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Tuberculosis and immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531231/utility-of-th1-cell-immune-responses-for-distinguishing-active-tuberculosis-from-non-active-tuberculosis-a-case-control-study
#1
Lifan Zhang, Xinhe Cheng, Sainan Bian, Yanhua Song, Qiang Li, Mengqiu Gao, Yueqiu Zhang, Xiaochun Shi, Xiaoqing Liu
Currently available Interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) cannot reliably differentiate active TB (ATB) from non-active TB (non-ATB). A study was performed to evaluate the value of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) specific Th1 cell immune responses which test IFN-γ and IL-2 simultaneous for differentiating ATB from non-ATB. Forty-nine newly diagnosed inpatients with ATB (26 pulmonary TB and 23 extrapulmonary TB) were enrolled as the ATB group. Forty-five volunteers with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and twenty with evidence of previous TB were enrolled during the same period as the non-ATB group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530443/association-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-the-hepcidin-promoter-gene-with-susceptibility-to-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#2
Li Liang, Huijuan Liu, Jun Yue, Li-Rong Liu, Min Han, Liu-Lin Luo, Yan-Lin Zhao, Heping Xiao
BACKGROUND: Hepcidin is a 25-amino acid peptide produced by the liver in response to inflammation and iron overload. It is encoded by the hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (HAMP) gene and plays a key role in innate immunity. Previous studies have reported that a -582 A>G polymorphism in the HAMP promoter (HAMP-P) affects hepcidin expression, causing susceptibility to various bacterial and viral pathogens. However, it is not known whether the HAMP-P -582 A>G polymorphism is associated with tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility...
May 22, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522873/recombinant-bcg-expressing-ltak63-adjuvant-induces-superior-protection-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Ivan P Nascimento, Dunia Rodriguez, Carina C Santos, Eduardo P Amaral, Henrique K Rofatto, Ana P Junqueira-Kipnis, Eduardo D C Gonçalves, Maria R D'Império-Lima, Mario H Hirata, Celio L Silva, Nathalie Winter, Brigitte Gicquel, Kingston H G Mills, Mariagrazia Pizza, Rino Rappuoli, Luciana C C Leite
In order to develop an improved BCG vaccine against tuberculosis we have taken advantage of the adjuvant properties of a non-toxic derivative of Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT), LTAK63. We have constructed rBCG strains expressing LTAK63 at different expression levels. Mice immunized with BCG expressing low levels of LTAK63 (rBCG-LTAK63lo) showed higher Th1 cytokines and IL-17 in the lungs, and when challenged intratracheally with Mycobacterium tuberculosis displayed a 2.0-3.0 log reduction in CFU as compared to wild type BCG...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516071/levamisole-as-an-adjuvant-to-short-course-therapy-in-newly-diagnosed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#4
Chetna Ashok Shamkuwar, Sushant Hiraman Meshram, Sunil M Mahakalkar
BACKGROUND: The estimated incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in India are 2.1 and 2.6 million cases respectively. Immunotherapy may shorten tuberculosis treatments and improve the immunity of individuals as well. Hence we study the efficacy of levamisole (LVM) (immunomodulator) as an adjuvant to chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted for 21 months in newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514713/pattern-recognition-receptors-and-coordinated-cellular-pathways-involved-in-tuberculosis-immunopathogenesis-emerging-concepts-and-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Abhishek Mishra, Shamim Akhtar, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Arshad Khan
Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) play a central role in the recognition of numerous pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resulting in activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Besides Toll Like Receptors, C-type Lectin Receptors and Nod Like Receptors are now being recognized for their involvement in inducing immune response against M. tuberculosis infection. Although, a functional redundancy of the PRRs has also been reported in many studies, emerging evidences support the notion that a cooperative and coordinated response generated by these receptors is critical to sustain the full immune control of M...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513983/book-review-the-foundations-of-immunology-and-their-pertinence-to-medicine
#6
REVIEW
A Corthay
We are in the era cursed with overspecialization. Charles Darwin's foundational Origin of Species, published in 1859 was accessible to the broadly educated individual. Starting with this statement, Peter Bretscher in his new book aims at explaining foundational concepts of immunology to a broad public. His standpoint is that foundational ideas usually can be simply expressed. This book describes first how foundational concepts of immunology have evolved over the last two and a half centuries. The importance of self-nonself discrimination by the immune system is acknowledged and models for immunological tolerance are compared...
May 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510418/conjugation-reaction-with-8-arm-peg-markedly-improves-the-immunogenicity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-cfp10-tb10-4-fusion-protein
#7
Xiaowei Sun, Weili Yu, Quanhai Pang, Tao Hu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a serious fatal pathogen responsible for tuberculosis (TB). Effective vaccination is highly desired for immunoprotection against Mtb infection. CFP10 and TB10.4 are two important immunodominant Mtb-secreted protein antigens, which suffer from poor immunogenicity. Thus, an antigen delivery system and adjuvants are needed to improve the immunogenicity of the two proteins. CFP10 and TB10.4 are two Mtb-secreted immunodominant protein antigens. A CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein (CT) was used as the antigen...
May 16, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507951/the-phytochemical-bergenin-enhances-t-helper-1-responses-and-anti-mycobacterial-immunity-by-activating-the-map-kinase-pathway-in-macrophages
#8
Ved P Dwivedi, Debapriya Bhattacharya, Vinod Yadav, Dhiraj K Singh, Santosh Kumar, Mona Singh, Durbadal Ojha, Anand Ranganathan, Luc Van Kaer, Debprasad Chattopadhyay, Gobardhan Das
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the greatest health concerns worldwide, which has hindered socioeconomic development in certain parts of the world for many centuries. Although current TB therapy, "Directly Observed Treatment Short-course," is effective, it is associated with unwanted side effects and the risk for the generation of drug-resistant organisms. The majority of infected individuals successfully confine the mycobacterial organisms and remain asymptotic unless immune responses are perturbed. Thus, host immunity can protect against TB and immunomodulation is therefore an attractive therapeutic option...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507063/the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mmpl11-cell-wall-lipid-transporter-is-important-for-biofilm-formation-intracellular-growth-and-non-replicating-persistence
#9
Catherine C Wright, Fong Fu Hsu, Eusondia Arnett, Jennifer L Dunaj, Patrick M Davidson, Sophia A Pacheco, Melanie J Harriff, David M Lewinsohn, Larry S Schlesinger, Georgiana E Purdy
The mycobacterial cell wall is crucial to the host-pathogen interface since it provides a barrier against antibiotics and the host immune response. In addition, cell wall lipids are mycobacterial virulence factors. The mycobacterial membrane protein large (MmpL) proteins are cell wall lipid transporters that are important for basic mycobacterial physiology and M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. MmpL3 and MmpL11 are conserved across pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria, consistent with an important role in the basic physiology of the bacterium...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506264/an-association-between-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-infections-and-biomarkers-of-th2-type-inflammation
#10
Paul E Pfeffer, Susan Hopkins, Ian Cropley, David M Lowe, Marc Lipman
BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAI) infection is unexplained but parallels the growing world-wide epidemic of allergic disease. We hypothesized an association between pulmonary MAI infection and Th2-type immune responses as seen in allergy. METHODS: Biomarkers of patient Th2-type immune responses (peripheral blood eosinophil counts and serum IgE levels) were compared between patients with positive pulmonary samples for tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection...
May 15, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506215/comparison-of-antibody-responses-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigen-rv0679c-in-tuberculosis-patients-from-the-endemic-and-non-endemic-regions-of-the-beijing-genotype-a-case-control-study
#11
Jingge Zhao, Takashi Matsuba, Xiaoyan Zhang, Susan Leano, Chie Nakajima, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Elizabeth Freda Telan, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Toshio Hattori
BACKGROUND: Strains of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are reportedly associated with the virulence of tuberculosis (TB) infection, unfavorable outcomes of anti-TB treatment, and the global TB pandemic. Rv0679c, a hypothetical membrane protein related to host cell invasion, has a Beijing genotype-specific mutation at residue 142 (Asn142Lys). Antigenicity differences between Rv0679c-Asn142 (N-type) and Rv0679c-Lys142 (K-type) have been previously observed in mice antigen-antibody responses...
May 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503298/patterns-of-ocular-inflammation-in-patients-with-miliary-tuberculosis
#12
Salil Mehta
BACKGROUND: Ocular morbidity associated with systemic tuberculosis is common. The clinical picture varies from anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis and posterior uveitis to even panuveitis. There is little data on the correlation between specific systemic presentations and the ocular inflammation. We conducted a retrospective review of the ocular findings in the case records of patients admitted with a diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis. These patients were then referred for a more detailed ophthalmic evaluation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502122/humanized-nog-mice-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis-vaccine-induced-immunity-a-comparative-analysis-with-the-mouse-and-guinea-pig-models-of-tuberculosis
#13
Ajay Grover, Amber Troy, Jenny Rowe, JoLynn M Troudt, Elizabeth Creissen, Jennifer McLean, Prabal Banerjee, Gerold Feuer, Angelo A Izzo
The humanized mouse model has been developed as a model to identify and characterize human immune responses to human pathogens and has been used to better identify vaccine candidates. In the current studies, the humanized mouse was used to determine the ability of a vaccine to affect the immune response to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Both human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells responded to infection in humanized mice as a result of infection. In humanized mice vaccinated with either BCG or with CpG-C, a liposome-based formulation containing the M...
May 14, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498853/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-an-inactivated-whole-cell-tuberculosis-vaccine-booster-in-adults-primed-with-bcg-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-dar-901
#14
C Fordham von Reyn, Timothy Lahey, Robert D Arbeit, Bernard Landry, Leway Kailani, Lisa V Adams, Brenda C Haynes, Todd Mackenzie, Wendy Wieland-Alter, Ruth I Connor, Sue Tvaroha, David A Hokey, Ann M Ginsberg, Richard Waddell
BACKGROUND: Development of a tuberculosis vaccine to boost BCG is a major international health priority. SRL172, an inactivated whole cell booster derived from a non-tuberculous mycobacterium, is the only new vaccine against tuberculosis to have demonstrated efficacy in a Phase 3 trial. In the present study we sought to determine if a three-dose series of DAR-901 manufactured from the SRL172 master cell bank by a new, scalable method was safe and immunogenic. METHODS: We performed a single site, randomized, double-blind, controlled, Phase 1 dose escalation trial of DAR-901 at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in the United States...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496303/development-of-a-potent-invigorator-of-immune-responses-endowed-with-both-preventive-and-therapeutic-properties
#15
REVIEW
Gursaran P Talwar, Jagdish C Gupta, Abu S Mustafa, Hemanta K Kar, Kiran Katoch, Shreemanta K Parida, Prabhakara P Reddi, Niyaz Ahmed, Vikram Saini, Somesh Gupta
This article reviews briefly the making of an immunoprophylactic-cum-immunotherapeutic vaccine against leprosy. The vaccine is based on cultivable, heat-killed atypical mycobacteria, whose gene sequence is now known. It has been named Mycobacterium indicus pranii. It has received the approval of the Drug Controller General of India and the US Food and Drug Administration. Besides leprosy, M. indicus pranii has found utility in the treatment of category II ("difficult to treat") tuberculosis. It also heals ugly anogenital warts...
2017: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495854/role-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-tuberculosis
#16
Adam Lam, Rohan Prabhu, Christine M Gross, Lee Ann Riesenberg, Vinodkumar Singh, Saurabh Aggarwal
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest known human diseases and is transmitted by the bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). TB has a rich history with evidence of TB infections dating back to 5,800 B.C. TB is unique in its ability to remain latent in an individual for decades, with the possibility of later reactivation, causing widespread systemic symptoms. Currently, it is estimated that more than one-third of the world's population (about 2 billion people) are infected with Mtb. Prolonged periods of therapy and complexity of treatment regimens, especially in active infection, have led to poor compliance in patients being treated for TB...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487695/regulatory-t-cells-and-pro-inflammatory-responses-predominate-in-children-with-tuberculosis
#17
Elizabeth Whittaker, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Beate Kampmann
BACKGROUND: Following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), children are more susceptible to develop disease particularly extrapulmonary disease than adults. The exact mechanisms required for containment of M.tb are not known, but would be important to identify correlates of protection. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively analyze key immune responses to mycobacteria between HIV-negative children with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) compared to children with pulmonary TB (PTB) or healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484042/a-proteomic-signature-of-dormancy-in-an-actinobacterium-micrococcus-luteus
#18
Sujina Mali, Morgan Mitchell, Spencer Havis, Abiodun Bodunrin, Jonathan Rangel, Gabriella Olson, William R Widger, Steven J Bark
Dormancy is a protective state where diverse bacteria including M. tuberculosis, S. aureus, T. pallidum (syphilis), and B. burgdorferi (Lyme Disease) curtail metabolic activity to survive external stresses including antibiotics. Evidence suggests dormancy consists of a continuum of interrelated states including viable but nonculturable (VBNC) and persistence states. VBNC and persistence contribute to antibiotic tolerance, reemergence from latent infections, and even quorum sensing and biofilm formation. Previous studies indicate that the protein mechanisms regulating persistence and VBNC states are not well understood...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479800/factors-determining-the-clinical-spectrum-course-and-response-to-treatment-and-complications-in-seronegative-patients-with-central-nervous-system-tuberculosis
#19
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Sikandar Advani, Ravi Kumar, Chandrajith Prasad, Anupama R Pai
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous meningitis remains a major health issue in the community affecting young adults of both genders predominantly from rural background. In India, the disease continues to kill 2 people every 3 min or nearly 1000 daily, according to the Tuberculosis Control Society India. Tuberculosis (TB) of central nervous system (CNS) is the most devastating form of TB. As this disease is associated with very high prevalence in young adults and will ultimately contribute to great workforce loss, we decided to assess the factors deciding the disease and its course in our patients...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476627/-the-impact-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-immune-evasion-on-protective-immunity-implications-for-tb-vaccine-design-meeting-report
#20
Cesar Boggiano, Katrin Eichelberg, Lakshmi Ramachandra, Jaqueline Shea, Lalita Ramakrishnan, Samuel Behar, Joel D Ernst, Steven A Porcelli, Markus Maeurer, Hardy Kornfeld
Tuberculosis (TB) is the major cause of death from infectious diseases around the world, particularly in HIV infected individuals. TB vaccine design and development have been focused on improving Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and evaluating recombinant and viral vector expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins, for boosting BCG-primed immunity, but these approaches have not yet yielded significant improvements over the modest effects of BCG in protecting against infection or disease. On March 7-8, 2016, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened a workshop on "The Impact of Mtb Immune Evasion on Protective Immunity: Implications for TB Vaccine Design" with the goal of defining immune mechanisms that could be targeted through novel research approaches, to inform vaccine design and immune therapeutic interventions for prevention of TB...
May 2, 2017: Vaccine
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