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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717430/knowledge-attitude-and-practices-among-iranian-neurologists-toward-evidence-based-medicine
#1
Kaveh Shafiei, Fatemeh Sedaghati
Background: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a current practice in medicine to produce clinical practice guidelines from well-designed, randomized, controlled trials. We studied knowledge, attitude, and practice of EBM of neurologists who participated in the Iranian congress of neurology. Methods: A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed and filled by neurologists. Results: A total of 200 neurologists were randomly sampled and with response rate of 56%. 33.9% of responder had previously participated in EBM courses...
January 5, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716123/differentiating-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-express-markers-of-human-endometrium
#2
P Parasar, C R Sacha, N Ng, E R McGuirk, S Chinthala, P Ozcan, J Lindsey, S Salas, M R Laufer, S A Missmer, R M Anchan
BACKGROUND: Modeling early endometrial differentiation is a crucial step towards understanding the divergent pathways between normal and ectopic endometrial development as seen in endometriosis. METHODS: To investigate these pathways, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and embryoid bodies (EBs) were differentiated in standard EB medium (EBM). Immunofluorescence (IF) staining and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect expression of human endometrial cell markers on differentiating cells, which were sorted into distinct populations using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)...
July 17, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710209/does-a-one-day-workshop-improve-clinical-faculty-s-comfort-and-behaviour-in-practising-and-teaching-evidence-based-medicine-a-canadian-mixed-methods-study
#3
David Allen, Jacques Abourbih, Marion Maar, Lisa Boesch, James Goertzen, Catherine Cervin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a 1-day evidence-based medicine (EBM) workshop on physician attitudes and behaviours around teaching and practicing EBM. DESIGN: A mixed methods study using a before/after cohort. SETTING: A medical school delivering continuing professional development to 1250 clinical faculty over a large geographic area in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 105 physician clinical faculty members...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709625/the-cost-of-intraoperative-adverse-events-in-abdominal-and-pelvic-surgery-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
A Garbens, M Goldenberg, C J D Wallis, A Tricco, T P Grantcharov
BACKGROUND: The assessment of intra-operative adverse events (iAEs) is a vastly under researched area with the potential to provide new methods on how to improve patient outcomes and hospital costs. Our objective was to determine the relationship between iAEs and total hospital costs in abdominal and pelvic surgery. DATA SOURCES: We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) framework. Embase, MEDLINE and EBM Reviews online databases were searched to identify all studies that reported iAE rates and total hospital costs...
July 8, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701105/the-use-of-evidence-during-group-meetings-of-dutch-general-practitioners
#5
Bastiaan P H Ter Brugge, Marie-Louise E L Bartelink, Roger A M J Damoiseaux, Esther de Groot
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: For Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) learning journal clubs are recommended, but these are not common practice. How participants discuss and learn about applying evidence in other group meetings is unknown. We examined different types of group meetings and explored the use of, and discussions about, clinical research evidence. METHODS: A mixed-methods study design was adopted. After distribution and analysis of a questionnaire about types of group meetings, interviews were conducted to better understand the most frequently occurring type...
July 12, 2017: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676936/evaluating-the-uk-house-of-commons-science-and-technology-committee-s-position-on-the-implausible-effectiveness-of-homeopathic-treatments
#6
Andrew Turner
In 2009, the UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee (STC) conducted an 'evidence check' on homeopathy to evaluate evidence for its effectiveness. In common with the wider literature critical of homeopathy, the STC report seems to endorse many of the strong claims that are made about its implausibility. In contrast with the critical literature, however, the STC report explicitly does not place any weight on implausibility in its evaluation. I use the contrasting positions of the STC and the wider critical literature to examine the 'implausibility arguments' against homeopathy and the place of such arguments within evidence-based medicine (EBM)...
July 4, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675422/reviving-cochrane-s-contribution-to-evidence-based-medicine-bridging-the-gap-between-evidence-of-efficacy-and-evidence-of-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness
#7
Jack E James
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been widely adopted as the main means for transforming medical practice informed by individual practitioner experience to that informed by science. Yet, as a movement for comprehensive change, EBM has not been as transformative as had been widely anticipated. Evidence of clinical efficacy is often organized hierarchically with the randomized controlled trial located towards the apex of an imaginary pyramid. This familiar hierarchy of evidence in medical education, practice, and science serves to guide evaluations of the internal validity of randomized controlled trials, thereby establishing the "efficacy" of clinical interventions...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671061/the-10-d-assessment-and-evidence-based-medicine-tool-for-authors-and-peer-reviewers-in-clinical-pharmacology%C3%A2
#8
Barry Woodcock, Sebastian Harder
BACKGROUND: Peer reviewers and authors of clinical pharmacology manuscripts need to meet the standards for Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Good Publication Practices (GPP), and editors of clinical pharmacology journals have to maintain an overview of the peer review process. METHODS AND RESULTS: The peer review process can be monitored and facilitated using the 10-D assessment, which comprises peer review criteria to determine if: 1. design of the study, 2. diagnoses employed, 3...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667449/patient-preferences-a-trojan-horse-for-evidence-based-medicine
#9
Afschin Gandjour
The evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement has long acknowledged the relevance of patient preferences and values. According to EBM, clinicians first clarify the medical evidence about the benefits and burdens of the treatment in question and then, as a second step, elicit values and preferences from patients. Importantly, however, values are placed on patient-relevant outcomes. Surrogate endpoints are only used if their validity is proven. This article shows that some recent patient-preference studies attribute value to surrogate endpoints even when there is no improvement in patient-relevant outcomes...
June 30, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626510/multispecialty-rating-of-evidence-based-conditions-for-intravenous-immunoglobulin-therapy-using-a-3-axis-prioritization-algorithm
#10
Jordan S Orange, Matt Johnson, Barb Lennert, Katarzyna Shields, Michael Eaddy
BACKGROUND: A 3-axis prioritization algorithm was proposed and was evaluated in a US multispecialist pilot study to obtain uniform consensus regarding effective practices for the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to use consensus-building methodologies to rate disease states for IVIG utilization while considering disease severity and the efficacy of alternative therapeutic options to IVIG from the perspective of US multispecialists...
May 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625845/injury-and-defective-regeneration-of-the-epithelial-basement-membrane-in-corneal-fibrosis-a-paradigm-for-fibrosis-in-other-organs
#11
REVIEW
Steven E Wilson, Gustavo K Marino, Andre A M Torricelli, Carla S Medeiros
Myofibroblast-mediated fibrosis is important in the pathophysiology of diseases in most organs. The cornea, the transparent anterior wall of the eye that functions to focus light on the retina, is commonly affected by fibrosis and provides an optimal model due to its simplicity and accessibility. Severe injuries to the cornea, including infection, surgery, and trauma, may trigger the development of myofibroblasts and fibrosis in the normally transparent connective tissue stroma. Ultrastructural studies have demonstrated that defective epithelial basement membrane (EBM) regeneration after injury underlies the development of myofibroblasts from both bone marrow- and keratocyte-derived precursor cells in the cornea...
June 15, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623905/educational-standards-for-training-paramedics-in-ultrasound-a-scoping-review
#12
Ben Meadley, Alexander Olaussen, Ashleigh Delorenzo, Nick Roder, Caroline Martin, Toby St Clair, Andrew Burns, Emma Stam, Brett Williams
BACKGROUND: Paramedic-performed out-of-hospital ultrasound is a novel skill that has gained popularity in some services in recent years. In this setting point-of care ultrasound (POCUS) can provide additional information that can assist with management and guide transport to the most appropriate facility. We sought to explore the different educational approaches used for training paramedics in ultrasound in the out-of-hospital setting. METHODS: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL plus, The Monash University Research Repository and the British Thesis Library were searched from the 1(st) of January 1990 to the 6(th) of April 2016...
June 17, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613055/-comparison-of-adaptation-and-microstructure-of-titanium-upper-complete-denture-base-fabricated-by-selecting-laser-melting-and-electron-beam-melting
#13
Y Ye, Y Y Xiong, J R Zhu, J Sun
Objective: To fabricate Ti alloy frameworks for a maxillary complete denture with three-dimensional printing (3DP) technique, such as selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM), and to evaluate the microstructure of these frameworks and their adaptation to the die stone models. Methods: Thirty pairs of edentulous casts were divided into 3 groups randomly and equally. In each group, one of the three techniques (SLM, EBM, conventional technique) was used to fabricate Ti alloy frameworks. The base-cast sets were transversally sectioned into 3 sections at the distal of canines, mesial of first molars, and the posterior palatal zone...
June 9, 2017: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612326/protecting-aquatic-biodiversity-in-europe-how-much-do-eu-environmental-policies-support-ecosystem-based-management
#14
Josselin Rouillard, Manuel Lago, Katrina Abhold, Lina Röschel, Terri Kafyeke, Verena Mattheiß, Helen Klimmek
The sustainable management of aquatic ecosystems requires better coordination between policies span-ning freshwater, coastal and marine environments. Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has been promoted as a holistic and integrative approach for the safekeeping and protection of aquatic biodiversity. The paper assesses the degree to which key European environmental policies for the aquatic environment, namely the Birds and Habitats Directives, Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive, individually support EBM and can work synergistically to implement EBM...
June 13, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603716/optimizing-nutrition-in-preterm-low-birth-weight-infants-consensus-summary
#15
REVIEW
R Kishore Kumar, Atul Singhal, Umesh Vaidya, Saswata Banerjee, Fahmina Anwar, Shashidhar Rao
Preterm birth survivors are at a higher risk of growth and developmental disabilities compared to their term counterparts. Development of strategies to lower the complications of preterm birth forms the rising need of the hour. Appropriate nutrition is essential for the growth and development of preterm infants. Early administration of optimal nutrition to preterm birth survivors lowers the risk of adverse health outcomes and improves cognition in adulthood. A group of neonatologists, pediatricians, and nutrition experts convened to discuss and frame evidence-based recommendations for optimizing nutrition in preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601314/surgical-informed-consent-in-children-a-systematic-review
#16
Pranit N Chotai, Richard Nollan, Eunice Y Huang, Ankush Gosain
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the article was to analyze current literature on surgeon and parents' understanding and role in the informed consent process for children undergoing surgery. METHODS: A systematic database search (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and EBM Reviews) was performed to identify articles concerning any aspect of the surgical informed consent for children undergoing an invasive procedure. Articles analyzing informed consent in research studies, non-English-language articles, review articles, case reports and/or series, letters-commentaries, and dentistry and/or nursing-related articles were excluded...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588366/neurocognitive-effect-of-nootropic-drug-brahmi-bacopa-monnieri-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Kaustubh S Chaudhari, Nishant R Tiwari, Rakesh R Tiwari, Rohan S Sharma
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the elderly. The rapid increase in its incidence has necessitated development of newer drugs. Ayurvedic herbal medications are increasingly researched due to their biosafety profile and usefulness in cognitive impairment. In this article, we critically reviewed one such Medhya Rasayana (nootropic drug) Brahmi-derived from extract of Bacopa monnieri (EBm). Studies have shown that EBm promotes free radical scavenger mechanisms and protects cells in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum against cytotoxicity and DNA damage implicated in AD...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588145/ecosystem-based-management-and-the-wealth-of-ecosystems
#18
Seong Do Yun, Barbara Hutniczak, Joshua K Abbott, Eli P Fenichel
We merge inclusive wealth theory with ecosystem-based management (EBM) to address two challenges in the science of sustainable management of ecosystems. First, we generalize natural capital theory to approximate realized shadow prices for multiple interacting natural capital stocks (species) making up an ecosystem. These prices enable ecosystem components to be better included in wealth-based sustainability measures. We show that ecosystems are best envisioned as portfolios of assets, where the portfolio's performance depends on the performance of the underlying assets influenced by their interactions...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584214/study-on-language-rehabilitation-for-aphasia
#19
REVIEW
Zeng-Zhi Yu, Shu-Jun Jiang, Zi-Shan Jia, Hong-Yu Xiao, Mei-Qi Zhou
OBJECTIVE: The aim is to update our clinical recommendations for evidence-based language rehabilitation of people with aphasia, based on a systematic review of the literature from 1999 to 2015. DATA SOURCES: Articles referred to in this systematic review of the Medline and PubMed published in English language literatures were from 1998 to 2015. The terms used in the literature searches were aphasia and evidenced-based. STUDY SELECTION: The task force initially identified citations for 51 published articles...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569191/the-strategic-framework-of-tuberculosis-control-and-prevention-in-the-elderly-a-scoping-review-towards-end-tb-targets
#20
REVIEW
Jun Li, Pui-Hong Chung, Cyrus L K Leung, Nobuyuki Nishikiori, Emily Y Y Chan, Eng-Kiong Yeoh
With the rapid pace of population ageing, tuberculosis (TB) in the elderly increasingly becomes a public health challenge. Despite the increasing burden and high risks for TB in the elderly, targeted strategy has not been well understood and evaluated. We undertook a scoping review to identify current TB strategies, research and policy gaps in the elderly and summarized the results within a strategic framework towards End TB targets. Databases of Embase, MEDLINE, Global health and EBM reviews were searched for original studies, review articles, and policy papers published in English between January 1990 and December 2015...
June 1, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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