ATTR can result from an autosomal dominant hereditary transmission of mutated genes in the transthyretin or from a wild-type form of disease (ATTRwt), previously known as senile cardiac amyloidosis. With the aging of the worldwide population, ATTRwt will emerge as the most common type of cardiac amyloidosis that clinicians encounter...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
John P Prybylski, Richard C Semelka, Michael Jay
Gadolinium (Gd) and Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been observed to deposit in tissues of patients following multiple contrast enhanced MR imaging procedures. A conservative approach for chelation therapy of this toxic metal dictates the assumption that minimal intact GBCAs is present. Currently the extent to which these deposits are primarily de-chelated Gd remains uncertain, prevailing knowledge suggest that for linear agents much of the Gd is de-chelated, while for the macrocyclic agents, the Gd may be still largely chelated...
August 12, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Julio Urrutia, Oscar Contreras
PURPOSE: Calcific tendinitis is a frequent disorder caused by hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; however, bone erosions from calcific tendinitis are unusual. The spinal manifestation of this disease is calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle; this disease has never been described in the posterior aspect of the spine. We report a case of calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition involving the posterior cervical spine eroding the bone cortex. METHODS: A 57-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of left-sided neck pain...
August 4, 2016: European Spine Journal
D R Roberts, A R Chatterjee, M Yazdani, B Marebwa, T Brown, H Collins, G Bolles, J M Jenrette, P J Nietert, X Zhu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: While there have been recent reports of brain retention of gadolinium following gadolinium-based contrast agent administration in adults, a retrospective series of pediatric patients has not previously been reported, to our knowledge. We investigated the relationship between the number of prior gadolinium-based contrast agent doses and increasing T1 signal in the dentate nucleus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. We hypothesized that despite differences in pediatric physiology and the smaller gadolinium-based contrast agent doses that pediatric patients are typically administered based on weighted-adjusted dosing, the pediatric brain would also demonstrate dose-dependent increasing T1 signal in the dentate nucleus...
July 28, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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