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Over the counter drugs

Tian-Ru Jin
Numerous natural products available over the counter are commonly consumed by healthy, sub-healthy or ill people for the treatment and prevention of various chronic diseases. Among them, a few dietary polyphenols, including the curry compound curcumin, have been attracting the most attention from biomedical researchers and drug developers. Unlike many so-called "good drug candidates", curcumin and several other dietary polyphenols do not have a single known therapeutic target or defined receptor. In addition, the bioavailability of these polyphenols is usually very low due to their poor absorption in the gut...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Rachel R Horsley, Tomáš Páleníček, Jan Kolin, Karel Valeš
Short-term moderate doses of serotonergic and dissociative hallucinogens can be useful in the treatment of anxiety. Recently, a trend has developed for long-term intermittent 'microdosing' (usually one-tenth of a 'full' active dose), with reports of long-lasting relief from anxiety and related disorders; however, there is no scientific evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic microdosing nor to show its lasting effects. The objective of this study was to test for lasting effects on anxiety in rats after microdosing with ketamine or psilocin...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Toye Gabriel Olajide, Kayode Shuaib Aremu, Olaide T Esan, Adepeju Oluwatona Dosunmu, Mustapha Muhammad Raji
Background: Self-medication is a common habit in our country; Nigeria, especially among patients with otorhinolaryngological disorders. Medication when taken wrongly may bring dire consequences to the individual, such as masking developing diseases and may cause many other undesirable effects. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and to analyze topical ear drop self-medication practices among respondents attending the Ear, Nose, and Throat Clinic of Federal Teaching Hospital Ido Ekiti, Nigeria...
April 2018: Annals of African Medicine
Brad Wright, Samantha Mestan, Monica Ahrens, Edward Bottei
OBJECTIVE: To describe current trends in nonopioid substance exposures and associated outcomes among teenagers nationwide. STUDY DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, we used 2010-2015 data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System and Poisson tests to document trends in the rate of calls to poison control centers involving adolescents stratified by sex, exposures by substance category, proportion of intentional exposures, and severity of exposures...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Rebecca Thomson, Boniface Johanes, Charles Festo, Admirabilis Kalolella, Mark Taylor, Sarah Tougher, Yazoume Ye, Andrea Mann, Ruilin Ren, Katia Bruxvoort, Barbara Willey, Fred Arnold, Kara Hanson, Catherine Goodman
BACKGROUND: Since 2003 Tanzania has upgraded its approximately 7000 drug stores to Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs), involving dispenser training, introduction of record keeping and enhanced regulation. Prior to accreditation, drug stores could officially stock over-the-counter medicines only, though many stocked prescription-only antimalarials. ADDOs are permitted to stock 49 prescription-only medicines, including artemisinin combination therapies and one form of quinine injectable...
March 9, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Mark W Niedfeldt
Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone shown to increase muscle size and strength. Chemical substitutions on the testosterone molecule cause increased potency and duration of action. The 17-α-alkylation modification allows steroids to be taken orally, but the slower clearance in the liver makes them more hepatotoxic. The frequency and severity of side effects depends on several factors including the formulation of the drug, route of administration, dosage, duration of use, and individual sensitivity and response...
March 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Sissel Kramer Aagaard, Agnete Larsen, Mette Findal Andreasen, Iana Lesnikova, Rasmus Telving, Anna Louise Vestergaard, Niels Tørring, Niels Uldbjerg, Pinar Bor
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xenobiotic substances, such as caffeine, nicotine and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis and cocaine), in blood samples from first-trimester Danish pregnant women unaware of the screening. DESIGN: A cross - sectional study examined 436 anonymised residual blood samples obtained during 2014 as part of the nationwide prenatal first-trimester screening programme. The samples were analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
March 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Oded Langer
Controversies persist over the most efficacious pharmacologic treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus. For purposes of accuracy in this article, the individual American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Practice Bulletin and American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care positions on each issue are quoted and then deliberated with evidence of counter claims presented in point/counterpoint. This is a review of all the relevant evidence for the most holistic picture possible. The main issues are (1) which diabetic drugs cross the placenta, (2) the quality of evidence and data source validity, (3) the rationale for the designation of glucose control as the primary outcome in gestational diabetes mellitus, and (4) which drugs (metformin, glyburide, or insulin) are most effective in improving secondary outcomes...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Maria Mulka-Gierek, Bartosz Foroncewicz, Leszek Pączek, Elżbieta Wawiórko, Joanna Kamińska, Maciej Kosieradzki, Piotr Małkowski, Bianka Małczuk, Sławomir Nazarewski, Krzysztof Mucha
BACKGROUND Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics are the most commonly used drugs and are increasingly available over-the-counter (OTC). In certain groups of patients, including kidney transplant recipients, their use may be complicated by adverse effects or drug interactions. The aim of our study was to assess the causes and frequency of OTC NSAIDs or analgesics use, as well as the awareness of related side effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 94 randomly selected kidney transplant recipients, who represented 5% of all kidney transplant recipients at our center...
March 2, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Tessa Kelly, Kelly M Conn, Matthew Zak
OBJECTIVES: Objectives of this study were to 1) assess and compare knowledge and literacy of over-the-counter (OTC) medications among middle and high students and 2) to assess student self-identified lack of knowledge regarding OTC medications. METHODS: A convenience sample of suburban adolescent students completed a two-part survey about OTC medications; part 1 included demographics and baseline knowledge of OTCs, part 2 included medication label interpretation (literacy)...
February 26, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Ji Yeon Lim, Duk Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a significant public health problem worldwide. Suicide rates among elderly persons (≥ 65 years of age) are three times higher than those of younger people in Korea. The emergency department is an important entry of drug-related suicide attempt patients. In this study, we compared the frequency of drug types by age subgroup. Furthermore, we provide suggestions for preventing suicide attempts in the elderly. METHODS: We investigated 433 patients who were admitted to the emergency department for drug-related suicide attempts between 1 May 2015 and 30 April 2017...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Jacqueline M Cohen, Mollie E Wood, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Hedvig Nordeng
PURPOSE: Father's medication use is of interest in fertility studies and as negative control exposures in pregnancy medication safety studies. We sought to compare self-report to prescription records to understand how reliably each of these sources of information may be used. METHODS: We compared self-reported medication use in the 6 months prior to pregnancy from fathers participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study to records of dispensed prescriptions from the Norwegian Prescription Database that overlapped in time...
February 28, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Sara Modig, Sölve Elmståhl
Background Renal elimination normally decreases with age. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) carry a risk of additional kidney damage. Objective The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of NSAIDs in the elderly (aged ≥ 65) population in Sweden, explore reasons for any possible differences in the level of use and assess their kidney functions. Setting Data were obtained from the cohort study Good Aging in Skåne, Sweden. Patients aged 65 or more were included. Methods Medication lists were collected as well as variables such as cognition and education levels...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Qian Li, Quankun Zhuang, Yaru Gu, Cailing Dai, Xiaoxiao Gao, Xiaomin Wang, Huimin Wen, Xin Li, Yuyang Zhang
Nefopam, an analgesic drug, effectively elicits antinociception in the majority of noxious and thermal models in rodents. Acetaminophen is among the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drugs worldwide, either on prescription or over the counter. The present study aimed to investigate the analgesic activity of nefopam combined with acetaminophen, which was expected to maximize the potency of analgesia and decrease the dose of nefopam required. Three series of experiments, namely acetic acid-induced writhing tests in mice, hot plate tests in mice and tail flick tests in rats, were used to evaluate the analgesic effect...
February 2018: Biomedical Reports
Mary-Anne Ahiabu, Pascal Magnussen, Ib Christian Bygbjerg, Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance, associated with inappropriate drug use, is a global public health threat. The pharmaceutical sectors in developing countries are poorly regulated leading to antibiotic sales and use without a prescription. The study documents the treatment of acute illnesses in households and the antibiotic dispensing practices of medicine sales outlets in Eastern region, Ghana. METHOD: Twice-weekly illness recall visits were made to 12 households in three rural communities over eight consecutive weeks...
February 7, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
William B White, Robert A Kloner, Dominick J Angiolillo, Michael H Davidson
Over-the-counter analgesics are used globally for the relief of acute pain. Although effective, these agents can be associated with adverse effects that may limit their use in some people. In the early 2000s, observations from clinical trials of prescription-strength and supratherapeutic doses of nonselective and cyclooxygenase-2-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) raised safety concerns regarding the risk of cardiovascular adverse effects with the use of these medications. Subsequently, the US Food and Drug Administration mandated additional study of the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs for a more comprehensive understanding of their risk...
March 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Nicholas Moore, James M Scheiman
Over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics are routinely used worldwide for self-management of various painful conditions. Despite this, there has been little in-depth review of the safety of non-aspirin analgesics at OTC doses. This paper reviews the available literature on the gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatic safety of non-aspirin OTC analgesics, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; ibuprofen, ketoprofen, diclofenac, and naproxen) and acetaminophen; safety in overdose is also reviewed. Each non-aspirin OTC analgesic has a distinct adverse event (AE) profile, with GI AE rates for OTC dosing in one study ranging from 37% for diclofenac to 7...
February 8, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Jean R Goodman, Jennifer D Peck, Alessandra Landmann, Marvin Williams, Andrew Elimian
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate poor maternal nutrition, environmental exposures and vasoactive stimulants as potential risk factors for gastroschisis. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among singleton pregnancies diagnosed in a tertiary teaching hospital in a 22-month period. Cases of gastroschisis were matched to controls at the time of diagnosis by race and maternal age. Demographics, periconceptual exposures, nutritional biomarkers, and illicit drug hair analysis were evaluated...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Lindsay M Squeglia, Rachel L Tomko, Nathaniel L Baker, Erin A McClure, George A Book, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND: Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) do not always respond to currently available treatments, and evaluation of new candidate pharmacotherapies is indicated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an over-the-counter supplement, has shown promise in treating a variety of substance use disorders, but little research has evaluated its merits as a treatment for AUD. This secondary analysis from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network examined the effects of NAC versus placebo on alcohol use among participants with cannabis use disorder (CUD) enrolled in a 12-week, multi-site cannabis cessation trial...
February 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
S Leverrier-Penna, R T Mitchell, E Becker, L Lecante, M Ben Maamar, N Homer, V Lavoué, D M Kristensen, N Dejucq-Rainsford, B Jégou, S Mazaud-Guittot
STUDY QUESTION: Does ibuprofen use during the first trimester of pregnancy interfere with the development of the human fetal ovary? SUMMARY ANSWER: In human fetuses, ibuprofen exposure is deleterious for ovarian germ cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In utero stages of ovarian development define the future reproductive capacity of a woman. In rodents, analgesics can impair the development of the fetal ovary leading to early onset of fertility failure...
February 2, 2018: Human Reproduction
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