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Non-motor parkinson's disease

Jaweed Haqparwar, Antonio Pepe, Klaus Fassbender, Ulrich Dillmann, Samer Ezziddin, Andrea Schaefer, Daniela Leppert, Jörg Spiegel
INTRODUCTION: Alpha-synuclein pathology (ASP) is a characteristic histopathological finding in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The ASP involves not only the brain but also extracranial structures. In the present study we utilized MIBG scintigraphy to measure the sympathetic innervation of the major salivary glands. We were interested in whether MIBG uptake in the major salivary glands represents a potential biomarker for ASP in PD. METHODS: We investigated 77 PD patients (age 61 ± 10 years, mean ± SD), while 15 non-PD patients (age 58 ± 15 years) with arterial hypertension, who underwent MIBG scintigraphy to exclude pheochromocytoma, served as age-matched controls...
October 15, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Julie M Hall, Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Courtney C Walton, Claire O'Callaghan, Peter E Keller, Simon J G Lewis, Ahmed A Moustafa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous neurological disorder with a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms. The underlying mechanisms of these symptoms are not fully understood. An increased interest in structural connectivity analyses using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in PD has led to an expansion of our understanding of the impact of abnormalities in diffusivity on phenotype. This review outlines the contribution of these abnormalities to symptoms of PD including bradykinesia, tremor and non-tremor phenotypes, freezing of gait, cognitive impairment, mood, sleep disturbances, visual hallucinations and olfactory dysfunction...
September 28, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Hélio A G Teive, Délcio C Bertucci, Renato P Munhoz
Objective: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may present with unusual motor and non-motor symptoms and signs in the early stage of the disease. Methods: Cases were collected over a five-year period at two tertiary movement disorders clinics. All had a diagnosis of PD with unusual presentations defined retrospectively as the presence of complaints not objectively related to any of the classic cardinal signs of parkinsonism or the typical early non-motor features of PD...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Elisa Straulino, Tomaso Scaravilli, Maria Bulgheroni, Enrico D'Amico, Umberto Castiello
Increasing evidence suggests that a dysfunctional dopaminergic system affects the ability to socially interact. Since Parkinson's disease (PD) provides a model for assessing dopaminergic dysfunctions in humans, our study was designed to investigate social interactions in PD patients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (Levodopa = l-Dopa) and in neurologically healthy controls. We focused on the kinematics of one action, reaching to grasp a wooden block, which was performed within the context of two basic modes of social cognition, namely cooperation and competition...
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Cinzia Nasuti, Gloria Brunori, Piera Eusepi, Lisa Marinelli, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Rosita Gabbianelli
INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein changes, mitochondrial complex I defects and dopamine loss, observed in the striatum of rats exposed to the pesticide permethrin in early life, could represent neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, an animal model of PD should also fulfill criteria of face and predictive validities. This study was designed to: 1) verify dopaminergic status in the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta; 2) recognize non-motor symptoms; 3) investigate the time-course development of motor disabilities; 4) assess L-Dopa effectiveness on motor symptoms in rats previously exposed to permethrin in early life...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Xiaojuan Dan, Chaodong Wang, Jinglin Zhang, Zhuqin Gu, Yongtao Zhou, Jinghong Ma, Piu Chan
INTRODUCTION: Prediction of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remains challenging. We investigated whether the common susceptible genetic variants for PD are associated with the risk and improves prediction of development of depression in PD (dPD). METHODS: 1134 individuals with a primary diagnosis of PD were recruited. Demographic information, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) were obtained...
September 29, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Harald H Sitte, Christian Pifl, Ali H Rajput, Heide Hörtnagl, Junchao Tong, George K Lloyd, Stephen J Kish, Oleh Hornykiewicz
In the human brain, the claustrum is a small subcortical telencephalic nucleus, situated between the insular cortex and the putamen. A plethora of neuroanatomical studies have shown the existence of dense, widespread, bidirectional and bilateral monosynaptic interconnections between the claustrum and most cortical areas. A rapidly growing body of experimental evidence points to the integrative role of claustrum in complex brain functions, from motor to cognitive. Here, we examined for the first time, the behaviour of the classical monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in the claustrum of the normal autopsied human brain and of patients who died with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD)...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
A A Timofeeva, I I Belozertseva
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease that restricts activities of daily living. The prevalence of PD and inevitable disability show the importance of medical/social expertise (MSE) in the system of care for PD patients. Currently, the MSE is based on the Hoehn and Yahr scale that indicates the prevalence of disease but does not evaluate the severity of symptoms. To assess restrictions of activities of daily living, one should consider non-motor symptoms of PD, movement fluctuations and dyskinesia, the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological treatment, the use of invasive treatment methods (deep brain stimulation, intrajejunal introduction of duodopa)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
L Wu, N Mu, F Yang, J Zang, J-P Zheng
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine characteristics of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in early Parkinson's disease (PD) with olfactory deficits and to analyze the feasibility of diagnosing PD based on olfactory deficits. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 62 patients without olfactory deficits in early PD (PD group), 58 patients with olfactory deficits in early PD (olfactory deficits group) and 60 healthy examined people (control group) were selected successively. RESULTS: It was found that there was no statistical significance in the difference in ages and courses of disease among the three groups (p > 0...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Seena Vengalil, J B Agadi, K Raghavendra
BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction is a predominant non - motor symptom in patients with Parkinson's disease. Indian studies on olfactory loss using standardized kits are lacking. OBJECTIVE: 1) To assess the olfactory impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease 2) To verify the applicability of UPSIT to Indian subjects 3) To assess the correlation between olfactory dysfunction and duration, stage and severity of the illness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with Parkinson's disease attending Neurology outpatient and inpatient departments were taken for the study...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Fernanda F Peres, Raquel Levin, Mayra A Suiama, Mariana C Diana, Douglas A Gouvêa, Valéria Almeida, Camila M Santos, Lisandro Lungato, Antônio W Zuardi, Jaime E C Hallak, José A Crippa, D'Almeida Vânia, Regina H Silva, Vanessa C Abílio
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that presents antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In Parkinson's disease patients, CBD is able to attenuate the psychotic symptoms induced by L-DOPA and to improve quality of life. Repeated administration of reserpine in rodents induces motor impairments that are accompanied by cognitive deficits, and has been applied to model both tardive dyskinesia and Parkinson's disease. The present study investigated whether CBD administration would attenuate reserpine-induced motor and cognitive impairments in rats...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
K Rosqvist, P Hagell, P Odin, H Ekström, S Iwarsson, M H Nilsson
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with life satisfaction (LS) in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), including a specific focus on those with late-stage PD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 251 persons with PD (median age 70 years; PD duration 8 years). Analyses involved the total sample and a subsample with late-stage PD, that is Hoehn and Yahr stages IV and V (n=62). LS was assessed with item 1 of the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11)...
October 10, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Ken Ikeda, Takehisa Hirayama, Takanori Takazawa, Kiyokazu Kawabe, Yasuo Iwasaki
Objective Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Rotigotine is a non-ergot dopamine receptor agonist (DA). Its transdermal patch maintains the effective concentrations for 24 hours. Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and devastating symptom in PD patients. Little is known about therapeutic effects of rotigotine on FOG in PD patients. Herein we compared how three non-ergot DAs of rotigotine, pramipexole LA and ropinirole CR influence FOG, besides classical motor deficits in PD patients...
2016: Internal Medicine
G N Tayupova, A R Saitgareeva, A R Baitimerov, O S Levin
This review presents the results of studies investigating the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TKMS) on motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). It has been found that TKMS reduces the severity of both motor and non-motor disorders without causing serious side-effects. Magnetic field therapy can be combined with pharmacological and non-drug therapies, including the use of dopaminergic therapy, antidepressants and anti-dementia drugs, as well as stereotactic operations. It is necessary to continue the study of the influence of TKMS on the severity of PD symptoms using different electromagnetic characteristics...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
O A Gan'kina, E E Vasenina, O S Levin, E Yu Fedotova, S N Illarioshkin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. Literature sources indicate the association of PD and mutations in the glucocerebrosidase A (GBA) gene. According to our study, the frequency of the two most common mutations in the GBA gene, N370S and L444P, is 1.85%. Mutation carriers have slower progression of motor symptoms, but are more likely to develop drug-induced motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. In carriers of GBA mutations, the severity of cognitive impairment corresponds to age-matched patients without mutations...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
O V Babkina, M G Poluektov, O S Levin
For the recent years, a special attention is given to the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, including sleep/wake disorders representing one of the leading symptoms. Daytime sleepiness occurs in 30-55% of patients depending on duration and stage of the disease, leading to severe maladjustment. This symptom seems to be multifactorial by nature and identification of it's causes could have a great importance for the therapy. The main factors of the development of daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease and key points of the pathogenesis of «primary» daytime sleepiness are discussed...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Andrea Lee, Rebecca M Gilbert
Parkinson disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative condition, causing both motor and non motor symptoms. Motor symptoms include stiffness, slowness, rest tremor and poor postural reflexes, whereas nonmotor symptoms include abnormalities of mood, cognition, sleep and autonomic function. Affected patients show cell loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein into intracellular structures called Lewy bodies, within specific brain regions. The main known non modifiable risk factor is age...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Zsófia Majláth, Izabella Obál, László Vécsei
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with prominent motor and non-motor symptoms. Psychosis develops in over 40% of PD patients and it is one of the most distressing symptoms for patients and caregivers alike. Until recently, atypical antipsychotics, clozapine and quetiapine were used to treat psychotic symptoms, but treatment was associated with substantial concerns for side-effects of clozapine and unfounded efficacy for quetiapine. Extensive research has shown that the antipsychotic effect of these drugs could be attributed to serotonin 2a receptor (5 HT2a) triggered mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Richard B Dewey, Padraig E O'Suilleabhain, Manjit Sanghera, Neepa Patel, Pravin Khemani, Laura H Lacritz, Shilpa Chitnis, Louis A Whitworth, Richard B Dewey
OBJECTIVE: To develop a process to improve patient outcomes from deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for Parkinson disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), and dystonia. METHODS: We employed standard quality improvement methodology using the Plan-Do-Study-Act process to improve patient selection, surgical DBS lead implantation, postoperative programming, and ongoing assessment of patient outcomes. RESULTS: The result of this quality improvement process was the development of a neuromodulation network...
2016: PloS One
C Duchesne, F Gheysen, A Bore, G Albouy, A Nadeau, M E Robillard, F Bobeuf, A L Lafontaine, O Lungu, L Bherer, J Doyon
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise training (AET) has been shown to provide general health benefits, and to improve motor behaviours in particular, in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the influence of AET on their motor learning capacities, as well as the change in neural substrates mediating this effect remains to be explored. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we employed functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to assess the effect of a 3-month AET program on the neural correlates of implicit motor sequence learning (MSL)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
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