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Tuberculosis and immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327797/bacterial-immunostat-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lipids-and-their-role-in-the-host-immune-response
#1
Adriano Queiroz, Lee W Riley
The lipid-rich cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dynamic structure that is involved in the regulation of the transport of nutrients, toxic host-cell effector molecules, and anti-tuberculosis drugs. It is therefore postulated to contribute to the long-term bacterial survival in an infected human host. Accumulating evidence suggests that M. tuberculosis remodels the lipid composition of the cell wall as an adaptive mechanism against host-imposed stress. Some of these lipid species (trehalose dimycolate, diacylated sulphoglycolipid, and mannan-based lipoglycans) trigger an immunopathologic response, whereas others (phthiocerol dimycocerosate, mycolic acids, sulpholipid-1, and di-and polyacyltrehalose) appear to dampen the immune responses...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327409/mir-23a-5p-modulates-mycobacterial-survival-and-autophagy-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-through-tlr2-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-by-targeting-tlr2
#2
Xing Gu, Yan Gao, De-Guang Mu, En-Qing Fu
Autophagy plays a pivotal role in activating the antimicrobial host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb.). The emerging roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating immune responses have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Appreciating the potential of host-directed therapies designed to control autophagy during mycobacterial infection, we focused on the influence of miR-23a-5p on the activation of macrophage autophagy during M.tb. infection in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and murine RAW264...
March 18, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314076/lactococcus-lactis-carrying-a-dna-vaccine-coding-for-the-esat-6-antigen-increases-il-17-cytokine-secretion-and-boosts-the-bcg-vaccine-immune-response
#3
Vanessa Bastos Pereira, Vanessa Pecini da Cunha, Tatiane Melo Preisser, Bianca Mendes Souza, Meritxell Zurita Turk, Camila Prósperi De Castro, Marcela Santiago Pacheco Azevedo, Anderson Miyoshi
AIMS: A regimen utilizing BCG and another vaccine system as a booster may represent a promising strategy for the development of an efficient tuberculosis vaccine for adults. In a previous work, we confirmed the ability of Lactococcus lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:ESAT-6), a live mucosal DNA vaccine, to produce a specific immune response in mice after oral immunization. In the present study, we examined the immunogenicity of this strain as a booster for the BCG vaccine in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: After immunization, cytokine and immunoglobulin profiles were measured...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298455/evaluation-of-quantiferon%C3%A2-tb-gold-plus-in-healthcare-workers-in-a-low-incidence-setting
#4
Hee-Won Moon, Rajiv L Gaur, Sara Shu-Hwa Tien, Mary Spangler, Madhukar Pai, Niaz Banaei
Background: Although launched in 2015, little is known about the accuracy of QuantiFERON-TB Gold-Plus (QFT-Plus) for diagnosis of latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Unlike its predecessor, QFT-Plus utilizes two antigen tubes to elicit an immune response from CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. We conducted a cross-sectional study in low-risk healthcare workers (HCWs) at a single U.S. center to compare QFT-Plus to QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT).Method: 989 HCWs were tested with both QFT and QFT-Plus. Risk factors for LTBI were obtained from a questionnaire...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293387/cfp10-mfc%C3%AE-2-as-a-novel-tuberculosis-vaccine-candidate-increases-immune-response-in-mouse
#5
Ali Asghar Baghani, Saman Soleimanpour, Hadi Farsiani, Arman Mosavat, Masoud Yousefi, Zahra Meshkat, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Saeid Amel Jamehdar, Mohammad Reza Akbari Eydgahi, Hamid Sadeghian, Kiarash Ghazvini
OBJECTIVES: Despite treatment with antibiotics and vaccination with BCG, tuberculosis (TB) is still considered as one of the most important public health problems in the world. Therefore, designing and producing a more effective vaccine against TB seems urgently. In this study, immunogenicity of a fusion protein which consisting or comprising CFP-10 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the Fc-domain of mouse IgG2a was evaluated as a novel subunit vaccine candidate against TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genetic constructs were cloned in pPICZαA expression vector and recombinant vectors (pPICZαA-CFP-10: Fcγ2a and pPICZαA-CFP-10:His) were transformed into Pichia pastoris...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293236/interferon-lambda-modulating-immunity-in-infectious-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Mohammedyaseen Syedbasha, Adrian Egli
Interferon lambdas (IFN-λs; IFNL1-4) modulate immunity in the context of infections and autoimmune diseases, through a network of induced genes. IFN-λs act by binding to the heterodimeric IFN-λ receptor (IFNLR), activating a STAT phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascade. Thereby hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes are induced, which modulate various immune functions via complex forward and feedback loops. When compared to the well-characterized IFN-α signaling cascade, three important differences have been discovered...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288691/immunological-diagnosis-as-an-adjunctive-tool-for-an-early-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-meningitis-of-an-immune-competent-child-in-a-low-tuberculosis-endemic-country-a-case-report
#7
Serena Vita, Camilla Ajassa, Emanuela Caraffa, Miriam Lichtner, Claudia Mascia, Fabio Mengoni, Maria Grazia Paglia, Cristina Mancarella, Davide Colistra, Claudio Di Biasi, Rosa Maria Ciardi, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo
BACKGROUND: Pediatric tuberculous meningitis is a highly morbid, often fatal disease. Its prompt diagnosis and treatment saves lives, in fact delays in the initiation of therapy have been associated with high mortality rates. CASE PRESENTATION: This is a case of an Italian child who was diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis after a history of a month of headache, fatigue and weight loss. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis with predominance and decreased glucose concentration...
March 13, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280495/myeloid-and-t-cell-derived-tnf-protects-against-central-nervous-system-tuberculosis
#8
Nai-Jen Hsu, Ngiambudulu M Francisco, Roanne Keeton, Nasiema Allie, Valérie F J Quesniaux, Bernhard Ryffel, Muazzam Jacobs
Tuberculosis of the central nervous system (CNS-TB) is a devastating complication of tuberculosis, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is crucial for innate immunity and controlling the infection. TNF is produced by many cell types upon activation, in particularly the myeloid and T cells during neuroinflammation. Here we used mice with TNF ablation targeted to myeloid and T cell (MT-TNF(-/-)) to assess the contribution of myeloid and T cell-derived TNF in immune responses during CNS-TB. These mice exhibited impaired innate immunity and high susceptibility to cerebral Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, a similar phenotype to complete TNF-deficient mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280265/effect-of-blood-type-on-anti-%C3%AE-gal-immunity-and-the-incidence-of-infectious-diseases
#9
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Lourdes Mateos-Hernández, Pilar Alberdi, Margarita Villar, Gilles Riveau, Emmanuel Hermann, Anne-Marie Schacht, Jamal Khalife, Margarida Correia-Neves, Christian Gortazar, José de la Fuente
The identification of factors affecting the susceptibility to infectious diseases is essential toward reducing their burden on the human population. The ABO blood type correlates with susceptibility to malaria and other infectious diseases. Due to the structural similarity between blood antigen B and Galα1-3Galβ1-(3)4GlcNAc-R (α-Gal), we hypothesized that self-tolerance to antigen B affects the immune response to α-Gal, which in turn affects the susceptibility to infectious diseases caused by pathogens carrying α-Gal on their surface...
March 10, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278283/enhanced-control-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-extrapulmonary-dissemination-in-mice-by-an-arabinomannan-protein-conjugate-vaccine
#10
Rafael Prados-Rosales, Leandro Carreño, Tingting Cheng, Caroline Blanc, Brian Weinrick, Adel Malek, Todd L Lowary, Andres Baena, Maju Joe, Yu Bai, Rainer Kalscheuer, Ana Batista-Gonzalez, Noemi A Saavedra, Leticia Sampedro, Julen Tomás, Juan Anguita, Shang-Cheng Hung, Ashish Tripathi, Jiayong Xu, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Williams R Jacobs, John Chan, Steven A Porcelli, Jacqueline M Achkar, Arturo Casadevall
Currently there are a dozen or so of new vaccine candidates in clinical trials for prevention of tuberculosis (TB) and each formulation attempts to elicit protection by enhancement of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). In contrast, most approved vaccines against other bacterial pathogens are believed to mediate protection by eliciting antibody responses. However, it has been difficult to apply this formula to TB because of the difficulty in reliably eliciting protective antibodies. Here, we developed capsular polysaccharide conjugates by linking mycobacterial capsular arabinomannan (AM) to either Mtb Ag85b or B...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268597/an-in-silico-model-of-the-effects-of-vitamin-d3-on-mycobacterium-infected-macrophage
#11
Maya Gough, Elebeoba May
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a global health concern, causing over one million deaths a year. Alveolar macrophages, as the primary host cell of this intracellular bacterium, play an important role in the course of disease. Vitamin D3 is known to have a potent effect on macrophage behavior during infection, modulating the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and immune effector molecules. In a vitamin D3 deficient host, the immune systems response to infection is greatly impaired. We used a quantitative systems biology approach to model the intracellular effects of vitamin D3 and compared our simulation output to our in vitro model of mycobacterium infection of macrophages in the presence and absence of Vitamin D3...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262829/exosomes-function-in-antigen-presentation-during-an-in-vivo-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#12
Victoria L Smith, Yong Cheng, Barry R Bryant, Jeffrey S Schorey
Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages and dendritic cells are limited in their ability to present antigen to CD4+ T cells suggesting that other mechanism of antigen presentation are driving the robust T cell response observed during an M. tuberculosis infection. These mechanisms could include antigens present in apoptotic bodies, necrotic debris, exosomes or even release of non-vesicular antigen from infected cells. However, there is limited data to support any of these mechanisms as important in driving T cell activation in vivo...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261567/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-peptidyl-prolyl-isomerases-are-immunogenic-alter-cytokine-profile-and-aid-in-intracellular-survival
#13
Saurabh Pandey, Deeksha Tripathi, Mohd Khubaib, Ashutosh Kumar, Javaid A Sheikh, Gaddam Sumanlatha, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) has two peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (Ppiases) PpiA and PpiB, popularly known as cyclophilin A and cyclophilin B. The role of cyclophilins in processes such as signaling, cell surface recognition, chaperoning, and heat shock response has been well-documented. We present evidence that M. tb Ppiases modulate the host immune response. ELISA results revealed significant presence of antibodies to M. tb Ppiases in patient sera as compared to sera from healthy individuals. Treatment of THP-1 cells with increasing concentrations of rPpiA, induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261197/mycobacterial-dormancy-systems-and-host-responses-in-tuberculosis
#14
REVIEW
Vidyullatha Peddireddy, Sankara Narayana Doddam, Niyaz Ahmed
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by the intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), claims more than 1.5 million lives worldwide annually. Despite promulgation of multipronged strategies to prevent and control TB, there is no significant downfall occurring in the number of new cases, and adding to this is the relapse of the disease due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and the ability of Mtb to remain dormant after primary infection. The pathology of Mtb is complex and largely attributed to immune-evading strategies that this pathogen adopts to establish primary infection, its persistence in the host, and reactivation of pathogenicity under favorable conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257432/alternate-splicing-of-transcripts-shape-macrophage-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#15
Haroon Kalam, Mary F Fontana, Dhiraj Kumar
Transcriptional reprogramming of macrophages upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is widely studied; however, the significance of alternate splicing (AS) in shaping cellular responses to mycobacterial infections is not yet appreciated. Alternate splicing can influence transcript stability or structure, function and localization of corresponding proteins thereby altering protein stoichiometry and physiological consequences. Using comprehensive analysis of a time-series RNA-seq data obtained from human macrophages infected with virulent or avirulent strains of Mtb, we show extensive remodeling of alternate splicing in macrophage transcriptome...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250512/political-commitment-for-vulnerable-populations-during-donor-transition
#16
Daniela C Rodríguez, Alan Whiteside, Sara Bennett
The responsibilities for the programmatic, technical and financial support of health programmes are increasingly being passed from external donors to governments. Programmes for family planning, human immunodeficiency virus, immunization, malaria and tuberculosis have already faced such donor transition, which is a difficult and often political process. Wherever programmes and services aimed at vulnerable populations are primarily supported by donors, the post-transition future is uncertain. Overreliance on donor support is often a reflection of limited domestic political commitment...
February 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249177/tlr2-contributes-to-trigger-immune-response-of-pleural-mesothelial-cells-against-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-and-m-tuberculosis-infection
#17
Eun-Ha Hwanga, Tae-Hyoun Kim, Ji-Yeon Park, Jung Joo Hong, Dong-Hyun Kim, Sang-Jun Ha, Soo-Jin Yang, Sung Jae Shin, Jong-Hwan Park
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a causative agent leading to pleural effusion, characterized by the accumulation of fluid and immune cells in the pleural cavity. Although this phenomenon has been described before, detailed processes or mechanisms associated with the pleural effusion are still not well understood. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) are specialized epithelial cells that cover the body wall and internal organs in pleural cavity playing a central role in pleural inflammation. Toll-like receptors are expressed in various cell types including mesothelial cells and initiate the recognition and defense against mycobacterial infection...
February 25, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246455/molecular-markers-for-resistance-against-infectious-diseases-of-economic-importance
#18
REVIEW
B M Prajapati, J P Gupta, D P Pandey, G A Parmar, J D Chaudhari
Huge livestock population of India is under threat by a large number of endemic infectious (bacterial, viral, and parasitic) diseases. These diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. Beside morbidity and mortality, economic losses by these diseases occur through reduced fertility, production losses, etc. Some of the major infectious diseases which have great economic impact on Indian dairy industries are tuberculosis (TB), Johne's disease (JD), mastitis, tick and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs), foot and mouth disease, etc...
January 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242071/recombinant-bcg-expressing-a-pspa-pdt-fusion-protein-protects-mice-against-pneumococcal-lethal-challenge-in-a-prime-boost-strategy
#19
Cibelly Goulart, Dunia Rodriguez, Alex I Kanno, Ying-Jie Lu, Richard Malley, Luciana C C Leite
Pneumococcal proteins have been evaluated as genetically-conserved potential vaccine candidates. We have previously demonstrated that a fragment of PspA in fusion with PdT (rPspA-PdT) induced protective immune responses in mice. However, purified proteins have shown poor immunogenicity and often require the combination with strong adjuvants and booster doses. Here, we investigated the use of a Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strain, a well-established prophylactic vaccine for tuberculosis with known adjuvant properties, for delivery of the PspA-PdT fusion protein...
February 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241799/immunogenicity-and-therapeutic-effects-of-a-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rv2190c-dna-vaccine-in-mice
#20
Yan Liang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xuejuan Bai, Li Xiao, Xiaomei Wang, Junxian Zhang, Yourong Yang, Jinying Song, Lan Wang, Xueqiong Wu
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem. New treatment methods on TB are urgently demanded. In this study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) rv2190c DNA vaccine was prepared and its immunogenicity and therapeutic effects were evaluated. RESULTS: Non-infected mice immunized with rv2190c DNA or ag85a DNA showed higher levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in stimulated spleen lymphocyte culture supernatants, and had more Th1 cells and an elevatory ratio of Th1/Th2 immune cells in whole blood, indicating that Th1-type immune response was predominant...
February 27, 2017: BMC Immunology
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