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Over the counter drugs

Masaki Matsushita, Kenichi Mishima, Ryusaku Esaki, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Hiroshi Kitoh
OBJECTIVE Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasia caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. Foramen magnum stenosis (FMS) is one of the serious neurological complications in ACH. Through comprehensive drug screening, the authors identified that meclozine, an over-the-counter drug for motion sickness, inhibited activation of FGFR3 signaling. Oral administration of meclozine to the growing ACH mice promoted longitudinal bone growth, but it did not prevent FMS...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Eva Rasmussen-Barr, Ulrike Held, Wilhelmus Ja Grooten, Pepijn Ddm Roelofs, Bart W Koes, Maurits W van Tulder, Maria M Wertli
BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most frequently prescribed drugs for the treatment of sciatica. A previous Cochrane review on the efficacy of NSAIDs summarised findings for acute and chronic low back pain (LBP) and sciatica. This is an update of the original review (2008) focusing on people suffering from sciatica. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of NSAIDs in pain reduction, overall improvement, and reported side effects in people with sciatica...
October 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yuko Wada, Yukie Takaoka, Mitsuru Nozawa, Miho Goto, Ken-Ichi Shimokawa, Fumiyoshi Ishii
We measured the pH, water-vapor permeability, adhesive force, peeling-force, elongation rate, support flexibility, and peeling time of medicinal and over-the-counter (OTC) tape preparations containing felbinac. When measuring the pH of each preparation, Felnabion (pH 4.5) was weakly acidic, and EMEC and Tokuon (pH 7.0) were neutral. When measuring the water-vapor permeability of each preparation, that of a generic product, EMEC (380 g/m(2)/24h), was twice as high as that of a brand-name product, Seltouch (189 g/m(2)/24 h)...
October 4, 2016: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Mads Uffe Pedersen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Michael Mulbjerg Pedersen, Morten Hesse
BACKGROUND: In adolescence, psychological problems and regular use of alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis and other drugs (AOD) tend to cluster together, strongly indicating that certain groups of young people are at elevated risk of developing a problematic use of AOD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to develop an easy-to-implement screening instrument to identify subgroups of young people with different psychological problems at risk of problem use of AOD...
September 23, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Demewoz Haile, Abulie Takele, Ketema Gashaw, Habtamu Demelash, Dabere Nigatu
BACKGROUND: Treatment failure defined as progression of disease after initiation of ART or when the anti-HIV medications can't control the infection. One of the major concerns over the rapid scaling up of ART is the emergence and transmission of HIV drug resistant strains at the population level due to treatment failure. This could lead to the failure of basic ART programs. Thus this study aimed to investigate the predictors of treatment failure among adult ART clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South east Ethiopia...
2016: PloS One
Kristina M Brooks, Jomy M George, Parag Kumar
Use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) and over-the-counter (OTC) medications are very common among HIV-infected patients. These products can cause clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with antiretroviral (ARV) medications, thereby increasing risk for negative outcomes such as toxicity or loss of virologic control. Areas Covered: This article provides an updated review of the different mechanisms by which CAM and OTC products are implicated in DDIs with ARV medications. Expert Commentary: Much of the literature published to date involves studies of CAMs interacting with older ARV agents via the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) system...
October 7, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Akiko Ohashi, Yusuke Saeki, Tomonori Harada, Masako Naito, Tomihisa Takahashi, Shin Aizawa, Hiroyuki Hasegawa
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. BH4 and 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2) are metabolically interchangeable at the expense of NADPH. Exogenously administered BH4 can be metabolized by the body, similar to vitamins. At present, synthetic BH4 is used as an orphan drug for patients with inherited diseases requiring BH4 supplementation. BH4 supplementation has also drawn attention as a means of treating certain cardiovascular symptoms, however, its application in human patients remains limited...
2016: PloS One
Y Yankhoba Dramé
In Senegal, health insurance is available only to employees in the private and public sector and to the elderly (through the Sesame program). The rest of the population, especially different categories of vulnerable people, has no health insurance. Their access to healthcare and to medications is thus limited. In this study, we sought to analyze the relation between purchasing power and costs of treatment prescribed in one city. We questioned the customers leaving pharmacies in Ziguinchor, the administrative center of the lower Casamance, in southern Senegal, and analyzed their prescriptions and over-the-counter purchases...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Stéphane Mouly, Célia Lloret-Linares, Pierre-Olivier Sellier, Damien Sene, J-F Bergmann
An interaction of drug with food, herbs, and dietary supplements is usually the consequence of a physical, chemical or physiologic relationship between a drug and a product consumed as food, nutritional supplement or over-the-counter medicinal plant. The current educational review aims at reminding to the prescribing physicians that the most clinically relevant drug-food interactions may not be strictly limited to those with grapefruit juice and with the Saint John's Wort herbal extract and may be responsible for changes in drug plasma concentrations, which in turn decrease efficacy or led to sometimes life-threatening toxicity...
September 28, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Huixiao Hong, Diego Rua, Sugunadevi Sakkiah, Chandrabose Selvaraj, Weigong Ge, Weida Tong
Sunscreen products are predominantly regulated as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs by the US FDA. The "active" ingredients function as ultraviolet filters. Once a sunscreen product is generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE) via an OTC drug review process, new formulations using these ingredients do not require FDA review and approval, however, the majority of ingredients have never been tested to uncover any potential endocrine activity and their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER) is unknown, despite the fact that this is a very extensively studied target related to endocrine activity...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
G Verstraete, P Mertens, W Grymonpré, P J Van Bockstal, T De Beer, M N Boone, L Van Hoorebeke, J P Remon, C Vervaet
During this project 3 techniques (twin screw melt granulation/compression (TSMG), hot melt extrusion (HME) and injection molding (IM)) were evaluated for the manufacturing of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)-based oral sustained release matrices, containing a high dose of the highly soluble metformin hydrochloride. Whereas formulations with a drug load between 0 and 70% (w/w) could be processed via HME/(IM), the drug content of granules prepared via melt granulation could only be varied between 85 and 90% (w/w) as these formulations contained the proper concentration of binder (i...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Kelly Cleland, Jamie Bass, Florida Doci, Angel M Foster
INTRODUCTION: After years of complex regulatory changes, levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraception (EC) is now approved for unrestricted sale in the United States. Timely access to EC pills is critical because they are more likely to work the sooner they are taken. This study assesses whether LNG EC is sold in accordance with current Food and Drug Administration regulations. METHODS: We distributed an online questionnaire through an EC-focused listserv for reproductive health professionals, asking data collectors to visit local stores and document product names, price, over-the-counter shelf availability, and misinformation about age restrictions...
September 24, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Mai Yamamoto, Ritchie Ly, Biban Gill, Yujie Zhu, Jose Moran-Mirabal, Philip Britz-McKibbin
Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) represents a high efficiency microscale separation platform for untargeted profiling of polar/ionic metabolites that is ideal for volume-restricted biological specimens with minimal sample workup. Despite these advantages, the long-term stability of CE-MS remains a major obstacle hampering its widespread application in metabolomics notably for routine analysis of anionic metabolites under negative ion mode conditions. Herein, we report for the first time that commonly used ammonia containing buffers compatible with electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS can compromise the integrity of fused-silica capillaries via aminolysis of their outer polyimide coating...
October 10, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Preshanta Naicker, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Gary D Grant, Justin J Kavanagh
RATIONALE: Acetylcholine is an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system, where it plays a significant role in central functions such as the regulation of movement. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the pharmacological effects of over-the-counter anticholinergic medications on saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements, in order to establish the significance of central cholinergic pathways in the control of these centrally regulated oculomotor processes...
September 26, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Elliot V Hersh, Mana Saraghi, Paul A Moore
BACKGROUND: An intranasal formulation of 3% tetracaine and 0.05% oxymetazoline (Kovanaze) received FDA approval on 29 June 2016. This formulation appears to provide sufficient local anesthesia to perform routine dental restorative (filling) procedures in maxillary teeth from second premolar forward. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability of 3% tetracaine plus 0.05% oxymetazoline when administered intranasally...
October 3, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Alireza Baratloo, Alaleh Rouhipour, Mohammad Mehdi Forouzanfar, Saeed Safari, Marzieh Amiri, Ahmed Negida
CONTEXT: Caffeine is the most commonly used psychoactive legal drug in the world. Caffeine's role in controlling pain has received less attention in the past, yet is being increasingly considered. This article briefly reviewed the literature to clarify the role of caffeine as a drug for pain control and attract investigators to this topic. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The data on Caffeine as an adjuvant therapy or as a main component for pain modulation has been narratively reviewed...
June 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, we, or the Agency) is issuing this final rule establishing that certain active ingredients used in over-the-counter (OTC) consumer antiseptic products intended for use with water (referred to throughout this document as consumer antiseptic washes) are not generally recognized as safe and effective (GRAS/GRAE) and are misbranded. FDA is issuing this final rule after considering the recommendations of the Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee (NDAC); public comments on the Agency's notices of proposed rulemaking; and all data and information on OTC consumer antiseptic wash products that have come to the Agency's attention...
September 6, 2016: Federal Register
Jo Durham, Melissa Warner, Alongkone Phengsavanh, Vanphanom Sychareun, Viengnakhone Vongxay, Keith Rickart
BACKGROUND: Globally, significant progress has been made in reducing maternal mortality, yet in many low-resource contexts it remains unacceptably high. Many of these deaths are due to postpartum haemorrhage and are preventable with access to essential obstetric care. Where there are barriers to access, maternal deaths could be prevented if community-level misoprostol was available. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of stakeholders regarding misoprostol use in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, a setting with high maternal mortality...
2016: PloS One
Deborah Morrison, Karolina Agur, Stewart Mercer, Andreia Eiras, Juan I González-Montalvo, Kevin Gruffydd-Jones
The term multimorbidity is usually defined as the coexistence of two or more chronic conditions within an individual, whereas the term comorbidity traditionally describes patients with an index condition and one or more additional conditions. Multimorbidity of chronic conditions markedly worsens outcomes in patients, increases treatment burden and increases health service costs. Although patients with chronic respiratory disease often have physical comorbidities, they also commonly experience psychological problems such as depression and anxiety...
September 15, 2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Monika Wójta-Kempa, Dominik M Krzyżanowski
BACKGROUND: Almost 90% of households in Poland buy medicines on their own initiative. The most popular OTC medicines bought by Polish consumers are painkillers and non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drugs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to recognize and describe the most important predictive factors of the abuse and misuse of over-the-counter pain relievers among adults in Wrocław (Poland). The groups of users were selected and described. Some examples of misuse were analyzed...
March 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
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