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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138650/evaluation-of-antibiotic-self-medication-among-outpatients-of-the-state-university-hospital-of-port-au-prince-haiti-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Kenny Moise, Joseph Junior Bernard, Jean Hugues Henrys
In Haiti, where all drugs are available over the counter, self-medication with antibiotics appears as a common practice. Inappropriate use of beta-lactams and macrolides is likely to contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to (i) assess the extent of self-medication with antibiotics, (ii) explore the contributing factors (age, gender and educational background) and (iii) identify specific antibiotic drug classes used among patients attending the outpatient clinic of the State University Hospital of Port-au-Prince...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128237/medication-management-in-minnesota-schools-the-need-for-school-nurse-pharmacist-partnerships
#2
Meg M Little, Sara Eischens, Mary Jo Martin, Susan Nokleby, Laura C Palombi, Cynthia Van Kirk, Jayme van Risseghem, Ya-Feng Wen, Jennifer Koziol Wozniak, Erika Yoney, Randall Seifert
BACKGROUND: Pharmacist participation in school medication management (MM) is minimal. School nurses are responsible for increasingly complex medication administration and management in schools. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to 1) assess the MM needs of school nurses in Minnesota, and 2) determine if and how interprofessional partnerships between nurses and pharmacists might optimize MM for students. METHODS: Researchers from the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy, School Nurse Organization of Minnesota, and Minnesota Department of Health conducted a 32-item online survey of school nurses...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125226/loperamide-cardiotoxicity-a-brief-review
#3
REVIEW
Tamer Akel, Soad Bekheit
Loperamide is a popular antidiarrheal medication that has been used for many years. It is currently gaining more attention among healthcare professionals due to its increasing potential for side effects. At present, it is considered safe enough to be sold over the counter. In contrast with other opioid agonists, loperamide is a peripherally acting μ-receptor agonist exerting its effects mainly on the myenteric plexus of the gastrointestinal longitudinal muscle layer. It decreases peristalsis and fluid secretion resulting in longer gastrointestinal transit time...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122535/limited-output-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-lotes-2017-engineering-principles-regulatory-statutes-and-industry-standards-for-wellness-over-the-counter-or-prescription-devices-with-low-risk
#4
Marom Bikson, Bhaskar Paneri, Andoni Mourdoukoutas, Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Bashar W Badran, Robin Azzam, Devin Adair, Abhishek Datta, Xiao Hui Fang, Brett Wingeier, Daniel Chao, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Kiwon Lee, Helena Knotkova, Adam J Woods, David Hagedorn, Doug Jeffery, James Giordano, William J Tyler
We present device standards for low-power non-invasive electrical brain stimulation devices classified as limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Emerging applications of limited output tES to modulate brain function span techniques to stimulate brain or nerve structures, including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS), have engendered discussion on how access to technology should be regulated...
October 17, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109091/transcriptomic-profiling-of-mda-mb-231-cells-exposed-to-boswellia-serrata-and-3-o-acetyl-b-boswellic-acid-er-upr-mediated-programmed-cell-death
#5
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Mazzio, Charles A Lewis, Karam F A Soliman
BACKGROUND/AIM: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the absence of hormone receptors (estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) and a relatively poor prognosis due to inefficacy of hormone receptor-based chemotherapies. It is imperative that we continue to explore natural products with potential to impede growth and metastasis of TNBC. In this study, we screened over 1,000 natural products for capacity to induce cell death in TNBC (MDA-MB -231) cells...
November 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073988/drug-policy-in-bulgaria
#6
Antoniya Dimova, Maria Rohova, Elka Atanasova, Paweł Kawalec, Katarzyna Czok
Bulgaria has a mixed public-private health care financing system. Health care is financed mainly from compulsory health insurance contributions and out-of-pocket payments. Out-of-pocket payments constitute a large share of the total health care expenditure (44.14% in 2014). The share of drugs expenditure for outpatient treatment was 42.3% of the total health care expenditure in 2014, covered mainly by private payments (78.6% of the total pharmaceutical expenditure). The drug policy is run by the Ministry of Health (MoH), the National Council on Prices and Reimbursement of Medicinal Products, and the Health Technology Assessment Commission...
September 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067618/caffeine-in-the-management-of-patients-with-headache
#7
REVIEW
Richard B Lipton, Hans-Christoph Diener, Matthew S Robbins, Sandy Yacoub Garas, Ketu Patel
Caffeinated headache medications, either alone or in combination with other treatments, are widely used by patients with headache. Clinicians should be familiar with their use as well as the chemistry, pharmacology, dietary and medical sources, clinical benefits, and potential safety issues of caffeine. In this review, we consider the role of caffeine in the over-the-counter treatment of headache. The MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched by combining "caffeine" with the terms "headache," "migraine," and "tension-type...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061744/molecular-mechanisms-of-intrinsic-streptomycin-resistance-in-mycobacterium-abscessus
#8
Michael Dal Molin, Myriam Gut, Anna Rominski, Klara Haldimann, Katja Becker, Peter Sander
Streptomycin, the first drug used for the treatment of tuberculosis, shows limited activity against the highly resistant pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus We recently identified two aminoglycoside-acetylating genes [aac(2') and eis2] which however do not affect susceptibility to streptomycin. This suggests the existence of a discrete mechanism of streptomycin resistance. M. abscessus BlastP analysis identified MAB_2385 as a close homologue of the 3' '-O-phosphotransferase [APH(3' ')] from the opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium fortuitum, as a putative streptomycin resistance determinant...
October 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052257/utility-of-reproductive-life-plans-in-identification-of-potentially-teratogenic-medication-use-a-pilot-study
#9
Natalie DiPietro Mager, Caitlin Mills, April Snelling
BACKGROUND: Teratogenic medications increase risks of miscarriage, fetal death, and/or birth defects. It is important to identify whether women of childbearing potential are taking these medications and to minimize exposure to these agents through change in drug therapy before conception and/or use of effective contraception to prevent conception. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of reproductive life plans as tools to identify women using potentially teratogenic medications...
October 20, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046747/ventricular-fibrillation-due-to-overdose-of-loperamide-the-poor-man-s-methadone
#10
Amr Salama, Yana Levin, Pramod Jha, Richard Alweis
Loperamide is an over-the-counter antidiarrheal agent that is considered by many patients to be safe, but has been used as a drug of abuse due to its opioid properties. However, cardiotoxicity has been reported, prompting the FDA to release a warning regarding the arrhythmogenic potential of loperamide. We present a case of a 38-year-old female presenting with cardiac arrest thought to be secondary to abuse of the loperamide that she was using to alleviate the heroin withdrawal symptoms. Cardiac ischemia and other drug toxicities were ruled out...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042838/dose-banding-of-intravenous-piperacillin-tazobactam-in-pediatric-surgical-inpatients
#11
Indrajit S Karande, Zoy Goff, Jacqueline Kewley, Shailender Mehta, Thomas Snelling
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial doses in children are often prescribed by using an individually calculated dose per weight (e.g., mg/kg) or based on body surface area. Dosing errors are the most commonly reported medication errors in children. A "dose-banding" strategy is frequently used for some over-the-counter drugs to prevent dosing errors. It could also lead to efficiencies by enabling batch preparation of intravenous (IV) medications in hospitals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether use of dose-banding for IV piperacillin-tazobactam results in acceptable dose variation from standard practice of individualized prescription of 100 mg/kg in children...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036509/medication-usage-change-in-older-people-65-in-england-over-20-years-findings-from-cfas-i-and-cfas-ii
#12
L Gao, Ian Maidment, Fiona E Matthews, Louise Robinson, Carol Brayne
Background: medical practice has changed over the last decades reflecting the ageing population, when multi-morbidity requiring multiple medications is more common. Objective: describe and quantify self-reported medicine use including both prescription and over the counter medicines in two comparable population-based studies of older people (65+) in England and to assess the nature and scale of polypharmacy. Methods: data used were from two separate population-based studies; the Cognitive Function Ageing Study I and II...
September 26, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036309/chiral-analysis-of-methamphetamine-in-oral-fluid-samples-a-method-to-distinguish-licit-from-illicit-drug-use
#13
Damon Borg, Elizabeth Kolb, Cindy Lantigua, Richard Stripp
Methamphetamine (MAMP) is a popular illicit drug abused for its central nervous system stimulating effects. MAMP is also used therapeutically in the treatment of overeating disorders, narcolepsy, attention deficit disorder, in over-the-counter (OTC) products to ease nasal congestion. MAMP exists in two enantiomeric forms, dextrorotary (d-MAMP) or levorotary (l-MAMP). The compounds are similar in chemical structure, simply differing in the orientation of functional groups around the asymmetric carbon. In part because of the availability of l-MAMP in OTC nasal inhalers, forensic guidelines require a sample to contain greater than 20% d-MAMP to consider illicit drug use when interpreting results...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036235/-medicaments-and-oral-healthcare-5-adverse-effects-of-medications-and-over-the-counter-drugs-on-teeth
#14
C de Baat, P G M A Zweers, C van Loveren, A Vissink
Intrinsic tooth discoloration may occur as an adverse effect of fluoride and tetracyclines. Extrinsic tooth discoloration may occur as superficial staining or as discoloration of the superficial pellicle and/or biofilm due to chlorhexidine, liquid iron salts, essential oils, some antibiotics and stannous fluoride. Inhibition of orthodontic tooth movement has been reported due to the use of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors. If medications or over-the-counter drugs induce hyposalivation or contain much sucrose, caries may develop...
October 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031359/treatment-of-abnormalities-of-potassium-homeostasis-in-ckd
#15
REVIEW
Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Hyperkalemia, defined as serum potassium concentrations greater than 5.0 to 5.5 mEq/L, is a frequent occurrence in clinical practice because of the increasing incidence and prevalence of CKD. Patients at risk for this disorder are commonly treated with drugs that interfere in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, thereby enhancing the occurrence and prevalence of this disorder. Discontinuation of these drugs because of the development of hyperkalemia deprives these patients the renal-protective and cardiovascular benefits this class of pharmacology has been shown to provide...
September 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028858/approach-to-the-mature-cosmetic-patient-aging-gracefully
#16
Susan Weinkle, Michael Saco
<p>Aging gracefully has taken on a whole new meaning over the past few decades as new aesthetic treatments have been developed and are becoming more sophisticated by the day. The aging process, which is exacerbated by chronic UV exposure, results in dyspigmentation, loss of skin laxity, precancerous and cancerous skin lesions, fat loss and redistribution, and bone resorption. Laser and light devices can be used to treat dyspigmentation, while neuromodulators and soft tissue fillers can be used for rhytides and revolumization...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026504/loperamide-dependency-a-case-report
#17
Mehran Zarghami, Maryam Rezapour
BACKGROUND: Loperamide is used as an antidiarrheal drug and is available over-the-counter. It cannot pass the blood-brain barrier and it does not have a considerable abuse potential. It can lead to dangerous cardiac arrhythmia. CASE REPORT: Herein, we report a 35-year-old man with a 13-year history of abusing opioids who had undergone detoxification for four times during this period. He underwent detoxification for using 200 mg loperamide daily with anticholinergic agents, clonidine, non-steroidal analgesics, and diazepam...
January 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025345/the-cosmetic-ingredient-review-program-expert-safety-assessments-of-cosmetic-ingredients-in-an-open-forum
#18
Ivan J Boyer, Wilma F Bergfeld, Bart Heldreth, Monice M Fiume, Lillian J Gill
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) is a nonprofit program to assess the safety of ingredients in personal care products in an open, unbiased, and expert manner. Cosmetic Ingredient Review was established in 1976 by the Personal Care Products Council (PCPC), with the support of the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the Consumer Federation of America (CFA). Cosmetic Ingredient Review remains the only scientific program in the world committed to the systematic, independent review of cosmetic ingredient safety in a public forum...
September 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017755/self-medication-and-non-prescription-drug-counseling-illustrating-profession-uncertainty-within-turkish-pharmacy-practice
#19
Afonso Miguel Cavaco, Bilge Sozen-Sahne, Elif Ulutas-Deniz, Selen Yegenoglu
BACKGROUND: Recommending effective minor ailment treatments and using non-prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medicines is a pharmacist's duty. Although common in most European countries, self-medication counseling practices may differ from country to country. OBJECTIVES: This study explored Turkish community pharmacists' attitudes concerning the present self-medication market, professional responsibilities toward patients' self-care, and the usefulness of e-learning for patients' counseling education...
September 29, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993976/boric-acid-and-commercial-organoboron-products-as-inhibitors-of-drug-resistant-candida-albicans
#20
Bryan Larsen, Marija Petrovic, Francesco De Seta
Clinical use of boric acid as a topical antifungal in women who have failed standard antifungal therapy with azole drugs has been used sporadically for decades. Our previous in vitro work showing inhibition of Candida albicans growth was conducted on clinical isolates without antifungal drug susceptibility profiling. Here, we report that boric acid restricts growth of drug-resistant Candida albicans and inhibits hyphal growth and diminishes cell volume. The availability of over-the-counter organoboron compounds intended for use as oral nutritional supplements led us to determine if these also were inhibitory toward resistant Candida and show here that they also possess antifungal activity...
October 9, 2017: Mycopathologia
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